The Lippe family is a noble family of European importance whose beginnings go back to the 12th century. The since 1413 demonstrably reichsständische territory lip that from 1512 to the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle mattered was in 1528 for the county of Lippe increased and 1789 Imperial Principality levied. As the ruling monarchs of the Principality of Lippe, the princes of the Lippe were among the federal princes in the German Empire until 1918 .
The brothers Bernhard and Hermann zur Lippia are mentioned for the first time in 1123 . Their headquarters were in the area of today's Lippstadt . Hermann's son, Bernhard II , ruled the rule of Lippe from 1167 to 1194. He was followed by his son Hermann II.
In 1529 the rule of Lippe was raised to the immediate imperial county of the Holy Roman Empire (as a member of the Lower Rhine-Westphalian Empire ). In 1621 the family split into the Lippe-Brake lines (extinguished in 1709), Lippe-Alverdissen (from 1643 it became the ruling Grafhaus Schaumburg-Lippe by inheritance ) and the ruling Lippe-Detmold line . The non-ruling branch lines Lippe-Biesterfeld (after a hunting lodge in Lügde- Biesterfeld , North Rhine-Westphalia), Lippe-Weißenfeld and Lippe-Falkenflucht split off from the latter . After the end of the Holy Roman Empire (German Nation) in 1806, the two now sovereign counties of Lippe-Detmold and Schaumburg-Lippe were effectively increased to principalities by joining the Rhine Confederation in 1807 .
When the Detmold line with the brothers Woldemar († 1895) and Alexander († 1905) went out, it came to the Lippe succession dispute between the princely line Schaumburg-Lippe and the count line Lippe-Biesterfeld, the 1897 Ernst of Lippe-Biesterfeld decided for themselves .
Lords, counts and princes zur Lippe
Gentlemen to the lip
|Otto||1344-1360 in Lemgo|
|Bernhard V.||1344-1364 in Rheda|
|Simon V.||1511-1536||(from 1528 Graf)|
Count of the lip
|Simon V.||1511-1536||(count since 1528)|
|Distribution of the estate to Lippe-Detmold (Simon VII), Lippe-Brake ( Otto ) and Lippe-Schauenburg ( Philipp )|
Count of Lippe-Detmold
|further distribution of inheritance in Lippe-Detmold and Lippe-Biesterfeld|
|Simon Heinrich Adolf||1718-1734|
|Leopold I.||1782-1802||(since 1789 prince)|
Count of the Lippe-Biesterfeld
|Distribution of inheritance in Lippe-Biesterfeld (Friedrich Karl August) and Lippe-Weißenfeld (Ferdinand Ludwig)|
|Friedrich Karl August||1736-1781|
|Karl Ernst Casimir||1781-1810|
|Ernst to Lippe-Biesterfeld||1884–1904, from 1897 Grafregent von Lippe-Detmold|
Count to Lippe-Brake
|Otto (Lippe-Brake)||1621-1657||Founder of the Lippe-Brake line after the division of the estate based on the will of Count Simon VI. (Lip)|
|Ludwig-Ferdinand (Lippe-Brake)||1707-1709||Last male offspring. The Lippe-Brake line went out with his death in 1709.|
Counts and princes of Lippe-Weißenfeld
|Ferdinand Ludwig||1736-1781||Seat at Saßleben Castle , Niederlausitz (from 1815 part of Brandenburg)|
|Ferdinand||1791-1846||from 1797 Lord of the Baruth (Upper Lusatia)|
|Erich (since 1916 prince)||1915-1928||sold in 1879 Saßleben|
|Clemens (2nd cousin of Erich, Prince since 1916)||* 1860 † 1920||Herr auf Döberkitz , married in 1901 at Proschwitz Castle|
|Karl Franz Ferdinand (older son of Clemens)||* 1903 † 1939||on Baruth etc.|
|Franz Clemens Ulrich (1929–1995)||* 1929 † 1995||Last gentleman on Baruth with Rackel and Buchwalde|
|Christian (younger son of Clemens)||* 1907 † 1996||Lord of Teichnitz , Lubachau , Gersdorf and Proschwitz Castle , co- owner of Sornitz|
Prince of Lippe-Detmold
|Leopold I. to Lippe-Detmold||(1782/1789) -1802||(since 1789 prince)|
|Pauline zur Lippe-Detmold born from Anhalt-Bernburg||1802-1820||(as regent i. V. of her son Leopold II.)|
|Leopold II to Lippe-Detmold||(1802/1820) -1851|
|Leopold III. to Lippe-Detmold||1851-1875|
|Woldemar to Lippe-Detmold||1875-1895||died childless|
|Alexander zur Lippe-Detmold||1895-1905|
|Adolf zu Schaumburg-Lippe||1895-1897||(Regency for the deranged Alexander)|
|Ernst to Lippe-Biesterfeld||1897-1904||(Regency for the deranged Alexander)|
|Leopold IV to the lip||1904-1918||(until 1905 as regent for Alexander, then as Prince Leopold IV.)|
Heads of the House of Lippe
|Surname||"Term of office"||Remarks|
|Leopold Fürst zur Lippe-Biesterfeld||1918-1949|
|Armin Prinz zur Lippe||1949-2015|
|Stephan Prinz zur Lippe||since 2015||current head of the Lippe house|
Other important personalities from Lippe
- Bernhard V. zur Lippe (1277–1341), Prince-Bishop of Paderborn
- Bernhardine zur Lippe (1563–1628), Countess of Leiningen-Leiningen
- August zu Lippe-Brake (1643–1701), Field Marshal General and Privy Councilor of Hesse-Kassel
- Adolf zur Lippe-Biesterfeld-Weißenfeld (1812–1888), German-American doctor, pioneer of homeopathy
- Leopold zur Lippe-Biesterfeld-Weißenfeld (1815–1889), Prussian Minister of Justice
- Franz zur Lippe-Biesterfeld-Weißenfeld (1820–1880), Saxon general of the cavalry
- Armin zur Lippe-Weißenfeld (1825–1899), German agricultural scientist
- Ernst zur Lippe-Weißenfeld (1825–1909), Prussian captain and historian
- Clemens zur Lippe-Biesterfeld-Weißenfeld (1860–1920), Saxon politician and squire
- Julius Ernst zur Lippe-Biesterfeld (1873–1952), German diplomat
- Karl Christian zur Lippe-Weißenfeld (1889–1942), German politician
- Ernst Leopold Prinz zur Lippe (1902–1987), German nobleman
- Bernhard Prinz zur Lippe-Biesterfeld (1911–2004), Prince Consort of Juliana von Oranien-Nassau , Queen of the Netherlands, father of Beatrix (Netherlands) , Queen of the Netherlands from 1980–2013 (* 1938)
- Egmont zur Lippe-Weißenfeld (1918–1944), German fighter pilot, 263rd bearer of the oak leaves for the Knight's Cross d. EK, Major, Commander of the 5th Night Fighter Squadron
- Alfred Prinz zur Lippe-Weissenfeld (* 1922), UN High Commissioner for Refugee Affairs in several countries a. D. (see UNHCR )
- Teresa Princess zur Lippe-Weissenfeld (1925–2008), 1st marriage (1946–54) with Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza de Kászon , 2nd marriage with Friedrich Prinz zu Fürstenberg
- Margarete Hamer-Princess zur Lippe-Weißenfeld (1932–2010), retired teacher. D. and author
- Rudolf Prinz zur Lippe-Biesterfeld (1937–2019), philosopher
- Elisabeth Princess of Schleswig-Holstein (* 1957), b. Princess zur Lippe-Weissenfeld, wife of Christoph, head of the House of Schleswig-Holstein
- Auguste Princess zur Lippe-Weißenfeld , b. Princess of Bavaria (* 1979), zoologist
coat of arms
The family coat of arms of the noble lords of Lippe has been showing a golden, inseminated red five-petalled rose on a silver background since around 1222. The same figure appears as a crest ornament on the helmet with its red and silver covers , either sitting directly on the helmet with the leaves or with a short stalk. This crest remained unchanged from approx. 1240 to approx. 1450, then under Simon, Herr zur Lippe, in 1455 a silver, later red, also silver-red flight was added.
The fact that the (speaking) family coat of arms of the Rosenbergs is designed like that of the noble lords of the Lippe does not indicate any real relationship.
Locks of the house of Lippe
The original headquarters was near Lippstadt , but can no longer be located today. After 1190 the rule of Rheda came to Bernhard II, nobleman of the Lippe. His successor Hermann II moved the headquarters from Lippstadt to Rheda Castle , which he expanded into one of the largest castles in northern Germany. In 1364, however, Rheda was lost to the County of Tecklenburg after a feud .
Detmold Castle has been owned by the family since 1200 until today. In 1190 and 1194 the Falkenburg was built south of it , at the same time Brake Castle in Lemgo and, soon after, Blomberg Castle . In 1305, Simon I had to grind down Enger Castle because of alleged raids . Varenholz Castle was acquired in 1323, thereby extending the domain in the north to the Weser. In 1350, half of the stake in Schwalenberg Castle was acquired and in 1405 Sternberg Castle , initially as a pledge. Bernhard V († before 1365) built Horn Castle . In 1405 Alverdissen Castle came to the Lippe family; 1613 it was considered paréage awarded I. to Count Philipp of Lippe-Alverdissen, the 1640 by his sister, Countess Elisabeth von Holstein-Schaumburg, part of the county Schaumburg inherited and thus as the reigning Count Philip I , the House of Schaumburg-Lippe -founded. In 1812 Alverdissen Castle returned to the Lippe family. Schieder Castle came to the Counts of Lippe-Brake in the course of the Reformation in 1553 , to the House of Schaumburg-Lippe in 1773 and to the Princely House of Lippe-Detmold in 1789, to which it served as a summer residence until 1918. In 1657 Count Hermann Adolf had the Lopshorn hunting lodge built. The baroque Lippehof in Lemgo was built in the 18th century. The Favorite in Detmold was a gift from Count Friedrich Adolph (1667-1718) to his wife, Countess Amalie zu Solms-Hohensolms, and was completed in 1718; in the 1840s it was converted into the New Palace .
Jobst Hermann (1625–1678), the youngest son of Count Simon VII of Detmold , was resigned to the Paragium Schwalenberg by his ruling half-brothers and from 1678 onwards, the dairy in Biesterfeld expanded into a manor. The younger (non-ruling) line he founded split under his grandchildren into the branches Lippe-Biesterfeld (who left Biesterfeld in 1772 after inheriting the Oberkassel estate near Bonn with the Lippe country house in 1770 ) and Lippe-Biesterfeld -Weißenfeld , who came into possession through marriage in Saxony (see below) . After the ruling Detmold line died out in 1895, Count Ernst zur Lippe-Biesterfeld came to reign in the Principality of Lippe in 1897 . On November 12, 1918, Ernst's son, Prince Leopold IV , had to renounce the throne. In the domanial contract of 1919 the division of the princely possessions was regulated and the prince was awarded the Detmold residential palace, the Lopshorn hunting lodge including the stud and the Berlebeck chief forester under certain conditions. Today's owner is his grandson Stephan Prinz zur Lippe (* 1959).
Own the line Lippe-Weißenfeld
The branch line Lippe-Weißenfeld was created in 1734, when Ferdinand I. Graf zur Lippe-Biesterfeld received the Herrenhaus Weißenfeld in the Schwalenberg Forest as Paragium and from then on was called Lippe-Weißenfeld. While the family home in Weißenfeld near Schwalenberg was soon abandoned and demolished by the not very wealthy family there, the Weißenfelder Hof in Lemgo existed until 1914.
Late 18th century, his son Friedrich Ludwig Graf moved to the lip-white field (1737-1791) in the Electorate of Saxony and belonging to him Markgrafschaft Oberlausitz , where he due to his marriage to Marie Eleonore Countess of Gersdorff the legacy of domination Baruth (Oberlausitz ) started . This inherited his older son Ferdinand (1773–1846), while the younger Christian (1777–1859) received the Teichnitz property through marriage from the Hohenthal family , from which his mother and his wife came from . The two branches they established remained on the property there until 1945. The last ruling prince of Lippe, Leopold IV , elevated the older branch of the Counts to Lippe-Weißenfeld in 1916 and the younger branch to prince immediately before his abdication in 1918. All Saxon goods on the Lippe-Weißenfeld line were expropriated by the communist land reform of 1945.
- Older branch in Upper Lusatia
Ferdinand Graf zur Lippe-Weißenfeld (1772–1846) became lord of the Baruth (Upper Lusatia) with Rackel and Buchwalde through inheritance from his mother from the house of the Counts of Gersdorff . In 1808 the Dauban estate (between Bautzen and Görlitz) was acquired and at the end of the 19th century the Sornitz manor near Meissen. He was followed by his older son Gustav (1805–1882), while the younger Hugo (1809–1868) took over Saßleben Castle , which was sold in 1879. Until 1939 Ferdinand Prinz zur Lippe-Weißenfeld (1903–1939) was master of Baruth, Rackel, Buchwalde, Dauban and Sornitz; he was followed by his widow Dorothea (Pauline), née Princess von Schönburg -Waldenburg , until the expropriation in 1945 .
- Younger branch in Saxony
Ferdinand's half-brother Christian (1777-1859) inherited the East Saxon Teichnitz estate in 1815 through his mother and wife, who both came from the Hohenthal family, and in 1829 acquired the Lubachau estate in Upper Lusatia; from 1925 to 1937 the Middle Saxon estate Gersdorf was added for a short time . His grandson Clemens zur Lippe-Biesterfeld-Weißenfeld (1860–1920) on Döberkitz near Bautzen married in 1910 at Proschwitz Castle near Meißen; In 1916 he was made prince. Clemens' grandson Georg Prinz zur Lippe-Weissenfeld (* 1957) operates as a re-judge today known winery Prince of Lippe at Schloss Proschwitz.
- Family list of the house of Lippe
- Barons von der Lippe (Paderborn noble family not of the same tribe)
- Philippine Charlotte Auguste Piderit: The Lippe noblemen in the Middle Ages. Detmold 1876 (Online: LLB Detmold )
- Margarete Hamer-Princess of Lippe-Weißenfeld: 275 years of Lippe-Weißenfeld. Volume 1: Hike from the Lippe region to Lusatia. Based on family history sources. Sollermann, Leer / Ostfriesland 2009, ISBN 978-3-938897-30-0 .
- Margarete Hamer-Princess of Lippe-Weißenfeld: 275 years of Lippe-Weißenfeld. Volume 2: Hike from Lipper Land via Niederlausitz to Oberlausitz. Based on family history sources. Oberlausitzer Verlag Nürnberger, Spitzkunnersdorf 2017, ISBN 978-3-936867-68-8 .
- Margarete Hamer-Princess to Lippe-Weißenfeld: Baruth in Saxony 1945–1950. A time study. Oberlausitzer Verlag Nürnberger, Spitzkunnersdorf 2004.
- Margarete Hamer-Princess zur Lippe-Weißenfeld: Escape of a twelve-year-old. In: Adam von Watzdorf, Agnes von Kopp-Colomb, Henning von Kopp-Colomb (eds.): Book of fate 2 of the Saxon-Thuringian nobility: 1945 to 1989 and from the turn of the century to 2005. C. A. Starke, Limburg an der Lahn 2005, ISBN 3-7980-0606-7 , pp. 333–347 ( From the German Aristocratic Archives NF 6).
- Willy Gerking: The Counts of Lippe-Biesterfeld. From the history of a sideline of the Count's house to Lippe and an excursus on the origins of the house to Lippe-Weißenfeld. With a contribution by Hermann Josef Schmalor. Bad Oeynhausen 2001.
- Willy Gerking: The Counts of Lippe-Falkenflucht. Creation and life of a side line of the house to Lippe-Biesterfeld. In: Lippe's message from history and regional studies. Volume 75, pp. 147-191 (with family tables). Detmold 2006.
- Ulrich Meier: "The cornerstone has come ..." The consolidation of the Lippe rule in the 13th century Bielefeld University, without a year, accessed on September 26, 2017
- Website of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
- Hugo Gerard Ströhl , Deutsche Wappenrolle, 1897, p. 68