Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
|coat of arms|
|Here already the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe
|Arose from||Parts of Grafschaft Schaumburg and Grafschaft Lippe|
|Form of rule||county|
|Ruler / government||Count|
|Today's region / s||DE-NI , DE-NW|
|Capitals / residences||Buckeburg|
|Denomination / Religions||Lutheran|
|Language / n||German , Low German|
|surface||340.2 km² (1760)|
|Incorporated into||In 1807 it was incorporated into the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe
The county of Schaumburg-Lippe was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhine-Westphalian Empire that existed from 1640/1647 to 1806 . It was in what is now Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia , between the city of Hanover and Westphalia . The name refers to the Schaumburg in the Weser Mountains (today: Rinteln ) and the Counts of Lippe , who in 1647 formed the counts of the newly formed county "Lippe" from a branch line. The capital was Bückeburg . The small territory gained a certain importance as a late Baroque model state in the 18th century. His concept of self-sufficient national defense is still evident today in the Wilhelmstein island fortress and military school .
Geography, administrative structure and population
The county was located in 1648 east of the Brandenburg Principality of Minden , south of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and west of the former Schaumburg possessions of the Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel . The offices of Schaumburg, Blomberg , Bückeburg , Stadthagen , Arensburg , Hagenburg , Schieder , Steinhude and parts of Sachsenhagen combined the offices of Lipperode and Alverdissen to form the new county. In 1748 the Blomberg office was ceded to the County of Lippe-Detmold . In 1777 the office of Schieder also went to Lippe-Detmold. In 1766 the 340.2 km² state had 17,000 inhabitants.
Schaumburg-Lippe was created in 1647 through the division of the county of Schaumburg under the House of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel and the Counts of Lippe . On November 14, 1640, the young and still childless Count Otto V, the last male representative of his family, died. His legacy was split in subsequent years. The division was defined in several treaties in 1647 and confirmed in the Westphalian Peace Treaty in October 1648 . As a result of this division, from 1647 there was a county of Schaumburg (Hessian part) connected to the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel by personal union and the Grafschaft Schaumburg (Lippe part) in which a branch line of the Lippe count's house ruled, Count Philip I of Lippe-Alverdissen Board. This part was later mostly referred to as Schaumburg-Lippe.
The existence of the small territory of Schaumburg-Lippe was difficult from the start. First of all, important facilities were used together with the Hesse-Kassel part, the Grafschaft Schaumburg, such as (only for a short time) the estates, but above all the profitable mining (velvet mining) of the Bückeberge . Since the Landgraves of Hessen-Kassel continued to be the liege lords of the Bückeburg family, territorial independence was always in jeopardy. As a result of this threat, Count Wilhelm (r. 1748–1777) developed his specific form of national defense with a standing army of up to 1,000 men, although small in absolute terms, but large for the country. He also built the Wilhelmstein and the Wilhelmsteiner Feld. Previously, his grandfather, Count Friedrich Christian, had questioned the existence of the county through an idiosyncratic policy.
Wilhelm left an army, but also a lot of debts, which plunged his successor Philipp Ernst into a deep domestic political crisis. After his death, Hessen-Kassel raised hereditary claims and occupied the land in the Bückeburg dispute in 1787 , but was forced to retreat through Hanoverian and Prussian intervention. Subsequently, a guardian was appointed for the still young Hereditary Count Georg Wilhelm, who exercised the regency together with his mother Juliane .
In 1789 the Reich Chamber of Commerce tried to resolve the simmering territorial conflict with Lippe-Detmold by granting the sovereign rights of the Schieder office to Detmold and leaving them open for the time being for the offices of Alverdissen and Blomberg .
Elevation to the principality in 1807
After Count Georg Wilhelm (1784–1860) took over the government in 1807, he joined the Rhine Confederation on April 18, 1807 together with the Principality of Lippe-Detmold . The joint accession treaty with Napoleon Bonaparte and Princess Pauline from Detmold was preceded by negotiations between the French Foreign Minister Charles Maurice Talleyrand and the State Minister of State of Nassau, Hans Christoph Ernst von Gagern, as authorized representative of Lipper and Schaumburg-Lipper. The text of the treaty mentions "les princes de la Lippe", the princes of Lippe. Georg Wilhelm only reluctantly accepted the title of prince at the grace of Napoleon. Because from this designation Count Georg Wilhelm derived the authorization to use the title of prince from now on. In announcing his accession to the Rhine Confederation on May 28, 1807, he also announced the elevation to the principality.
The feared mediatization was still a topic of the young prince until August 1807, when the Kingdom of Westphalia was founded.
Article 34 of the Rhine Confederation Act required the members to waive claims in the territories of other regents. Nevertheless, the territorial conflict with Lippe-Detmold continued. A preliminary climax was reached in the spring of 1812, when Princess Pauline occupied the disputed offices militarily and had the administrative officials in Schaumburg-Lippe arrested. Finally, Georg Wilhelm relented, subject to a later arbitration agreement.
- 1647–1681: Philipp (1601–1681)
- 1681–1728: Friedrich Christian (1655–1728)
- 1728–1748: Albrecht Wolfgang (1699–1748)
- 1748–1777: Wilhelm (1724–1777)
- 1777–1787: Philipp Ernst (1723–1787)
- 1787–1807: Georg Wilhelm (under the tutelage of his mother Juliane Landgravine of Hessen-Philippsthal and Count Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn )
Schaumburg-Lippe had a very differentiated economic structure. Up until the 19th century agriculture formed an important basis, with arable farming in particular being comparatively profitable. In addition, linen weaving was particularly important in the northern communities. The linen was especially exported to the Netherlands, but also to Scandinavia. In the 18th century, migrant work ("Hollandgang") was another important source of income for the rural lower classes.
Hard coal has been mined in the Bückeberg mountains since the late Middle Ages. After the division of the county, the mining took place jointly with the Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel ("velvet mining"); the income was shared between the owners.
- Carl-Hans Hauptmeyer : Sovereignty, Participation and the Absolute Small State. The county of Schaumburg- (Lippe) as an example . Lax, Hildesheim 1980, ISBN 3-7848-3491-4 , ( sources and representations on the history of Lower Saxony 91), also: Hanover, Techn. Univ., Habil.-Schr., 1977
- Hubert Höing (ed.): From the corporate state to a free-democratic republic. Stages in Schaumburg . Knoth, Melle 1995, ISBN 3-88368-277-2 ( Schaumburger Studies 55)
- Stefan Meyer: Georg Wilhelm Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe (1784-1860). Absolutist monarch and major entrepreneur on the threshold of the industrial age . Diss. Hannover 2005, online (PDF; 26.64 kB) , (Also: Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-89534-605-7 ( Schaumburger Studien 65))
- Gerhard Köbler : Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 7th, completely revised edition. CH Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54986-1 , p. 620 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- He died after a banquet with the Swedish general Johan Banér : Blazek, Matthias: "The Banersche drinking feast of October 28, 1640 and its consequences", in: Gerstenberg, Bruno (ed.); Abromeit, Sven: Hildesheim Calendar 2013 - Yearbook for History and Culture, pp. 149–151.
- Winfried Dotzauer: The German Imperial Circles (1383-1806) . Steiner, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-515-07146-6 , pp. 330 ( Google Books ).
- Meyer, p. 70
- Meyer, p. 65
- accession to the Rhine Confederation with Napoleon
- Presentation of the history of the Bückeburg Regional Court
- Meyer, p. 66
- Meyer, p. 71