Salm (noble family)

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Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) .svg
Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
coat of arms
Armoiries de Salm 1.svg Armoiries de Salm 7.svg
Niedersalm 1400.png
Niedersalm (brown) and surrounding territories around 1400
Alternative names Alt-Salm, Salm-Reifferscheid
Ruler / government Count
from 1790: Prince
Today's region / s BE-WLX , exclaves in DE-NW
Parliament Imperial Council : 2 Kuriatsstimme on the westf. Count bank for Salm and Dyck
Reichskreis Lower Rhine-Westphalian
Capitals / residences Vielsalm , Reifferscheid , Dyck
Dynasties Salm
1416/55: Reifferscheid

Incorporated into 1794: France
1815: Prussia

Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) .svg
Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
(Ober-) Salm
coat of arms
Armoiries de Salm 2.svg
Obersalm 1400.png
Obersalm (pink) and surrounding territories around 1400

Ruler / government Count
from 1623: Prince
Today's region / s FR-67
Parliament Reichsfürstenrat :
from 1654 : 1 viril vote on the secular bank
for Anholt : 1
vote on the westf. Count Bank
Reichskreis Upper Rhine
Capitals / residences Salm Castle Salm
-Salm : Badonviller , Senones , Bocholt / Anholt
Salm-Kyrburg : Kirn
Dynasties Salm House
1475: Wild and Rhine Counts

Incorporated into 1600: parts of Lorraine
Salm-Salm : 1793 to France ,
Salm-Kyrburg : 1794 to France , 1815 to Prussia ,
Condominium Salm-Salm and Salm-Kyrburg in the Principality of Salm (1802–1811), 1811 annexation by France , 1815 to Prussia

Salm is the name of an originally Moselle count family , a branch of the Wigeriche , named after the Vielsalm castle in the Ardennes (today Belgium ) and the newly founded Salm castle in the Vosges Mountains in Alsace (today France ) at the end of the 12th century .

As early as the Middle Ages, the sex was divided into the two main lines of Oberalm and Lower Alm, both of which later became extinct in the male line and bequeathed their possessions to other noble families, who then also called themselves Counts of Salm . These families were again divided into sub-lines, which were later elevated to the rank of prince, some of which still exist today and belong to the high nobility .


Origin ("Wigeriche" to Lorraine and Luxembourg)

The progenitor was Wigerich , Count Palatine of Lorraine († before 919). His presumed son Siegfried († 998) is at the top of the list of the Counts of Luxembourg . His grandson Giselbert († 1056/59) carried the title of Count of Salm in 1036 and that of Count of Luxembourg in 1047. He divided the property between his sons Konrad I of Luxembourg and Hermann von Salm († 1088), the latter not only being the progenitor of the Salm family , but also the anti-king of Henry IV .

Division into Oberalm and Niedersalm

Hermann's grandson Heinrich I in turn divided the county again in 1163: his son Heinrich II got the areas in the Vosges (the so-called Grafschaft Obersalm ), the daughter Elisabeth or the son-in-law Count Friedrich II von Vianden the areas in the Ardennes ( from then on Niedersalm ). From this point on there were two counties Salm with different lines of development in the empire.

Niedersalm line (1163–1794)

Niedersalm of the Vianden tribe (from 1163)

Friedrich II. Von Vianden and Elisabeth von Salm founded the Niedersalm line (the tribe of the Counts of Vianden ). The Counts of Salm in the Ardennes descend from them and die out with Count Heinrich VII of Niedersalm († 1416).

Niedersalm of the Reifferscheidt tribe (from 1416)

Count Heinrich VII von Niedersalm († 1416) bequeathed the possession of the Niedersalm line to his nephew Johann V. von Reifferscheid († 1418) after his children had all died before him . The gentlemen von Reifferscheidt and Dyck were probably his closest blood relatives. They can be traced for the first time at the end of the 12th century and originally owned a small lordship in the Eifel in the area around Reifferscheid and Wildenburg . Johann VI. von Reifferscheid († 1475), the son of Johann V, was finally awarded the possession of the Niedersalm line in 1456 by a judgment of the Council of the Duchy of Luxembourg. From 1460 Johann VI called himself. also Count of Salm . He is the progenitor of the Salm-Reifferscheidt lines that were later elevated to the prince :

  • Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg (called themselves Salm-Reifferscheidt-Krautheim from 1804 , Salm-Reifferscheidt-Krautheim and Dyck from 1888 , expired in 1958)
  • Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck (expired in 1888)
  • Salm-Reifferscheidt-Raitz (flowering)

The Salm-Reifferscheidt family only lost their imperial territories in the Eifel in 1794 in the course of the French Revolutionary Wars .


Obersalm line (1163–1794)

The rule Obersalm was in the Vosges around Salm Castle near Schirmeck , about 45 km southwest of Strasbourg . The major neighbors were the bishopric of Strasbourg in the north and the Duchy of Lorraine in the south. The Obersalm line died out after another division in the 15th and 17th centuries. Half of the estate went to the Wild and Rhine Counts of Dhaun and Kyrburg in 1475 , the other half to the Duke of Lorraine in 1600 .

Obersalm of the tribe of the Wild and Rheingrafen (from 1475)

The descendants of the Wild and Rhine Counts zu Dhaun and Kyrburg now also called themselves Counts zu Salm , whose lines were raised to the rank of prince several times from 1623:

The princes of Salm-Salm and Salm-Kyrburg were allocated the south-western parts of the former bishopric of Münster as compensation in the course of the Reichsdeputation Hauptschluss in 1803 . They ruled together as a condominium . The residence was Anholt Castle .

See also: Principality of Salm


Well-known namesake

Obersalm line

Bishops and Prelates:

Niedersalm line

coat of arms

The heraldic animal of the House of Salm still appears today in a number of current municipal coats of arms, e.g. B .:

See also


Web links

Commons : House of Salm  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  2. ^ Journal of the Aachen History Association, Volume 10, Aachen 1888