from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
City of Isselburg
Anholt coat of arms
Coordinates: 51 ° 51 ′ 2 "  N , 6 ° 25 ′ 34"  E
Height : 7 m
Area : 13.48 km²
Residents : 4107  (2012)
Population density : 305 inhabitants / km²
Incorporation : 1st January 1975
Postal code : 46419
Area code : 02874

Anholt (Low German Aanoldt ) is a district of Isselburg in the North Rhine-Westphalian district of Borken . From 1347 until its incorporation in 1975, Anholt had town charter . From the Middle Ages to 1806, the Anholt area was also the territory of a rulership in the Holy Roman Empire . With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803 it formed the territorial point of contact for the emergence of the Westphalian Principality of Salm .

Anholt lies at a height of m above sea ​​level directly on the German - Dutch border. The village includes the farming communities Dwarsefeld, Regniet, Hahnerfeld and Breels. 4107 people currently live in Anholt (as of December 31, 2012). In 2019 Anholt will celebrate his 850th "birthday" (the 850th anniversary of the first mention in 1169).


Town hall on Anholter Markt
Park path on the former city wall

The beginning or the emergence of Anholt are in the dark. In 1169 a gentleman from Sulen and Anholt was named as a follower of the Utrecht bishop Godefried von Rhenen , and under Bishop Balduin (1178–1196) a "here van Anholt" is listed in the fiefdom of the diocese. The noblemen of Sulen are therefore considered to be the builders of the Anholter Castle . In 1234 the first named Mr. van Anehalte, Stephan I. von Sulen, appeared.

Coat of arms reign Anholt

The Anholt and the settlement were a direct imperial become domination, with the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire as their liege lord. The feudal relationship with Utrecht seems to no longer exist at the beginning of the 14th century, so Anholt received city ​​rights on May 25, 1347 through Stephan IV von Sulen .

The border location of Anholt between the Duchy of Münster in the east, the Duchy of Kleve in the south and the Duchy of Geldern in the north and west gave rise to ever new disputes and changed dependencies. In 1353, Dietrich II, Lord von Sulen, confirmed to the Archbishop of Cologne that the castle and city of Anholt were an open house for the archbishopric .

The city of Anholt was heavily fortified. Three city gates, the outer and inner trenches as well as the city wall and rampart protect the city in difficult times. Due to the unclear origin of his feudal origin, the Lords of Anholt had to struggle with the territorial claims of his western neighbors.

The area of ​​the Anholt rulership seems to have been bounded by the following points from time immemorial: In the northeast “Dreibäumer” (three barriers: Prince Diocese of Münster, County of Zutphen and County of Anholt), in the east the Issel , in the south the Clevische Landwehr, in the west again to the confluence with the Issel, the "Wildtsche Brücke" before Gendringen and from here to the north to the Bocholter Aa .

Anholt belonged to the Lower Rhine-Westphalian Empire . By marriage in 1641, Anholt came to the princes Salm , who after the loss of their areas on the left bank of the Rhine made it the residence of their Munsterland compensation countries ( Principality of Salm ). The principality was annexed to France in 1810 . In 1815 after the Congress of Vienna it fell to Prussia ( Province of Westphalia ).

Chronology of the Lords of Anholt and historical facts

House Sulen-Anholt (incomplete)

  1. Stephan I (1234-1249)
  2. Stephen II (1260-1299)
  3. Johann I (1281-1303)
  4. Stephen IV (1313-1347)
  5. Dietrich II. (1335-1364)
confers city rights
  1. Stephan VI. (1364-1373)
  2. Friedrich (1371-1380)
  3. Herberga (1372-1402)

House Gemen -Anholt

  1. Hermann III. von Gemen (1370-1399)
  2. Margaretha von Gemen (1388–1405)

House Bronckhorst -Batenburg

  1. Gisbert I. (1402-1429)
  2. Dietrich I. (1429-1451)
  3. Gisbert II (1451-1473)
  4. Jacob I. (1473-1512)
Occupation by Karl von Egmond , Duke of Geldern (1512–1537)
1521 Construction of the post mill
1534 Anholt has 80 fireplaces
  1. Dietrich II. (1537-1549)
  2. Dietrich III. (1549–1575)
1550 Anholt has 150 fireplaces
In 1555 Dietrich issued school regulations for the Anholt domain
1567 City hall is built
  1. Jacob II (1575–1582)
  2. Gertrud von Mylendonk (1582–1612)

Count of Bronckhorst -Batenburg, "Count of Anholt", imperial count conferred in 1621 by Ferdinand II to Dietrich IV. And to his younger brother Johann Jakob von Bronckhorst-Batenburg

  1. Dietrich IV. (1612-1649)

Prince of Salm

  1. Leopold Philipp Carl (1649–1663)
Creation of the mill canal
  1. Carl Theodor Otto (1663-1710)
Educator of Emperor Josef I in Vienna
1702 Pest in Anholt
  1. Ludwig Otto (1710–1738)
1711 attack and sacking of the city and the castle by the French army
  1. Nicolaus Leopold (1738–1770)
Since 1743 princes of Salm-Salm
1747 construction of the new windmill
1760 Filling of the Mühlberg in Nickelsdorp
  1. Ludwig Carl Otto (1770–1778)
  2. Constantin (1778-1828)
Conquest of Holland by the French, many Protestants from Holland flee to Anholt
Exit from the Holy Roman Empire and sovereignty by signing the Rhine Confederation Act (1806); Loss of sovereignty through French annexation (1810/1811), registrar in the Kingdom of Prussia (from 1815)
  1. Wilhelm Florentin (1828–1846)
1837 Foundation of the craft school
1851 Construction of the new Catholic Church
  1. Alfred I. (1846–1886), 1850 foundation of the Augusta Hospital by wife Princess Augusta, 1852 appointment of the Clement Sisters from Münster.
  2. Leopold (1886–1908)
  3. Alfred II (1908-1923)
  4. Nikolaus Leopold Heinrich zu Salm-Salm (1923–1988)
  5. Carl Philipp (since 1988)

Church history

The name "Anholt" originally only applied to the castle, while the name "Bredenasle" referred to the area. Bredenasle could possibly be derived from "Breite Issel". But it could also mean a floodplain where the Issel could spread during floods . A church in Bredenasle, near the castle and town of Anholt, appears in 1313 in a register of churches and charities of the diocese of Münster . There it is mentioned as subject to tribute along with the parish of Bocholt, the Münster cathedral deanship. It is certain that Bredenasle is mentioned as an independent parish next to Bocholt and belonged to the archdeacon of Bocholt. The parish of Bredenasle existed long before 1313 and is ancient. According to the judgment of art historians, the tower of the old town church had Romanesque elements. The tower and the nave were made of tuff stone. After the 13th century, no more Romanesque churches were built in this area and no more tuff stone was used as building material. It does not seem impossible that before the end of the 13th century, as the founders of the city, the Lords of Sulen had a "separate church" built for the settlement, i.e. a church (St. Pankratius) on the mission route of the Anglo-Saxon missionary Bernward as a base for missionary work in the Südergau at the end of the 8th century. The first lords of Anholt came from the Utrecht area and were fiefs of the Utrecher bishops. Numerous vicarages were donated at the Anholter parish church : 1401 St. Johannes Evangelist, 1489 St. Mary and Christopherus, 1496 St. Anthony the Great, 1543 St. George, 1587 St. Jurrien, 1666 Beate Mariae Virginis, 1675 St. Cross and st. Antony. The vicariates from 1666 and 1675 have remained. Both side altars were erected in today's parish church.

The jurisdiction was indifferent, initially it was subordinate to the diocese of Utrecht, then Liège, then Cologne and finally Münster. In the middle of the 15th century all parish rights passed to the Anholter Church and the Church of Bredenasle (called the former mother church) was demolished. In 1451 a Gothic high choir was built on the old Romanesque church, which existed until 1852. The Gothic high choir towered over the Romanesque nave in height and length. In 1851 the foundation stone for the new Catholic Church was laid. This large neo-Romanesque church (basilica style) was richly decorated by Friedrich Stummel from Kevelaer, popularly known as "Anholter Dom". The Anholter master potter Wilm Rinck created a plate decor which is almost unique in its abundance. The huge towers shaped the cityscape until 1945. The German Wehrmacht blew up the towers shortly before the surrender on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday in 1945. The parish library is remarkable. The Lords of Anholt always (from ancient times) had the right of patronage over the parish. They made sure that learned pastors were appointed as possible. The following should be mentioned: Nicolaus Pinders (1659–1699), who wrote books himself as a theologian, and Gottfried Theodor Ebereich (1700–1729), previously a missionary of the Roman Congregation for Propaganda. Both left behind much of the historical books. A considerable expansion of the holdings took place after the dissolution of the Jesuit mission and school in Anholt, which had existed since 1717, in 1773. Finally, the personal holdings of the former Augustinian regular canon of St. Elisabeth near Roermond and later chaplain in Anholt, Johann von Straelen (1801 –1844) to the parish library in will.

Since 1555 there was a city school in Anholt, which was subordinate to the sovereign. At first it was only accessible to boys and had Latin as a regular subject, special care was given to church singing, the so-called clergy choir. In 1793, the former Benedictine Father Schollmeyer founded a teaching and education institution with boarding school for boys and girls with the subjects Latin, French and Dutch. This institute existed until 1835 and can be regarded as the forerunner of the rectorate school founded in 1857. This included the classes from sixth to sub-tertia. The rectorate school that was located on Anholter Markt was dissolved in 1939.

In 1787 the princely administration granted permission for the free practice of religion, which is the beginning of an independent Protestant community in Anholt. The first prayer room was built in the Pilatushof, and in 1911 the new Protestant church on the eastern rampart was consecrated.

In 1616 the first Jewish resident was mentioned in the Anholt domain. In 1812 there were already 12 families. In 1841 a synagogue was built in Niederstrasse. On March 24, 1945, the synagogue was destroyed by fire bombs. At the end of the 18th century a cemetery was established in the Dwarsefeld. The oldest gravestone bears the year 1821.

Political, cultural and economic history

Richly painted interior of the church

In 1431 Emperor Sigismund (1368–1437) again confirmed the imperial direct rights, such as u. a. the high and low jurisdiction, the right to coin, the customs law and the right to hold annual fairs. It can be proven that the von Anholt men exercised the right to coin. Around 1350 there are two coins from Friedrich van Zuylen (Sulen) with the inscription moneta domini Anholtensis .

In 1451 Dietrich I. Herr zu Anholt founded the St. Antonius Guild. On January 17th, the day of remembrance of St. Anthony, a solemn high mass for the guild members was celebrated in the parish church. This brotherhood, which was one of the oldest in Westphalia, did not experience any revival after the Second World War.

Large processions and pilgrimages have been known since the middle of the 14th century, such as the Sunday before Pentecost on Kapellensonntag (Kreuzkapelle Regniet), Whit Monday via the castle to Kreuzberg. That meant hosting and feeding a lot of people. This crowd of people who carried a “miraculous leve vrouw” with them can be seen as the forerunner of the Anholter Whitsun Fair, which still takes place today, and is therefore one of the oldest folk festivals in the near and far. A list from 1825 shows the importance of this Anholter fair. According to this, there were 50 stalls at Pentecost and as many as 67 stalls for the autumn fair on the Sunday after the birth of Mary (September 8th). Since the foundation of the Grenzland-Tambourcorps and Fanfarenzug Anholt in 1949, the music train has celebrated its foundation festival at Whitsun with the traditional Whitsun fair.

Feuds, robberies and pillages determined the fate of the city again and again from the 15th to the 18th century. In the course of the "Geldern feud" between Duke Karl von Geldern on the one hand and the Habsburgs and the Duchy of Kleve on the other, from 1492 to 1537 , Karl von Geldern conquered the castle and city of Anholt in 1512 and confiscated all the possessions of the Lords of Anholt in his sphere of influence. After 25 years of foreign rule, Dietrich II von Bronckhorst -Batenburg succeeded in bringing the rule and town back into his possession on November 21, 1537 with the personal help of Emperor Charles V.

1579 opposed Dietrich III. von Bronckhorst-Batenburg expected to join the Union of Utrecht (union of the Protestant provinces of the Netherlands) and joined the Spanish side as a staunch Catholic. So the Anholt rule temporarily became a Catholic enclave . At that time there were up to seven vicars working in Anholt. In 1580 the Geusen (supporters of the Union of Utrecht) attacked the city under the orders of Wolter Hegemann (* approx. 1545 in Harderwijk , † 1582 in Bronkhorst ), looted the church, stole its treasures ( iconoclasm ) and set the city on fire.

In 1641 Dietrich IV. Count von Bronckhorst-Batenburg zu Anholt (1578–1649) signed a marriage contract with Leopold Philipp Carl Prince zu Salm for his only child Maria Anna. As a result of this marriage of the last Countess von Bronckhorst-Batenburg, Anholt fell to the Princes of Salm when her father died in 1649. Thanks to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the political situation calmed down; the Anholter Land recovered. City and rule were rebuilt, the population is likely to have been between 900 and 1000. In the following decades, Anholt took on a baroque face. Prince Carl Theodor Otto zu Salm had the old castle converted into a representative baroque residence. His experience as the top construction manager of Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna probably played a major role here.

In 1802 Anholt became the residence of the newly formed Principality of Salm . The small imperial county of Anholt an der Issel, into which Konstantin Alexander Fürst zu Salm-Salm had brought his family and himself to safety after losing his principality on the left bank of the Rhine from around 1790, formed the territorial point of contact for the process of establishing the state of the Principality of Salm. The Anholt rulership had been owned by the Princely House of Salm since 1645, which after the merger of two Salmian family lines and the imperial bestowal of the hereditary title since 1743 can be addressed as the Princely House of Salm-Salm. The neighboring city of Bocholt was the capital. The principality, which was initially directly imperial, comprised most of the western Münsterland. In 1806, the principality gained sovereignty with the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, which ended in 1810/11 as a result of French annexation. In 1815 Anholt was incorporated into the Prussian province of Westphalia. Anholt has been part of the Borken district since 1816. Because of the many structural and scenic sights, especially from the time of the rule of the Princes of Salm-Salm, Anholt is considered the "Pearl of the Münsterland".

In his book My Pilgrimage to Peace and Hope , the Prussian lawyer and diplomat Justus von Gruner writes in detail about his journey from Osnabrück through the Münsterland to Kleve in 1800:

On the way from Ringenberg to Emmerich I passed a little Catholic country again, but how very different from the one I had left at other borders. The small county of Anholt, which I mean, consists only of a few villages and the town of the same name. A small, very pleasant place that mostly lives from agriculture and has the stamp of industrious activity and wealth. In the middle is the castle of the sovereign, Prince of Salm-Salm, who stays here and seems to be very popular. He lives with his family in rural quiet but full of humanity. The former in the city are alternately drawn to his table and in winter there is a well-attended concert every week, which the surrounding area is busy attending. "

In 1850 Princess Augusta zu Salm-Salm founded the Augusta Hospital . It has been cared for by the Sisters of Mercy of the Most Blessed Virgin and Sorrowful Mother Mary since 1852. A municipal poor commission has been recorded since 1574. This remained a municipal institution until 1967. With the new construction of the hospital on Kockenkamp, ​​the city handed over management to the motherhouse of the Clement Sisters in Münster. The old hospital on Roßmühlenstrasse, located between the town hall and the St. Pankratius Church, no longer met the modern demands of medical care. A special feature is a statue of the Virgin Mary in their house chapel: the "oppressed mother of Varsseveld", a double Madonna created by Master Arndt from Zwolle around 1470. During the Reformation of the Netherlands, it made its way from the parish church in Varsseveld to the Catholic Anholt in an unexplained manner and hung in the central nave of the old town church until 1862. When it was canceled, the cath. Church in Silvolde part of the double Madonna, the other the Clement sisters for the chapel of the Augusta Hospital. Since the baby Jesus shows a pout and his mother looks depressed, the saying goes: "Don't look so depressed as the mother of Varsseveld."

From 1903 to 1945 the Gelderse Stoomtramweg Maatschappij operated the narrow-gauge railway Velp-Dieren-Doetinchem-Terborg-Gendringen-Grenz-Anholt-Bahnhof Isselburg-Anholt. In 1926 the line to Arnhem was extended. The town of Isselburg, which belongs to the Rhenish district of Rees, and the Westphalian town of Anholt shared a train station in the city of Anholt. At the Isselburg-Anholt station there was a connection to the Empel-Rees-Bocholt-Coesfeld-Münster Reichsbahn line . On September 30, 1961, the line from Empel-Rees to Isselburg-Anholt was closed; on May 26, 1974 the passenger traffic from Isselburg-Anholt to Coesfeld was stopped.

The Second World War inflicted severe wounds on the old city, in 1945 75% of the historic old town was razed to the ground. In March 1945, 37 civilians died in the bombing raids, 88 Anholter soldiers were killed and 38 people are still missing today. Above all, the religious hatred order for the final destruction of St. Pancras Church was painful. It is only thanks to the fact that Anholt was under heavy artillery fire that only the two 57 m high towers could be blown up.

In 1947, the city in its ruins celebrated the 600th anniversary of the granting of city rights. Father Eberhard Welty, who was born in Anholter, gave the sermon at the festive high mass on the city's anniversary. On May 8, 1949, the city invited to the border rally right to home . Prime Minister Arnold and District Administrator Renzel from Borken drafted the so-called Anholter Declaration , in which the authors admitted that they would not accept the occupation of German territory by the Netherlands and would give the Germans concerned every possible support.

Anholt developed into a flourishing town: in 1950 it had 2800, 1974 3034 and 2010 4260 inhabitants. In 1964 the construction of the Augusta Hospital began. In 1967 the Congregation of the Sisters of Mercy (Clement Sisters) took over the sponsorship of the hospital, which developed into a specialist clinic for neurology. In 1958, twelve master gardeners founded the In der Flora gardening settlement on the initiative of the Borken district and the city of Anholt . In 1961 the Trox brothers from Neukirchen-Vluyn settled in Anholt. With its sights, Anholt still plays a major role in tourism in the western Münsterland and the lower Lower Rhine.


In the course of the second reorganization program (Münster-Hamm law) in North Rhine-Westphalia, the city of Isselburg became the main part on January 1, 1975 through the merger with the municipalities of Anholt, Isselburg, Heelden , Herzebocholt , Vehlingen , Werth and a part of the municipality of Wertherbruch Since then, von Wertherbruch has belonged to the town of Hamminkeln - newly formed. Thus the city of Isselburg is about half in the historical borders of Rhineland and half of Westphalia. In the scramble over the name, the Münster State Archives drew up an expert opinion that clearly voted in favor of keeping the previous name Anholt . Although the higher authorities did not question the clear dominance of the city of Anholt, the city of Anholt was ultimately defeated in the name dispute and had to give up its name after 628 years of urban existence. Nevertheless, the city name remains and can be found in z. B. in the Anholter Agreement of 23 May 1991, in which the Dutch government, the German federal government and the Prime Ministers of the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony contractually declare joint trade and the development of the border areas between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Federal Republic To promote Germany in the area of ​​the states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia.



Anholt has a lively club life. The Bürger-Schützenverein follows the tradition of the Anholter Schützenbruderschaft, first mentioned in a document in 1493 . The St. Pankratius church choir, founded in 1858, is one of the oldest church choirs in the Münster diocese. The Heimatverein Anholt enriches the cultural life of the old city with publications and exhibitions in the Heimathaus (former Haus Lange, in Hohen Straße). Numerous sports clubs: SC Westfalia Anholt 1920, VfL Anholt as well as the Wasserburg Anholt Golf Club (2nd Bundesliga) and the Anholter Sportschützen, from culture: the Grenzland Laienspielschar, the Eintracht men's choir from 1911 and the Grenzland Tambourcorps with fanfares from 1949 complement the Anholter association system. In 1899 the DRK local association Anholt was founded in Anholt.

Folk festivals that still take place today are the Pentecost fair, which has been documented since the 14th century, and the citizens' rifle festival on the 2nd weekend in July. The Palm Sunday procession, which can be traced back to around 1760, is an Anholter peculiarity. The palm sticks are unique in their shape and decoration.


Anholt Castle
In Anholter Switzerland
Anholter windmill from the 18th century

The Anholt today offers a glamorous image of French Loire castles recalls. With its gardens and parks, which are part of the European Garden Heritage Network , it is open to the public. In the castle, for example, a collection of paintings (including the Rembrandt original The Bath of Diana with Actaeon and Callisto ), evidence of stately home décor, the library and an extensive porcelain collection can be viewed . The complex has been in the family of the Princes of Salm-Salm since 1645. The moated castle, which is one of the most splendid castle complexes in Westphalia, particularly inspires visitors with its baroque gardens and the spacious park.

More Attractions:

  • Anholter Switzerland Wildlife Park
  • neo-Romanesque St. Pankratius parish church in Anholt (1851–1862) with many wall and ceiling paintings
  • Historic town hall from 1567
  • City center with parks and remains of earlier fortifications
  • Jewish cemetery in the Dwarsefeld
  • Historic ice cellar (15th century)
  • Anholter windmill from 1747
  • Princely crypt chapel 17th century
  • Hardenberg House (14th century)
  • Pennekamp House (15th century)

Personalities who were born in Anholt and / or lived in Anholt

(in the order of their year of birth)

Individual evidence

  1. Population statistics of the city of Isselburg. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 8, 2012 ; Retrieved February 18, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. Theodor Joseph Lacomblet (ed.): Document book for the history of the Lower Rhine or the Archbishopric of Cöln , Part 3: 1301–1400 . Wolf, Düsseldorf 1853, certificate no.517, p. 421.
  3. ^ Ralf Jahn: Chronicle of the county and the Duchy of Geldern . In: Johannes Stinner, Karl-Heinz Tekath (eds.): Gelre - Geldern - Gelderland. History and culture of the Duchy of Geldern . Verlag des Historisches Verein für Geldern und Umgegend, Geldern 2001, pp. 489–519, here pp. 504–507.
  4. Maria Anna Princess zu Salm (1624-1661) in the portal Edelfrauen. Noble women in the early modern age: everyday life, fields of action, networks , accessed on January 31, 2015.
  5. ^ Georg Wilhelm Sante (ed.): History of the German Lands - "Territories Ploetz". Vol. 1: The territories until the end of the old empire . A.-G.-Ploetz-Verlag, Würzburg 1964, p. 383.
  6. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 298 .

Web links

Commons : Anholt (Isselburg)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files