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The main nave of the Speyer Cathedral

The term Romanesque (also: Romanesque / pre-Gothic style ) describes the art-historical epoch in European medieval art between the pre-Romanesque and the subsequent Gothic in painting, sculpture and architecture. Romanesque architecture begins around 950/960 and appears all over Europe. It was replaced by Gothic in France from the 1140s, but not north of the Alps as well as in Spain and Italy until the 13th century. Regional expressions of the Italian Romanesque are sometimes referred to as proto-renaissance . Romanesque construction forms came through Normandy in the 11th century as Norman Styleto the British Isles and replaced the pre - Romanesque Anglo - Saxon architecture there. The Romanesque is the first major pan-European art epoch since the fall of Rome in the 5th century and thus the end of antiquity. “Typical” distinguishing features of Romanesque buildings are round arches , round arched windows , columns with block-like capitals and walls with emphatically massive stone masses. Floor plans and structures follow simple geometric shapes.

Word creation

Merovingian crypt of Jouarre Abbey northeast of Paris

The term romanesque was first used in 1818 by the French scholar Charles de Gerville (1769-1853) for the round arch style and used as early as 1819 in England by William Gunn . The term was chosen as a reference to the relationship to Roman architecture , from which round arches, pillars, columns and vaulted structures were taken. It is formed analogously to the term " Romance languages ", which describes the vernacular languages ​​that emerged from the Roman-Latin language in the Middle Ages.


Ambulatory of the Basilica Saint-Denis , starting point of the Gothic

The Romanesque style was preceded by the pre-Romanesque style epochs. However, these were quite different from region to region. This includes the Byzantine -influenced late antiquity ( Byzantine architecture ), the architectural styles of the Ostrogoths and the Visigoths ( Visigoth architecture ) as well as the Lombards . Following this, the Franconian Empire emerged in Western Europe , whose stylistic epochs are divided into a Merovingian and a Carolingian ( Carolingian Renaissance ) according to the ruling dynasties . Simultaneous regional expressions existed in Asturias and in parts of Croatia . The decades around the year 900 left only a few small stone buildings and archaeological traces, as the time was marked by the incursions of the Normans on coasts and navigable rivers and those of the Magyars ( Hungarian storm ) from the east.

After the decline of the Carolingians and the division of the empire, art and architecture only flourished again in the East Franconian empire when the Ottonian emperors , who had ruled since 919, gained political strength in the second half of the 10th century. The northeastern art centers ( Magdeburg and Hildesheim ) are developing in their home areas . The driving force behind the building activity and art production of the Ottonian Renaissance , with which the Romanesque began, was now the monasteries. The epochal independence of Ottonian art does not correspond to a specific style level in most other European countries. In Italy, Lombardy developed a radiance that extended to northern Spain and, at certain points, across the Alps to the north. One of the achievements of the Lombard pre-Romanesque was the revival and further development of the brick building . In France , the beginning of the first phase of Romanesque is assumed after the Capetians came to power (971) at the turn of the 10th to the 11th century. This started a development there that eventually led to Gothic.

The second phase of Romanesque began under the Salian emperors at the end of the 1060s. In Germany it is referred to as High Romanesque, in Northern Italy as Lombard Romanesque . In Poland the Romanesque begins with the coronation of Casimir I , the Renewer, in 1038. With the establishment of the Crusader states , the Romanesque also reached the Levant .

With the construction of the choir of the abbey church (today cathedral) of Saint-Denis from 1140 to 1144 the Gothic began in France, in Germany, however, not until 1230. The Romanesque buildings erected between these years and afterwards are in Italy, Germany and other countries attributed to the late Romanesque.

The style change occurred east of the Meuse at a time of intense construction activity. As a result, numerous buildings have both Romanesque and Gothic style elements. For corresponding church buildings in the Rhineland, which were built up to the middle of the 13th century, the term Rhenish transition style was introduced; a group of Dutch buildings between the Lower Rhine and Friesland is classified as Romano Gothic there .

Romanesque architecture


Typical of Romanesque architecture are round arches, thick, fortress-like walls (especially in the western buildings ) with small windows. The church rooms are often still closed with open roof trusses or flat wooden ceilings, later barrel vaults or groin vaults that are more and more stretched are built. The capitals , even if they are designed in vegetal or figurative form, remain block-like compact. Their basic shape is often the cube capital .

In some Romanesque buildings there are spolia , reused materials from ancient buildings. This ranges from simple bricks and bricks to exquisite components such as capitals or columns. Some came from Roman ruins in the area. Columns in particular were also imported from far away.

Romanesque church building

Further developments of the basilica

As early as late antiquity, the form of the basilica , which was a secular building before the rise of Christianity to the state religion , was used for church buildings. This type of building was further developed in the Romanesque period. The transept , which in late antiquity was no longer than the three-aisled nave and separated from it by a triumphal arch , was now connected to the central nave by the crossing in which the two crossed. The transept arms were now allowed to protrude laterally over the aisles, which gave the building the shape of a Latin cross .

A choir bay was inserted between the crossing and the main apse, or in the case of churches without a transept between the nave and the main apse. Its (mostly western) boundary to the other church rooms was now designed as a triumphal arch.

The crossing was often made as a tower protruding over the roofs of the main nave and transept, with windows on the tower floor and a dome as a ceiling.

Some single-nave churches were also equipped with a transept and crossing, giving them a clearer cross-shaped floor plan.

The church building, whether with a simple floor plan or with a nave, transept and choir, could be designed as a hall church with naves of the same height instead of a basilica (with naves staggered in height) .

Another development with partly similar results was the gallery basilica and gallery hall: Similar to the central building that had already been built in the Palatinate Chapel in Aachen , additional rooms could be created above the ceilings of the aisles, also open to the central nave through arcades . In less large Romanesque churches, galleries could serve to separate socially different groups. In the really big ones, they were used more for statics , the indoor climate and the demonstration of wealth.

Cremona Baptistery

Central buildings

In the West, the longitudinal building remained a standard type of sacral architecture. There was also the central building . It could consist of a single round or polygonal room, or a mostly higher central room and a lower or multi-storey gallery . Baptisteries (especially in Italy), castle chapels and grave chapels, as well as Holy Sepulcher churches were often built as a central building, preferably octagonal in the Romanesque era . A representative example can be found with the Ottmarsheim abbey church in Alsace .

Apse and choir

San Michele Maggiore , Pavia , choir yoke and apse above the crypt

The most important thing about the interior of medieval churches was the area around the main altar in the east. In early Christian basilicas, the apse with the altar was connected directly to the transept. In Romanesque basilicas, an additional room was placed in front of the apse, which together with it formed the choir (room) . Here the canons or monks took part in the liturgy. The constant texts of the Mass were sung by them "in choir ". (Even in the Catholic Church, congregational singing did not appear until the Reformation .). In churches without a transept, the choir could be separated from the rest of the nave by a (triumphal) arch. A semicircular apse could be dispensed with in the case of a delimited chancel. On the other hand, some churches got side apses on the transept arms , or in addition to the choir in the east one in the west. The floor of the choir was often higher than that of the nave. The room below, the crypt with a brick vaulted ceiling throughout , was the burial place for saints and dignitaries.

In some places in rural areas, initially only a small chapel was built to protect the altar and clergy from the weather, to which a nave for the community was later added.


Liebfrauenkirche in Andernach with four towers
Sainte-Trinité in Caen , Normandy , crossing tower and preliminary stage to the Gothic two-tower facade

As mentioned above, typical characteristics of Romanesque churches are barrel vaults , especially in France, and groin vaults , especially in Germany, of course each with a round arched cross-section. In fact, Romanesque crypts usually have groin vaults, but Romanesque naves often do not. Groin vaults are often found above the side aisles of Romanesque basilicas, and they are almost rare above the central aisles. Due to their strong side thrust , arched vaults cause static problems at great heights . Often one has left it with a flat wooden ceiling or an open roof structure . The central nave of the Speyer Cathedral is covered with domed vaults so that the forces on the walls of the nave have a steeper effect. In many of the otherwise Romanesque walls there are pointed arched ribbed vaults according to the Gothic scheme, in some old buildings flat ceilings have been subsequently replaced by Gothic vaults, for example in Mainz Cathedral . Late Romanesque buildings, on the other hand, were often completed from the outset with the aid of technical achievements from the early Gothic period. On this subject there is the list of Romanesque churches with Gothic vaults and the list of Romanesque churches with groin vaults above church naves .

In addition to the frequent or expected vault shapes, there are also those that are rare in the Romanesque, but only occur in connection with the Romanesque. The rib-free hanging dome of the Bartholomäus chapel (Paderborn) is very early . While elsewhere building was already gothic, round-arched rib vaults were built here and there, see list


In many areas, towers became popular during the Romanesque period . When they were integrated into the church building, there were opposing tendencies, which were sometimes combined with one another:

  • Crossing tower
  • Four towers
  • West towers
  • Westwork , for smaller churches westbuilding

Regional styles

  • France:
  • Germany:
    • New cathedrals were built at the Rhenish bishopric, such as the early Romanesque Willigis-Bardo building of the Mainz Cathedral (from 1009) and the Imperial Cathedral of Speyer , as well as important monastery churches such as Maria Laach . In Cologne, where there are now twelve Romanesque basilicas in addition to the Gothic cathedral, the so-called trikonchos, based on St. Maria in the Capitol, were typical, in which, in addition to the choir, the aisle arms also have apses.
    • The tribal duchy of Saxony experienced a cultural boom as the region of origin of the Ottonians, especially the Harz region due to ore deposits and good soils. The churches in Hildesheim and the collegiate church of St. Cyriakus in Gernrode were built here in the early Romanesque period . In Goslar , the construction of the imperial palace began in 1005 and was expanded considerably from 1030 onwards. In the late Romanesque era, Heinrich the Lion was the client.
    • Several of the large Romanesque churches in Germany have a choir not just at one end, but at both. Some also have a transept in front of both choirs. Complete symmetry in the longitudinal direction was, however, nowhere created. Double choir systems offered the opportunity to honor various patron saints or to highlight secular donors alongside church authorities.
    • In the late Romanesque, brick construction was introduced in Germany, borrowed from the Lombard Romanesque, sporadically in southern Germany, shaping the landscape in northern Germany, see brick Romanesque .
  • Italy:
  • Spain :
    • In the north of the country there were several small kingdoms that slowly expanded towards the Islamic south as part of the Reconquista . In the early Romanesque period, architecture was mainly based on Lombard models, later mainly on French models, for example in the use of barrel vaults.
    • With the activity of Muslim craftsmen, buildings were created that belong to both the Romanesque and Mudejar styles (as well as later Mudéjar adaptations of the Gothic and Renaissance).
Anglo-Saxon St-Laurence's Church in Bradford-on-Avon , 10/11. Century
  • England and Scotland :
    • The formal language of the few examples of Anglo-Saxon architecture shows characteristics of the Romanesque. It must have mostly been small churches. But the pre-Norman York Minster is said to have had 33 altars , a large Westminster Abbey was built under Edward the Confessor , and the Anglo-Saxon foundations of Stow Minster , which was rebuilt in 1066 after a fire, are considerable.
    • After the conquest of England under William the Conqueror in 1066, several large and numerous smaller churches were built in the Norman style , a form of High Romanesque.
Skarp Salling, granite ashlar basilica, Italian style 5 km from the Limfjord
Tveje Merløse Kirke, the last of several small two-tower churches on Sjælland
  • Denmark :
    • Building forms refer to the independent relationship between Danish architecture and the south. They can be explained by the great mobility of northern European seafarers as early as the 11th century and by Denmark's position as a great power (which until 1658 also included the southwest of today's Sweden) in the 12th and early 13th centuries.
    • Before the first brick was burned in Denmark, a large number of churches were built here from high-quality natural stone masonry, in the east of the country from lime materials and sandstone, in Jutland around a thousand granite square churches . Many of the granite ashlar churches are small, but some have elaborately designed portals. The monolith trailers are typical of small Danish granite ashlar churches ; The upper ends of windows have the shape of a round arch, but this is not composed of several stones that support each other like a vault, but rather chiseled out of a single large cuboid, an architrave according to the statics . These churches were vaulted, if at all, mostly only in the Gothic period, with ribbed vaults made of brick.
    • Several Romanesque basilicas were also built from natural stone in Denmark. The Lund Cathedral , a large sandstone basilica, refers to Rhenish models, the granite basilica in Skarp Salling rather to Italian ones .
    • In addition to Lund Cathedral, smaller churches with double-tower facades were also built, but with the exception of Tveje Merløse, these were later replaced by single towers.
    • Romanesque brick construction began in Denmark only a little later than in Germany. The early Danish brick buildings in particular are based more on Italian than German models.
  • Norway :
    • Stavanger Domkirke (1100–1150) is largely Romanesque.
    • Some of the stave churches in Norway not only date from the Romanesque period, but also have quotations from the stone architecture of their time.
St. Mary's Church in Inowrocław , Kujawy , Poland
  • East Central Europe:
    • In several places in Slavic countries the first stone churches were round buildings, for example on the Prague Hradschin, a predecessor of today's Gothic St. Vitus Cathedral. They were funerary churches like the first cathedral in Gniezno , but more often palace churches. The first of these rotundas are still classified as pre-Romanesque. On the other hand, the St. Prokop rotunda in Strzelno, built in the early 12th century, with its ribbed vaults, leads over to the late Romanesque.
    • Most of the large Romanesque basilicas in East Central Europe later gave way to Gothic buildings. The collegiate church in Tum gives an impression of the external appearance, but the interior has been dominated by brick Gothic since a fire in the 15th century.
    • Of the numerous smaller Romanesque churches, the St. Mary's Church in Inowrocław is interesting because of the comparison with the further development of architecture : here at the end of the 12th or beginning of the 13th century an aisle church was built from carefully hewn granite blocks and a pair of brick towers, a few years before 33 km northeast of the Teutonic Order Ordensburg and city of Thorn (Toruń) founded, with Gothic brick buildings.

Secular buildings


Nuremberg Castle , Romanesque "Heidenturm"

During the Romanesque period in Central and Northern Europe, the cities consisted almost exclusively of wooden houses that did not have a long lifespan; In areas with easily mined stone deposits and a lack of timber, especially in southern Europe (e.g. Italy, southern France), however, there were more stone buildings, some of which are still preserved. The oldest secular buildings in Central Europe therefore include only a few of the (then rare) stone buildings, including the Graue Haus in Oestrich-Winkel (around 1080), two houses at the Cathedral of Tournai (around 1150, marketed as the oldest residential buildings in Western Europe) , a Romanesque house in Bad Münstereifel (1167), in Cluny u. a. the house Borluut on the market (1175), in Ghent the granary on the Graslei (around 1200), the "Heidenhaus" in Rosheim , the provost seat " Haus Korbisch " (1208) and the tithe barn (1237) in Karden on the Moselle, the Elaborate patrician residence overstolz house in Cologne (around 1220), the three-king house in Trier (1230), houses in Gelnhausen or Bad Kösen .

Works of Romanesque architecture were also royal palaces , some episcopal palaces and the castles of sovereigns. Parts of the imperial palace in Cheb (Eger) and, with some restorations, the imperial palace in Goslar and the palace of the Wartburg are relatively well preserved . Others, such as Dankwarderode Castle in Braunschweig , were reconstructed with a great deal of imagination. Much has only been preserved as ruins, including the Palas der Pfalz in Cheb and the Pfalzen in Gelnhausen and Kaiserswerth . Where castles have been used intensively up until the recent past, in some cases up to the present, and have accordingly been modernized again and again, Romanesque components can be strongly intertwined with younger ones, for example at Rochlitz Castle .

Numerous castles, which were not quite as important in the Romanesque period, did not yet correspond to today's ideas of a medieval stone castle, but consisted of earth walls, palisades and wooden residential and farm buildings until well into the Gothic era . As an example she cited the history of Bederkesa Castle . Even Trausnitz Castle above Landshut , later the residence of the Bavarian dukes for a long time , was started as a wooden tower in the 12th century.

Following the example of rural, fortified residential towers , the nobility and patricians built some in cities (e.g. the Frankenturm in Trier or the Stenshofturm in Rüttenscheid). Some Italian cities, not least Bologna , had a crowd of tall residential towers around 1200 that was no less than the skylines of today's banking district ( Mainhattan ). In cities full of private houses made of easily combustible material, fireproof storage structures, known as stone works , were built here and there .

Wood, half-timbered

Naturally, the wooden houses hardly survived. The post house , which was rooted in the earth and was therefore prone to rot, was the forerunner of the post- and-beam construction and the half-timbered house developed from it, mostly on stone , which slowly replaced the old construction method since the early 13th century. With the help of dendrochronology , the age of wood can be determined very precisely. Such a study had shown in 1984 that the oldest half-timbered house in what was then the Federal Republic of Germany was built in 1276 in the city center of Göttingen (Rote Straße 25). This record has now been broken by two houses in Esslingen am Neckar , by Heugasse 3 from 1262/63 and Webergasse 7 from 1267. The old towns of Esslingen, Göttingen and Limburg an der Lahn contain some half-timbered houses from the 13th and 14th centuries. Century; In Limburg alone six half-timbered houses are known from the reconstruction after the city fire of 1289 (until 1296), in Erfurt one from 1295. Although these oldest surviving half-timbered houses belong to the Gothic rather than the Romanesque era, they are not likely to differ significantly from their immediate predecessors distinguish. However, since the change from post to post construction did not take place until the 13th century, half-timbering is no longer to be expected after Grossmann before 1200.

In South Tyrol there are still Romanesque farmhouses in the Ladin cultural area, where they belong to the earliest type of Ladin houses . However, dendrochronological examinations, even on “Urhöfe” with “Romanesque-High Medieval origins”, only point to the 14th and 15th centuries. In fact, however, the oldest monuments of rural architecture set in around 1200: In Cressing Temple there are two large barns from 1205 and 1235, the oldest surviving half-timbered houses in Europe; and with Oberndorf in Lower Bavaria , Donaustraße 56 (oldest parts around 1150, integrated into a new building from 1355), and Schwyz , Haus Niederöst (1176, south front and roof 1270; demolished in 2001, stored and in 2014 new at the new location in Sattel for museum purposes built), the oldest rural houses are documented. Haus Niederöst holds the European record for the oldest surviving wooden house.

Romanesque in the fine arts

The artistic products are mainly preserved in book illumination , sculpture and wall painting . Works of the Romanesque are characterized above all by a low naturalism and high symbolism . The sculptures and paintings often show drastic motifs. In wall painting in particular, hierarchical structures were often depicted through the perspective of meaning and tiered arrangement.

See in more detail:

Style phases

Early romance

The early Romanesque (end of the 10th century to around 1070) was largely developed by the young monastic communities that emerged all over Europe, in which, after the fall of Rome, secular knowledge was systematically collected again and expanded through research.

Examples of early Romanesque in Germany are the Hildesheim Michaeliskirche from 1010, Speyer Cathedral from 1025, Limburg an der Haardt Monastery Church from 1025, in Poland with the reign of Kasimir the Renewer , 1038-1058.

High romance

The increasing economic and technical level enabled enormous achievements in architecture from around 1070 onwards. The largest church in Europe was the Abbey of Cluny (from 1088). It consisted of a five-aisled, barrel-vaulted basilica with two east transepts and a choir with a gallery and a chapel wreath. The Speyer Cathedral was the church of the Salian emperors and served as their burial place. Its expansion with cross vaults in the central nave, along with Cluny, marks the decisive importance of the vaulting problem for the development of medieval architecture. Under the pressure of the vault, the forms became heavier and more closed.

. In the High Romanesque architectural decoration played a major role. In addition, there were more and more free-standing figurative works, which were often made of wood ( triumphal crosses , Madonna figures , rood screen figures ), but also of bronze ( Brunswick lion , tungsten candlesticks in Erfurt ). Italian influences are likely, as is the case with the Quedlinburg collegiate church with its diverse sculptural jewelry. A visual display of splendor is then z. B. at the Benedictine abbey church of St. Peter and Paul ( Königslutter ); in a sometimes close connection are buildings z. B. in Hildesheim (St. Godehard), Goslar, the Brunswick Cathedral , the monastery of Our Dear Women in Magdeburg and the Church of Our Lady (Halberstadt) .

In England, the Norman conquest in 1066 initiated the replacement or new construction of many churches, and residential buildings were also needed for the new masters. Therefore, the continental high Romanesque in England corresponds to the Norman style . Examples are the cathedrals of Durham and Ely, and Peterborough Abbey .

In Italy there is still no bulge for the most part. In the country, which was split up into many states, several regional styles developed.

France leads the way in the formation of the chapel ambulatory choir, there the various regional building schools with their own solutions for the arching issue are to be mentioned, the Burgundian pointed bins from Cluny, Autun and Paray-le-Monial , the round bins over galleries in the Auvergne and in the pilgrimage churches of the southwest from Conques via St. Sernin in Toulouse to Spain to Santiago de Compostela , the domed churches of Aquitaine in Angoulême and Périgueux and the ribbed vaults of Normandy.

Among the decorative forms, especially from the high and late Romanesque, are the rose windows ( rosettes ) on the western front with splendid colored windows, various forms of friezes above gates and apses, and small figures, animals and faces on the arched friezes of the east-facing apse .

Late Romanesque

Late Romanesque gallery basilica of St. Peter in Bacharach , central nave here with round arched belt arches and ribs, but pointed arches
West choir of Worms Cathedral , late Romanesque
Stone Bible , apse of the parish church Schöngrabern in Lower Austria , 13th century

The late Romanesque is characterized by the versatility of structures and interiors, which were built with great ornamentation. A particularly rich building activity unfolded on the Rhine and Meuse. Analogous to the French buildings were built reinforced double tower facades, partly in connection with splendidly trained Vierungs pile.

Late Romanesque began at different times in different regions of Europe. In Burgundy can be seen as the beginning of the foundation stone of the third abbey of Cluny begin in 1088 (the time considered still belongs to the high Romanesque), because here interiors were behind continue Romanesque facades for the first time in the Christian West ogival vaulted , nave and transepts with pointed barrel , side rooms pointed groin vaults. This construction method was not only imitated in Burgundy itself, but also in Italy , for example in the Fossanova Abbey . Late Romanesque buildings in Germany were typically erected after the beginning of the Gothic period in France, the facade design adhered to Romanesque forms, but the newly developed ribbed vaults of the Gothic, ribbed vaults based on Paris or Domicals based on the Angevin style were used for the vaulting of the interior . Good examples are Cologne's twelve Romanesque basilicas and the Osnabrück Cathedral . On the other hand, according to research results of the 21st century , the Limburg Cathedral is not to be counted among them: Here an early to high Romanesque basilica from the 11th century was modernized between 1180 and 1230 based on models from the French early Gothic, especially the cathedral of Laon . In the process, numerous windows were enlarged in an ogival shape and several buttresses were added.


The romanesque , also Romanesque Revival called, is a European art style of the 19th century. Artists, especially architects , used models from the past two millennia - in this case the Romanesque. Along with neo-Gothic , neo-Renaissance , neo-Baroque and the association of several of these styles in a work (so-called eclecticism ), they are common in the history of style as historicism called.

Tourism and Romanesque

See also


in alphabetical order by authors / editors

  • Georg Dehio, Gustav von Bezold: The ecclesiastical architecture of the west. Volume 1. Stuttgart, 1892. Online, Heidelberg University . Atlas 1 (Tafelband) Stuttgart 1887. Online, Heidelberg University . Atlas 2 (Tafelband) Stuttgart 1888. Online, Heidelberg University .
  • Andreas Hartmann-Virnich: What is Romanesque? History, forms and technology of the Romanesque church building , Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2004, ISBN 3-534-14286-1 .
  • HE Kubach: Romanesque . In the series: World History of Architecture. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-421-02858-3 .
  • Michael Overdick: The architectural system of the Rhenish late Romanesque . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 2005, ISBN 978-3-88462-213-1
  • Artur von Pannewitz: The theory of forms of Romanesque architecture in its application to the ashlar construction: forty panels in photolithography with foreword, references, content and index of places . Baumgärtner, Leipzig 1898. Digitized .
  • R. Toman, A. Bednorz: Romanesque. Architecture - sculpture - painting. Könemann im Tandem-Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-8331-1039-2 .

Web links

Commons : Romanesque architecture  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Romanesque sculpture  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Romanesque painting  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Elmar Worgull : Stone geometry. The equilateral triangle as a structural principle of the Romanesque church of the Augustinian - Canons in Frankenthal . ( Hartmut Biermann on his 80th birthday). Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 2005. ISBN 3-88462-214-5 .
  2. Andreas Hartmann-Virnich: What is Romanesque? History, forms and technology of Romanesque church building. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2004, p. 74.
  3. Whether one delimits Ottonian art from Romanesque art or includes it in this is handled differently. See the article Pre-Romanesque .
  4. Two opposing architectural historical interpretations of the village church in Drakenburg an der Weser : either as a Romanesque chapel, which was later expanded to include a Gothic nave, or as a primarily Gothic church building with a late Gothic choir added later.
  5. Thomas Küntzel: The Bishops' Building Laboratory - Considerations on Church Planning in Early and High Medieval Hildesheim (PDF at
  6. HiSoUR: Romanico pugliese
  7. Mudejar en Aragón
  8. Mudéjar castellano-leonés
  9. Otto Norn: Granitkirker i Jylland og Angel in Sønderjyske Årbøger (1982), PDF for download
  10. Paul Nawrocki: The early Danish brick building , Lukas Verlag (2010), ISBN 978-3-86732-096-2 , see book portrait by Lukas Verlag
  11. - Tum - collegiate church of St Mary and St Alex
  12. Christofer Hermann et al., Medieval architecture in Poland , pp. 40–94: Pre and High Romanesque architecture (10th – 12th centuries)
  13. ^ Neue Presse, Hanover, March 14, 1984.
  14. Discovered the oldest half-timbered house in Thuringia .
  15. Cf. G. Ulrich Großmann: The half-timbered building in Germany. The historic half-timbered house, its creation, coloring, use and restoration . 3rd extended edition, Dumont, Cologne 2004, ISBN 978-3-8321-7463-7 , and: Fachwerk in Deutschland - Zierformen since the Middle Ages. Petersberg 2006, ISBN 978-3-86568-154-6 .
  16. Kurt Nicolussi, Thomas Pichler, Marie-Theres Thaler: Dendrochronological studies on historic farmhouses in the Val Gardena, South Tyrol: The farms of Unterkostamula (Costamúla de sot), Oberkostamula (Costamúla de seura), Crëpa and Spitzegg . (PDF; 1.3 MB)
  17. ^ Residential stable house at Donaustrasse 56 in Oberndorf / Danube: building and renovation history
  18. Georges Descoeudres, Gabriele Keck and Franz Wadsack: The house «Nideröst» in Schwyz: Archaeological investigations 1998–2001 (PDF; 3.2 MB). Published in: Mitteilungen des Historisches Verein des Kantons Schwyz, Issue 94 (2002).
  19. Epoch breakdown according to Hans Erich Kubach: Romanik (world history of architecture). Stuttgart 1986.
  20. ^ Hans Erich Kubach, Albert Verbeek: Romanesque architecture on the Rhine and Maas. 4 vols., Berlin 1976–1989.
  21. ^ Transromanica. Ways of the Romanesque in Europe