from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Romanesque: scroll, tooth, diamond and round arch frieze on Bamberg Cathedral

In architecture, a linear, mostly horizontal style element is referred to as a frieze . It is a narrow strip that is used to outline, delimit, structure and decorate parts of a building. The frieze can be smooth or three-dimensional, painted or composed of individual components. Some consist of several narrow frieze bands or their ornaments .

Friezes serve to structure a facade and in this respect are similar to cornices . The difference to the strip-like cornices lies in the repetition of a pattern, the rapport - a form of jewelry in a constant rhythm. Cornices are sometimes accompanied by or combined with friezes.

In ancient Greek architecture, the frieze is primarily a concrete component. But friezes were also used as a relief in antiquity - in architecture, in sculpture, for example on sarcophagi , and in toreutics . As a purely two-dimensional ornament, they were also used in ancient painting and vase painting as well as in mosaics .

Oldest friezes

On the Sardinian giant tombs of the Bronze Age with ashlar facades, there is often a strange, carefully hewn stone block near the entrance, which is known as a -Zalm frieze or -Zahnstele- ( Biristeddi , Madau ). Since the teeth spare three spaces, a comparison with the three holes on the Nuragic Domus de Janas suggests that it is not the teeth that matter, but the spaces. The puzzle of the reconstruction of the ashlar facade is unsolved, as none of the tooth friezes was found in its original position.

The frieze in ancient architecture

Stone entablature at the Temple of Hephaestus , from top to bottom: Geison , frieze with triglyphs , architrave
Roman entablature frieze at the Temple of Jupiter, Split, around 300 AD.

In connection with the Greek architecture of antiquity and its column orders , frieze is understood in particular to mean the part of an entablature lying on the architrave (epistyle) and under the geison . The Doric order frieze consists of an alternating sequence of metope and triglyph , which is why it is also known as a triglyph frieze . Here it is initially determined constructively. In the Ionic order, on the other hand, the frieze consists of a smooth square layer with a relief band, but can also be omitted entirely. The frieze occurs in the same way in Roman architecture .

Friezes designed as a relief are not limited to the entablature as a building sculpture . They can be on the architrave or on the cella walls , but they can also cover entire wall areas, such as on the Pergamon Altar .

Post-antique frieze shapes

In the Middle Ages , new frieze shapes were created with mostly abstract and spatial ornaments. These were, for example, the diamond frieze, the diamond frieze, the cube frieze or the chessboard frieze. The arched frieze is particularly common in the Romanesque period , although the cross-arched frieze is also used in Islamic architecture. The Gothic brought forth tracery friezes with foliage motifs and leaf motifs. There was also the pointed arch frieze, which is called the lily frieze, when the consoles of the pointed arches have a lily-shaped ending.

During the Renaissance , antique friezes were taken up again and varied. This also applies to the subsequent stylistic epochs of Baroque and Classicism . In the historicism of the 19th century, the friezes of all previous epochs were used, which means that in German-speaking countries there are diverse frieze shapes on the facades of Wilhelminian-style buildings. In the 20th century, Art Nouveau friezes were found, but they only lost their importance in modern architecture .

Structure of the friezes according to the predominant ornament

Friezes are named after the dominant ornament . A distinction is also made between the floral or abstract ornamental frieze and the figure frieze . In contrast, the term picture frieze stands for building sculptures of (Greek) architecture of antiquity. Significant and common frieze shapes are presented in art historical literature in the form of picture panels, although the terminology does not always match completely.

designation description since graphic photo
Acanthus frieze Consisting of a row of acanthus ornaments. Antiquity Campiglia Marittima Pieve di San Giovanni northern portal frieze 2012-08-26.jpg
Astragalus , also pearl rod or pearl cord Consists of lined up flat and oblong oval pearls. Antiquity Astragalus pearl string pearl stick 2.png Astragalus przykład 1.jpg
Anthemion also Anthemienfrieze It is composed of palmettes and lotus flowers . Antiquity Anthemion.png
Foliage Fries also leaves Fries or frieze Gothic Foliage Frieze.png Leaf frieze in the main nave Sankt.Marien.Kloster.Lehnin.jpg
Bukranienfries also Aaskopf Bukranion describes the replica of a cattle skull as a decorative motif. Antiquity Samothrace Arsinoe rotunda 2.jpg
German band also indented frieze , Sägefries or Sägezahnfries called Formed from a row of overhanging stones. The designation "German band" was coined in the course of research into German brick Gothic, which took up a series of masonry ornaments that were initially only easy to manufacture with the standardized brick. But this frieze appeared centuries earlier in Carolingian times. B. in France also in house installation. The ornament therefore originally comes from the pre-Romanesque period . It is mostly used for the visual division of floors and as a wall decoration below eaves cornices. Pre-Romanesque , Romanesque German band Fries.png Bad Zwischenahn St. Johannes tower detail.jpg
Diamond frieze also diamond plating see also: diamond rod Romanesque Diamantfries.png
Braided tape also Entrelac Ornaments made of intertwined ribbons are already in the 3rd millennium BC. BC in Sumerian art, others can be found in Greek vessel decorations . no longer purely ancient Romanesque Celtic-knot-basic-linear.svgCeltic-knot-basic-rectangular.svg Braided tape.jpg
Dog tooth A row of four-pointed asterisks stands on the tip and rests in a pyramid shape, originated in the English early Gothic ( dog-tooth ). (see also: diamond rod ) Early Gothic Chambers 1908 Dogtooth.png
Ionic kymation also known as egg stick A variant of kymation. (On the photo above the tooth section ) Antiquity KymaIonico Dentelli.jpg
Cross arch frieze The oldest example: Mosque in Toledo ( El Cristo de la Luz ), around 999; taken over by the Moorish culture in Spain to northern Italy, there very common in Romanesque brick architecture; Adopted from North German architecture in the middle of the 12th century and used up to the Gothic period. Cross arch frieze.png Cross arch frieze.jpg
Cross diamond frieze Formed from intersecting diamonds. Romanesque
Spherical frieze see also: ball stick Kugelfries.png
Running dog This frieze is the rounded modification of the meander , whereby the ornament is reminiscent of rolling waves. Antiquity Running dog.png CanCorrente.jpg
Lily frieze A pointed arch with arch supports as lily -shaped consoles . Gothic Lily Frieze.png
meander The meander is an orthogonal ornament used since the Neolithic. The name was based on the river loops of the same name. Antiquity Meander.png Rhodes meander hg.jpg
Palmette frieze It consists of palmettes and volutes . Antiquity
Panel frieze also field frieze The panel frieze is a structural element of Lower Rhine church apses from the Romanesque period, it mostly runs under the dwarf gallery . Panel frieze.png Gross stmartin dwarf gallery suedkonche.jpg
Diamond frieze Romanesque Rautenfries.png Santa María de Cayón Nuestra Señora de la Asunción Frieze 60.jpg
Scroll frieze Romanesque Rollefrieze.png Villafranca del Bierzo Santiago 336.JPG
Arched frieze also arched frieze Arched Frieze.png Arch frieze2.jpg
Window frieze Disk frieze.png
Scale frieze Romanesque Shed Frieze.png
Pointed arch frieze Gothic Pointed arch frieze.png AltesSchlossGrevenbroichSpitzbogenfries.jpg
Cloud ornament
Cube frieze also checkerboard frieze or waffle frieze Romanesque Cube frieze.png

Zamora Santo Tomé Frieze 843.jpg

Pincer frieze no longer purely antique
Zigzag frieze Zigzag Frieze.png Southwell Minster, west door detail - - 839115.jpg
Crenellated frieze with tooth cut ; at further apart battlements as console Fries referred The console frieze often seems to indicate protruding beam heads. It is usually on the outer facade and is often part of the cornice . Zinnenfries.png Detmold - 2014-09-13 - State Parliament (90) .jpg

Frieze in the fine arts

In the visual arts at the end of the 19th century, which broke away from the naturalistic tradition , picture cycles and decorative friezes played an important role, often only in theory, and sometimes also in practical implementation. Well-known examples are the Beethoven frieze painted in 1901 by Gustav Klimt or the life frieze by Edvard Munch .

References and footnotes

  1. a b sentence after Nikolaus Pevsner, Hugh Honor, John Fleming: Lexikon der Weltarchitektur , 3rd edition, Munich, Prestel, 1992, Lemma Fries
  2. ^ A b Günther Binding: Architectural Forms , 4th Edition, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1998, pp. 105–109
  3. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n after Stefan Dürre: Seemanns Lexikon der Skulptur , Leipzig, Seemann, 2007, Lemma Fries
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax after Hans Koepf , Günther Binding : Picture Dictionary of Architecture (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 194). 4th, revised edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-520-19404-X , Lemma Fries .
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z according to Hans-Joachim Kadatz: Dictionary of Architecture , Leipzig, 1988, Lemma Fries
  6. ^ Meyer's Lexicon
  7. ^ A b Günther Binding: Architectural Forms , 4th Edition, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1998, in the glossary
  8. Gottfried Kiesow : Learning to see cultural history. Bonn: German Foundation for Monument Protection, Monuments Publ. Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 34–36.
  9. See: St. Gereon , Groß St. Martin , St. Aposteln
  10. ^ Peter Krieger: Edvard Munch. The life frieze for Max Reinhardt's Kammerspiele. Mann, Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-7861-1228-2 , p. 30.


Web links

Commons : Frieze  - collection of images, videos and audio files