The Salians were an East Franconian noble family in the Roman-German Empire from the 10th to the 12th centuries. Their home area was Speyergau , Wormsgau and Nahegau . Later they were at times dukes of Lorraine and Franconia . From 1024 to 1125 came the Roman-German kings and emperors from this family . The century of the Salian emperors is considered to be the century in which the dramatic conflict between imperial and papacy began over the question of whether the church had a higher divine right over secular rulers or not the other way around.
The Salians are not to be confused with the Salfranken of the 3rd / 4th centuries. Century, which were the first to use the name "Salier".
Origin of name
Probably there is a connection with the Merovingian Clovis I and the popular law enacted by him, the Lex Salica . After that, salicus was soon understood to be Franconian . According to the chronicler Otto von Freising , the most distinguished of the Franks were called Salians. The epithet appears for the first time with a dynastic reference at the beginning of the 12th century as rex salicus or reges salici in the world chronicle of Ekkehard von Aura and was able to establish itself as a name for the dynasty in the late Middle Ages. The name then only referred to Konrad II and his descendants. A long assumed connection with the Salfranken could not be proven.
The Salians are considered to be the German branch line of the Widonen and Lambertines that became powerful in Italy (including the Dukes of Spoleto / Umbria, King of Neustria / Western France, King of Pavia / Lombardy) and were related by marriage to the Conradinians through the mother of Conrad the Red . His marriage to Liutgard, daughter of Otto the Great , and his appointment as Duke of Lorraine brought Konrad the Red into the closest circle of the Liudolfinger royal family . When the king was elected in 1002 , his son Otto von Worms was considered a possible candidate. Otto's grandson Konrad II became king of the East Franconian-German Empire in 1024 and first emperor of the Salier family in 1027. Conrad II also became King of Italy in 1026 and King of Burgundy in 1033 . When he died in 1039, he left his son Heinrich III. a solid rule. The founding of the Speyer Cathedral , which served as the burial place of the Roman-German kings until 1308, probably goes back to him.
The decline of the Salians was initiated by a dispute between Henry IV and the Pope (see Investiture Controversy , walk to Canossa ). Heinrich V , the last Salian king, ruled until 1125. The rule of the Salians was followed by the Saxon Lothar III. (from Supplinburg) and after him the Staufer Konrad III. who, through his mother, the daughter of Henry IV, was a nephew of the last Salian emperor, Henry V.
Important family members
- Werner I. (Prefect of the Ostland)
- Werner IV. (Count in Wormsgau )
- Werner V. (Count in Speyer and Wormsgau until approx. 935)
- Konrad the Red (Duke of Lorraine 944–953 † Battle of the Lechfeld 955)
- Otto (Duke of Carinthia 978–983 and 995–1004)
- Heinrich (Count in Wormsgau until 990/1000)
- Bruno (as Gregory V Pope 996–999)
- Wilhelm ( Bishop of Strasbourg 1028 / 1029-1047)
- Conrad I of Carinthia (Duke of Carinthia 1004-1011)
- Konrad II. (Roman-German King from 1024, Emperor 1027-1039)
- Conrad II the Younger of Carinthia (Duke of Carinthia 1036-1039)
- Bruno von Würzburg ( Bishop of Würzburg 1034-1045)
- Henry III. (Roman-German co-king from 1028, king from 1039, emperor 1046–1056)
- Heinrich IV. (Roman-German King from 1056, Emperor 1084–1106)
- Konrad von Bayern ( Duke of Bavaria 1054-1055)
- Konrad (Roman-German co-king 1087-1098)
- Heinrich V (Roman-German King from 1098, Emperor 1111–1125)
- Historical Museum of the Palatinate Speyer (ed.): The Salier. Power in change . Edition Minerva Hermann Farnung, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-938832-64-6 (book for the exhibition of the same name).
- Egon Boshof : The Salians . Kohlhammer Verlag, 5th, updated edition, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 3-17-020183-2 .
- Martin Clauss : The Salier . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2011, ISBN 978-3-534-24482-9 .
- Louis Grodecki : The time of the Ottonians and Salians . (La siècle de l'an mil). Verlag CH Beck, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-406-03020-3 .
- Johannes Laudage : The Salians. The first German royal house . Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-53597-6 . (Brief introduction)
- Stefan Weinfurter : The Century of the Salians 1024–1125. Emperor or Pope? . Ostfildern 2004.
- Stefan Weinfurter: rule and empire of the Salians. Basics of a time of change . Sigmaringen 1991.
- Stefan Weinfurter: The Salians and the Empire . Exhibition catalog 1st volume, Sigmaringen 1991.
- Historisches Museum der Pfalz Speyer - Die Salier - Macht im Wandel 10 April to 30 October 2011 ( Memento from March 24, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- See Hagen Schulze : Kleine deutsche Geschichte , 1998, 5th edition 2002 (dtv), p. 15
- Nina Kühnle: Konrad II. (1024-1039) - Prelude to a dynasty . In: Historisches Museum der Pfalz Speyer (Hrsg.): The Salier . Power in change. 2011, p. 12 .
- Nina Kühnle: Konrad II. (1024-1039) - Prelude to a dynasty . In: Historisches Museum der Pfalz Speyer (Hrsg.): The Salier . Power in change. 2011, p. 13 .