Hagen Schulze

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Hagen Schulze (born July 31, 1943 in Tangier ; † September 4, 2014 in Berlin ) was a German historian with a focus on modern history .

Live and act

Hagen Schulze's father, Peter Hans Schulze , had been seconded to the Consulate General in Tangier as an employee of the security service of the Reichsführer SS (SD) since 1942 and was head of the press and information office of the Federal Government in Bonn after the war ; his mother Sigrid Hunke was the daughter of the bookseller Heinrich Hunke. Schulze attended the humanistic Beethoven grammar school in Bonn from 1954 to 1963 . He studied Middle and Modern History, Philosophy and Political Science at the University of Bonn (1963–1963 / 64) and the University of Kiel (1964–1967). In November 1967 he received his doctorate with the work supervised by Michael Freund on Freikorps and the Republic 1918–1920 . From January 1968 to April 1971 he worked for the Federal Archives in Koblenz as a research assistant at the Edition Files of the Reich Chancellery . He worked on the Scheidemann cabinet . The corresponding edition appeared in 1971. From May 1971 to April 1976 Schulze was a research assistant at the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation in Berlin . From May 1976 to April 1977 he then received a post-doctoral scholarship from the German Research Foundation .

In 1977 Schulze completed his habilitation in Kiel with Karl Dietrich Erdmann on the subject of Otto Braun or Prussia's democratic program. A biography . From 1977 to 1979 he worked as a private lecturer at the University of Kiel. After a Heisenberg scholarship , he was deputy professor at the Free University of Berlin (1978) and the University of Kiel (1978/79). In 1979 he became professor for modern history as well as for theory and methodology of historical studies at the Friedrich-Meinecke-Institut of the Free University of Berlin. In 1985/86 he was a visiting fellow at St Antony's College , Oxford . Since September 1989 he has taught as a full professor for modern history at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Munich . From February 1994 until 2006 he taught as professor for modern German and European history at the Friedrich Meinecke Institute. In the meantime he was a visiting fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton from January to June 1996 . From September 2000 to 2006 he was director of the German Historical Institute in London . For a year he worked again at the Friedrich Meinecke Institute in Berlin. In the fall of 2007, he took early retirement because of Parkinson's disease . Schulze died on September 4, 2014 at the age of 71. He left a wife and two sons. He found his final resting place in Berlin at the Dahlem cemetery .

His teaching and research focus was on the comparative history of Europe, nationalism in European comparison and the history of the reception of political and cultural symbols. Due to his habilitation on the Prussian Prime Minister Otto Braun, Prussia was no longer considered a conservative region in the Weimar Republic, rather he awarded Prussia a “democratic mission”. The work became a standard work and appeared in the third edition in 1981. His Little German History became a bestseller with a circulation of 125,000 (hardcover). Schulze also devoted himself to the subject of the nation and national history. In his studies of the history of national feeling and the German national movement from the end of the 18th century to the founding of the empire, he took into account the new approaches to the history of political mentality and the history of memory. The standard work State and Nation in European History (1994) appeared on this topic in 1994 . In 1994, together with Ina Ulrike Paul, he published an extensive source edition on European history, especially designed for history teachers. Together with Étienne François , he was the editor of the three-volume presentation of German places of memory (2001).

Fonts (selection)


  • Freikorps und Republik 1918–1920 (= Defense Scientific Research. Department of Military History Studies. Vol. 8, ZDB -ID 1173304-4 ). Boldt, Boppard am Rhein 1969 (at the same time: Kiel, University, dissertation of November 15, 1968).
  • Otto Braun or Prussia's democratic broadcast. A biography. Propylaen, Frankfurt am Main et al. 1977, ISBN 3-550-07355-0 (At the same time: Kiel, University, habilitation paper, 1977).
  • Weimar. Germany 1917–1933. Severin & Siedler, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-88680-050-4 .
  • The way to the nation state. The German national movement from the 18th century to the founding of the Empire (= dtv 4503). Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-423-04503-5 .
  • We are what we have become. On the benefits of history for the German present. Piper, Munich et al. 1987, ISBN 3-492-03099-8 .
  • Is there even a German story? Siedler, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-88680-324-4 .
  • The return of Europe. Siedler, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-88680-380-5 .
  • State and Nation in European History. Beck, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-406-38507-9 .
  • Little German story. With pictures from the German Historical Museum. Beck, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-40999-7 .
  • Phoenix Europe. The modern. From 1740 until today. Siedler, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-88680-393-7 .


  • The Scheidemann cabinet February 13 to June 20, 1919. Boldt, Boppard am Rhein 1971, ISBN 3-7646-1543-5 .


  • with Étienne François: German places of remembrance. 3 volumes. CH Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47225-7 .
  • with Ina Ulrike Paul: European history. Sources and materials. Bayerischer Schulbuch-Verlag, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-7627-6257-0 .


Web links


  1. ^ Maria Keipert (Red.): Biographical Handbook of the German Foreign Service 1871–1945. Published by the Foreign Office, Historical Service. Volume 4: Bernd Isphording, Gerhard Keiper, Martin Kröger: Schöningh, Paderborn et al. 2012, ISBN 978-3-506-71843-3 , p. 202.
  2. See the review by Horst Möller : Preussens Demokratische Sendung. On the Otto Braun biography of Hagen Schulze. In: Yearbook for the History of Central and Eastern Germany 29 (1980), pp. 113–119.
  3. Prof. Dr. Hagen Schulze . In: Der Tagesspiegel , September 14, 2014 (obituary notice).
  4. ^ Hagen Schulze: Otto Braun or Prussia's democratic broadcast. A biography. Frankfurt am Main et al. 1977.
  5. Jens Bisky: Overwhelmingly open: the historian Hagen Schulze has died. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , September 9, 2014, p. 13.