|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Cologne|
|Height :||280 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||150.83 km 2|
|Residents:||17,440 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||116 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||53902|
|Primaries :||02253, 02257|
|License plate :||EU, SLE|
|Community key :||05 3 66 004|
|City structure:||51 districts|
City administration address :
53902 Bad Münstereifel
|Mayoress :||Sabine Preiser-Marian ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Bad Münstereifel in the Euskirchen district|
Bad Münstereifel is a town in the Euskirchen district in the south of North Rhine-Westphalia . The city is a basic center with partial functions of a middle center according to the state development plan . Bad Münstereifel is considered a medieval gem with an almost completely preserved, restored city wall . In addition to the 4,137 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2018) in the core town, around 13,000 more residents live in the associated 51 districts and hamlets . Bad Münstereifel is a place to relax , especially for the residents of the metropolitan areas of Cologne , Bonn , Düsseldorf and the Ruhr area . Since September 12, 1974 Bad Münstereifel nationally recognized Kneipp - spa .
Bad Münstereifel is about 30 kilometers southwest of Bonn and about ten (as the crow flies ) south of the district town of Euskirchen in the Münstereifeler Wald , part of the Eifel , and is traversed by the Erft . It extends over an area of around 151 km² at altitudes of 200 to . The latter is the height of the Michelsberg , which rises as the highest point in the urban area in the north-western part of the Ahr Mountains (further part of the Eifel).
Around 60 percent of the urban area is forested, and many forest parcels are designated as so-called primeval forest parcels . Over 200 kilometers of developed hiking trails open up the low mountain range, which is around 25 kilometers from the Eifel National Park . The entire urban area belongs to the Hohes Venn-Eifel nature park .
Bad Münstereifel belongs to the rain shadow area of the Eastern Eifel (in the lee of the western Hocheifel and Schneifel ) and therefore only has average annual precipitation of 650 to almost 800 mm (the latter around the Michelsberg). In the village itself there is an annual average air temperature of 7.5 to 8.0 ° C and a July temperature of approx. 15 to 16 ° C. The length of the growing season is 130 to 140 days. The middle beginning of the apple blossom is on May 10th to 20th. The winter rye harvest begins on July 29th to August 8th.
Many of the districts of Bad Münstereifel have only been part of the city since the regional reform in North Rhine-Westphalia . On July 1, 1969, the following municipalities were incorporated through the law on the reorganization of the district of Euskirchen : Arloff, Effelsberg, Eschweiler, Hohn, Houverath, Iversheim, Kalkar, Mahlberg, Mutscheid, Nöthen, Rupperath and Schönau. The communities of Hohn and Nöthen were previously part of the Schleiden district . The place Lingscheiderhof from the former municipality of Holzmülheim (also previously in the Schleiden district) and forest areas of the municipality of Kirchheim were also added. The most important parts of the city are listed here:
|district||Residents (1)||Height (m)||former parish|
The following communities border the city of Bad Münstereifel:
In North Rhine-Westphalia
Even in the early days, people were drawn to the nearby Michelsberg , the second highest point in the Ahr Mountains . Numerous artefact finds from there prove that people lived in this area as hunters and gatherers as early as the Mesolithic (9,600 to 5,500 / 4,500 BC). A settlement from the Neolithic Age (5,500 / 4,500 to 2,000 BC) is on a ridge near Schönau in the district of Op de Pöhle through tools such as blades etc. a. proven from flint. The prehistoric artifacts are in the Hürten Museum in Bad Münstereifel. Around 830 the third abbot of Prüm , Markward , founded a daughter monastery which he called "Novum Monasterium". In 844 Pope Sergius II gave the abbot the remains of the Roman martyr couple Chrysanthus and Daria . Afterwards, the monastery gained importance through lively pilgrimage activities and became the ecclesiastical center of the Eifel deanate. King Zwentibold of Lorraine granted the monastery market, coin and customs rights in 898. A settlement was built around the monastery walls and a market was built in front of the monastery. In the 12th century a new name was adopted for the settlement, Monasterium in Eiflia . The monastery was converted into a monastery . Around 1300 the Count von Jülich built the castle and built the city fortifications. In 1356 Münstereifel became the seat of a court and municipal self-government. It emerged woolen mills , tanneries and breweries . In 1454 the Duke of Jülich gave the city a council constitution. The council consisted of seven lay judges and seven council members, from whose midst the mayor was elected every year . After 1600, Münstereifel was converted into a city of the Counter Reformation . In 1618 the Capuchins came to Münstereifel, who also set up a cloth factory in their monastery district and thus created new jobs for the woolen weavers who were in trouble. In 1625 the Jesuits began teaching at St. Michael Gymnasium . Their branch was elevated to a college in 1649; the construction of the monastery buildings took place between 1652 and 1674, that of the Jesuit church from 1659 to 1668; the high school building was built between 1724 and 1727. From 1657 the Carmelites settled in Münstereifel. Your monastery complex was built in 1769/70. The St. Michael grammar school built by the Jesuits was the only higher school between Cologne and Trier .
Like the entire left bank of the Rhine, Münstereifel was occupied by French troops in the First Coalition War; in 1798 the area was annexed by the First French Republic . Münstereifel became a Mairie (mayor's office) in the Département de Rhin-et-Moselle . Here it belonged to the canton of Rheinbach in the Arrondissement de Bonn . The secularization of the monasteries and the monastery by Napoleon around 1802 meant a severe setback for the economic life of the city, which was shaped by the last seven monasteries and churches with a total of around 100 priests, sisters and lay brothers.
At the end of the Napoleonic Wars , the areas along the Rhine were fundamentally reorganized. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Münstereifel and other areas on the left bank of the Rhine fell to Prussia and from then on belonged to the Rhine Province of the newly organized Prussian state. Münstereifel lost its political and economic importance in the further course of the 19th century. It was only towards the end of this period that tourism began to revitalize the economy. Münstereifel became a Kneipp health resort in 1926 and has been called "Bad" Münstereifel since 1967.
During the Second World War , Adolf Hitler used the " Felsennest " headquarters in Münstereifel- Rodert, which had previously been expanded, during the Western campaign from May 10 to June 6, 1940 and during the Ardennes offensive from December 19, 1944 . The Army High Command (OKH) was based in a bunker and barrack camp around the Hülloch forester's lodge . Münstereifel and the surrounding area were taken by US soldiers on March 7, 1945 without a fight.
The city council is the municipal representative of the people of Bad Münstereifel. The citizens decide on the composition every five years. The last election was the local elections on May 25, 2014 . The current city council has 32 seats, two fewer than the previous one.
Mayor of Bad Münstereifel is Sabine Preiser-Marian from the CDU. On November 8, 2015, she narrowly prevailed in a runoff election against Ursula Koch-Trager, who was supported by the SPD, UWV and the Greens. Your honorary deputies are Ludger Müller (CDU) and Brigitte Fuchs (SPD).
Town partnerships exist with:
- Ashford , Kent ( Great Britain ), since 1964 (youth exchange since 1952)
- Fougères , Brittany ( France ), since 1967
The city of Bad Münstereifel has a coat of arms and a flag.
Blazon : "Divided by gold and red, above a growing, red armored and tongued black lion, below a golden five-pointed star."
The coat of arms was approved by the Cologne District President on March 27, 1972.
|Reasons for the coat of arms: Münstereifel was one of the four capitals of the Duchy of Jülich, which the Jülich lion in the coat of arms still refers to today. The star is a symbol of the jurisdiction. A lay judge's court has been documented since 1171, and market jurisdiction was transferred to it in 1197. From this jury the city council developed. The Münstereifel coat of arms is attested for the first time in the seal of the Münstereifel aldermen from the 14th century.|
Culture and sights
Roman lime distillery from the 3rd century near Iversheim
- Bad Münstereifel was first called "oppidum" Monasterium in Eiflia in 1299 , meaning "fortified place". The city walls from the beginning of the 13th century with a total of four city gates are almost completely preserved . Until the 18th century they were provided with a drawbridge, portcullis and gate wings, and are all rectangular gate towers with a gable roof. The highest is the Werther Tor with a surrounding ledge at the top of the wall of its slender gate tower.
- The Werther Tor in the north, named after an older Franconian settlement called Werthe.
- The Johannistor at the eastern exit of the city, named after the parish church of St. Johannis above the gate.
- The Orchheimer Tor as the southern city gate, named after the medieval district of the same name, Münstereifel.
- The Heisterbacher Tor in the west of the city wall.
- Historic city center within the city walls .
- Münstereifel Castle
- Romanesque collegiate church of St. Chrysanthus and Daria from 1100, westwork probably inspired by St. Pantaleon (Cologne) .
- Jesuit Church, built 1659–1668 as part of the former Jesuit school (today: St. Michael-Gymnasium).
- Romanesque house from 1167 - one of the oldest stone-built houses in West Germany. Three window pillars, which are only visible on the inside, are made of the lime sinter of the Roman aqueduct . The fountain in the vaulted cellar, as well as the cooling and salt niche on the 1st floor are also original. Furthermore, a ceiling beam is still from the construction period.
- Windeckhaus, a half-timbered house on Orchheimer Strasse with a striking and elaborate carved facade.
- St. Michael-Gymnasium , built in 1659 as a former Jesuit school and one of the two high schools in the city.
- former Carmelite convent
- Town hall , built in two construction phases, the oldest probably from the 14th century, first mentioned in a document in 1476, extension with the "new kamer" from 1550, completed in 1551
- 100 m radio telescope Effelsberg
- 25 m radio telescope Astropeiler auf dem Stockert, the first German radio telescope, listed as a historical monument, near Eschweiler
- Roman temple district, the so-called pagan temple
- Roman lime distillery from the 3rd century near Iversheim
- Chapel on the Michelsberg
- The parish church of St. Margareta in Eschweiler was built in 1901 and 1902 on a previous building. The windows are by the glass painters Hermann Gottfried and Heinrich Oidtmann II .
- The "Tönnes ceiling" chapel is located at Landstrasse 234. Inside there is a figure that was probably made in the Steinfeld monastery in the 15th or 16th century and depicts Anthony the Great . The hiking and running destination has been damaged and renovated several times in recent years. The chapel has given its name to a privately organized marathon since 2005
- Kirspenich Castle
- Jewish cemetery Bad Münstereifel, plus the lost Jewish cemetery Kirspenich
- Hürten Museum (in the Romanisches Haus), founded in 1912, fossil collection, weaver workshop, bourgeois living room
- Roman lime distillery Iversheim , six lime kilns, approx. 150 to 300 AD.
- Pharmacy Museum , opened in 1997, documents and pictures on the history of the pharmacy, original pharmacy equipment from the 19th and early 20th centuries.
- Hand-Weaving Museum , opened in 1961, original equipment and images from the 5000-year history of weaving
- Nature and landscape museum , walk-in diorama in which the nature around Bad Münstereifel is shown
- Museum for dolls and toys , dolls and other toys from the most diverse eras and variations
- Wooden toy museum Bad Münstereifel , wooden toys mainly from the Ore Mountains
- History trail "Münstereifel around 1900", historical circular route in 21 stations with photos from the turn of the century
The classic "Concerts at Wallgraben" are known far beyond the city limits. The “Kulturhaus theater 1” is available as a cultural space. There are performances of theater, cabaret, dance, music and puppet theater.
Economy and Infrastructure
The city is the first to have a so-called outlet center (direct sales outlets ) in a city center and not, as was previously the case, outside or on the edge of a town. To the south outside the city wall, directly in front of the Orchheimer Tor, some new buildings were erected around a free space. In addition, numerous brand shops are located within the city wall, along the pedestrian zone, in existing buildings in the historic old town. The project is called City Outlet Bad Münstereifel and was opened on August 14, 2014. Half a million visitors are said to have been registered in the first four months.
Bad Münstereifel is also the seat of the Peter Greven Group , an international manufacturer of oleochemical products.
In the immediate vicinity of the city there are around 200 km of well-marked hiking trails for runners and walkers. The Erft cycle path leads over 110 km from the source of the Erft to its confluence with the Rhine. The Eifelbad has swimming pools and sports pools, play and fun pools, children's play and fun pools, outdoor pools (also in winter), whirlpools (outdoor and indoor), wallows, a 66 m giant slide, a sauna area, solariums and a large one Sunbathing area.
The DJH youth hostel in the Rodert district provides 164 beds in bedrooms for four, six and eight people, as well as ten group leader rooms and seven common rooms.
There are several guided tours in the city and the surrounding area, including a .:
- a guided tour through the European protected area Bad Münstereifeler Wald. The forest nature trail is around 6 km long, begins and ends in the Schleid spa park and provides information about the local flora and fauna.
- a city tour through the historical city center with its numerous monuments and the completely preserved city fortifications of 1.6 km length with 18 defense towers, four city gates, the castle ruins and the partially walkable battlement path.
The Kulturhaus theater 1 has existed in Bad Münstereifel since October 2007 and offers a constantly changing cultural program in the areas of theater, puppet theater, concerts, dance and literature.
Bad Münstereifel has a city library with a stock of 16,000 media.
In Bad Münstereifel there are four primary schools in the core city and the districts of Arloff, Mutscheid and Houverath, a secondary school and a secondary school as well as two high schools: the municipal St. Michael high school and the Archbishop's St. Angela high school . The Collegium Maria Immaculata , an apostolic school of the Legionaries of Christ , has existed in Bad Münsteifel since 2008 and serves as a boarding high school from the seventh grade to the Abitur.
The city is the location of the North Rhine-Westphalia University of Applied Sciences for Justice, founded in 1976, and also has its own city adult education center. With U. a. the Kurt Schumacher Academy of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the House of Occupational Safety of the Employer's Liability Insurance Association for Energy, Textile, Electrical, Media Products , the city is home to several private training centers. There is also the House of the Youth Red Cross as an educational facility for the North Rhine State Association.
Bad Münstereifel is the seat of the SIGNO-Innovations-Gesellschaft Eifel e. V., the largest association of inventors in Germany. SIGNO is a project of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy . Attached to the association is a youth and children's department, in which children and young people can acquire basic knowledge of technology in an association's own workshop.
The Bad Münstereifel train station is a stopping point and end point of the Erft Valley Railway . In local rail passenger transport (SPNV), the RB 23 runs every hour on this route to Euskirchen and then as the S23 to Bonn main station . Trains run Monday to Friday from 6:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m., Saturdays between 7:30 a.m. and 8:30 p.m., and Sundays from 9:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. The travel time from Bad Münstereifel to Euskirchen is 21 minutes, to Bonn main station without changing a total of 74 minutes.
Local rail passenger transport is carried out by DB Regio NRW , which uses diesel multiple units of the DB class 620 and 622 in single to double traction for speeds of up to 140 km / h for the Voreifelbahn . A maximum speed of 60 km / h can be driven on the Erfttalbahn, as it is a single-track branch line with many unobstructed level crossings that are difficult to see .
In addition, Bad Münstereifel is served by the Cologne Regionalverkehr (RVK) bus routes. There are several bus routes in different directions. Due to the relatively weak demand, all journeys are only made on bus line 801 (Euskirchen - Bad Münstereifel) with normal buses, as the utilization is correspondingly high here. On the other lines, trips outside of rush hour are usually carried out by taxi buses (TaxiBusPlus with a small surcharge).
The federal highway 51 (B51) from Bremen to Saarland runs from Euskirchen in a north-south direction through the city area. It runs past Arloff, through Iversheim and the city center, until it turns west in Eicherscheid towards Blankenheim. From Eicherscheid, Landesstraße 165 (L165) takes on the southern direction and runs through Schönau and Mutscheid to Schuld an der Ahr in Rhineland-Palatinate. In the Wasserscheide district , the L113 branches off from it in the direction of Rheinbach and Bonn. In the other direction, the L165 runs from the city center to the west via Nöthen to Mechernich. In the city center, the L234 branches off the B51 via Effelsberg to Rhineland-Palatinate. The next motorway exit for the town center and the surrounding villages is junction 112 Bad Münstereifel / Mechernich on the federal motorway 1 ( Eifel motorway ).
- 9 September 1876 District Administrator Josef Gottfried Wolff for 25-years of service as head of the district Rheinbach (Münstereifel belonged at that time to circle Rheinbach ).
- 1895, April 2: Prince Otto von Bismarck .
- 1897, November 18: Freiherr Friedrich von Ayx.
- 1902, April 24th: District Administrator Rudolf von Groote , patron of the city.
- 1912, June 22nd: Franz Maria Ferdinand Stephinsky.
- 1961, August 8: John A. Wiles, former mayor of the English twin town Ashford.
- 1977, July 5th: Emile (Mimi) Renno from the French twin town Fougères / Bretagne in recognition of his services to the town twinning Fougères / Bad Münstereifel.
- 2019, January 24th: Heinz Georg Kramm ("Heino") (* 1938), singer, lives in Bad Münstereifel and ran a café there from 1996 to 2012.
sons and daughters of the town
- Hubertus Sturmius (around 1547 – around 1605), professor of theology at the University of Leiden from 1579 to 1584
- Hermann Löher (1595–1678), author
- Johann Chrysanth Bollenrath (1697–1776), ceiling and wall painter
- Peter Wilhelm Josef de Gynetti (1735–1804) medical doctor
- Friedrich Joseph Haass (1780-1853), the "Holy Doctor of Moscow"
- Franz Ferdinand Joseph Wicküler (1813–1882), brewer in Elberfeld
- Franz Maria Ferdinand Stephinsky (1823–1917), pharmacist, local politician, guardian of the Münster cityscape
- Joseph von Ayx (1838–1909), district administrator in Monschau and Euskirchen, honorary citizen of Euskirchen and Zülpich, member of the state parliament
- Wilhelm Mohr (1838–1888), journalist
- Franz Cramer (1860–1923), classical philologist and high school teacher
- Friedrich Schulte (1867–1940), publisher / photographer, editor of the Münstereifeler Zeitung
- Aloys Castenholz (1885–1947), District Administrator in Wittlich and District President in Koblenz
- Josef Koch (1885–1967), historian of philosophy, Catholic theologian and university professor
- Renate Mahlberg (1949–2019), writer
- Michael Wink (* 1951), biologist and professor at Heidelberg University
- Christopher Becker (* 1980), film director, screenwriter and film producer
Other personalities associated with the city
- Konrad Schaefer (1915–1991), painter and graphic artist, lived in Bad Münstereifel since 1966.
- Otto Graf Lambsdorff (1926–2009), former Federal Minister for Economics and Federal Chairman of the FDP , lived in the Eschweiler district.
- Hans Fricke (1926–2015), resistance fighter under National Socialism and member of the Edelweiss Pirates , retired in Bad Münstereifel.
- Heinz Küpper (1930–2005), writer, lived in the city center and was a history and German teacher in Bad Münstereifel.
- Nina Rauprich (* 1938), author of books for children and young people, lives in Bad Münstereifel.
- Wilma Ruth Albrecht (* 1947), author, was an honorary city councilor in Bad Münstereifel from 1989 to 1999.
- Jochen Arlt (* 1948), writer and editor, lives in the Houverath district.
- Barbara Salesch (* 1950), lawyer, known as "TV judge", lived in Bad Münstereifel.
- Monika Tworuschka (* 1951) and Udo Tworuschka (* 1949), religious scholars, live in the Arloff district.
- Hans-Peter Salentin (* 1961), jazz trumpeter and composer, lives in Bad Münstereifel.
- Ralf Kramp (* 1963), author, caricaturist and publisher, visited the Archbishop's Konvikt in Bad Münstereifel.
- Jürgen Trimborn (1971–2012), writer and biographer, lived in Bad Münstereifel since summer 2007.
- Hans Meiser (presenter) (* 1946), TV presenter, lived in Bad Münstereifel.
- Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt and SPD parliamentary group leader Herbert Wehner held a conversation in Bad Münstereifel on May 4th and 5th, 1974, which is said to have led to Brandt's resignation a few days later.
- The Portuguese party Partido Socialista was founded on April 19, 1973 in Bad Münstereifel.
- In the German disaster film Vulkan (2009), Bad Münstereifel served as the backdrop for a fictional small town in the Eifel that was destroyed by a volcanic eruption.
- Hans-Dieter Arntz : Jews in Münstereifel. In: JUDAICA - Jews in the Voreifel. Kümpel-Verlag, Euskirchen 1983, ISBN 3-9800787-0-1 .
- Hans-Dieter Arntz: End of the war 1944/45 in Münstereifel. In: End of the war 1944/45 between the Ardennes and the Rhine. Kümpel-Verlag, Euskirchen 1984, ISBN 3-9800787-1-X .
- Hans-Dieter Arntz: The "Reichskristallnacht" in Münstereifel , in this: "REICHSKRISTALLNACHT". The November pogrom in 1938 in the Eifel and Voreifel . Helios, Aachen 2008, ISBN 978-3-938208-69-4 .
- Harald Bongart, Helmut Cloot: Bad Münstereifel. Archive images. Sutton, Erfurt 2003, ISBN 3-89702-611-2 .
- Harald Bongart, Jeannette Bünger, Helmut Cloot, Yvelise Langner: Bad Münstereifel. A city tour . Bachem, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-7616-1723-2 (With explanatory texts in German, English, French and Dutch. With photos by Theo Broere.).
- Wolfram Erber: Münstereifel around 1900, Historienweg, photos and postcards by Friedrich Schulte , Eifelbildverlag, Daun 2019, ISBN 978-3-946328-47-6
- Ruth Schmitz-Ehmke: City of Bad Münstereifel. The architectural and art monuments of North Rhine-Westphalia. Mann, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-7861-1403-X .
- Joseph Matthias Ohlert: Cityscapes from Bad Münstereifel. Stadt-Bild-Verlag, Leipzig 1995, ISBN 3-928741-97-7 (with photos by Günther Prätor).
- Johannes Heinen: "Alt Münstereifel" in words and pictures. Image documentation from 1890 to 1932 and the history of the city of Münstereifel. Heinen, Münstereifel 1986.
- Joseph Matthias Ohlert: Bad Münstereifel in old views. Vol. 1. European Library, Zaltbommel 1979, 1991, ISBN 90-288-5517-3 .
- Harald Bongart, Helmut Cloot: Bad Münstereifel in old views. Volume 2. European Library, Zaltbommel 1993, ISBN 90-288-5535-1 .
- Harald Bongart, Helmut Cloot: Bad Münstereifel - then and now. Geiger, Horb am Neckar 2001, ISBN 3-89570-744-9 .
- Jakob Katzfey: History of the city of Münstereifel and the neighboring villages. 2 vol. Schmitz, Cologne 1854.
- Karl Hürten: Popular history of the city of Münstereifel. F. Schulte, Münstereifel 1926.
- Toni Hürten: Bad Münstereifel - Chronicle from 760 to 1816. Association of History and Home Friends, Euskirchen 1969.
- Toni Hürten: Bad Münstereifel - Chronicle. Vol. 2. From 1816 to 1970. Rheinland Verlag, Cologne 1975, ISBN 3-7927-0256-8 .
- Marianne Gädtke: The field names in the area of the city of Bad Münstereifel. With place and settlement names, names of waters and street directory by Marianne Gädtke. Heinen, Bad Münstereifel 1993, ISBN 3-924383-00-8 .
- Martin Scheins (ed.): Documentary contributions to the history of the city of Münstereifel and its surroundings . Self-published, Münstereifel 1894, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-27865 (digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf).
- Hans Peter Schiffer: Churches and chapels in the urban area of Bad Münstereifel . History - construction - equipment. Verlag Ralf Liebe, Weilerswist 2008.
- Martin Scheins (Hrsg.): Documentary contributions to the history of the city of Münstereifel and its surroundings (= From the Rhenish history . Volume 1 , no. 16 ). Self-published, Münstereifel 1894, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-27865 .
- Adolf Plönnis: The history of the Münstereifel Abbey, as well as the other churches and monasteries in the city. (= From Rhenish history . No. 13 ). Hanstein, Bonn 1891, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-493993 (99 pages).
- W. Kirch, E. Uusitalo: The Romanesque House in Bad Münstereifel, publisher: Friends and supporters of the Hürten Museum eV, Heinen GmbH printing company, Bad Münstereifel, 2017
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- Website of the city of Bad Münstereifel
- History pages for Bad Münstereifel and the surrounding area
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- Why Hans Meiser lives in Scharbeutz. Retrieved August 13, 2019 .