The marathon (short marathon ) is a sporting running event held on streets or paths and at the same time the longest Olympic running discipline in athletics , the length of which was set at 42.195 kilometers in 1921. Some runs, especially at annual high points in athletics, lead to the finish line in the stadium, where there is about one more lap to run at the end.
Origin of the modern marathon
The historian Herodotus reports on the Greek Hemerodromos ( messengers ) Pheidippides , who lived in 490 BC. BC ran from Athens to Sparta in two days to seek help in the war against the Persians (compare Spartathlon ). From this, 500 years later, Plutarch and Lucian , citing Herakleides Pontikos, formed the legend that after the victory of the Athenians in the Battle of Marathon, a runner set out on the almost 40-kilometer journey to Athens, where he, after proclaiming his message νενικήκαμεν ( transcribed: nenikékamen) "We have won" collapsed dead.
Nobody thought of this history during the first long-distance runs of the modern era . As a pleasure for the spectators and to satisfy their passion for betting, the first long-distance races were held in a kind of sporting competition in the late 18th century . In England and the United States , pedestrianists covered distances between 20 miles (32.18 km) and 30 miles (48.27 km). The distances were mostly run against the clock, the runners rarely competed against each other. The run led from milestone to milestone, which guaranteed reliable timing. Considerable times were achieved. In 1808 a man named Blewet ran 24 miles for 2:34 hours. Converted to the marathon distance valid today, this would be a time of 2:48 hours.
The legend about Pheidippides only came to mind again with the excavations at a historical site in Marathon, during which a hill with the graves of the fallen Athenians from the battle of Marathon was uncovered in 1890. The linguist Michel Bréal had the idea to revive the legendary run of Pheidippides as part of the Olympic Games in Athens planned for 1896 . He sent a letter to his friend, Baron Pierre de Coubertin , founder of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), of his idea. The winner should receive a trophy donated by him. The Athens Olympic Marathon in 1896 became the first organized marathon.
One month before the Olympic Games, however, a marathon as the Greece championship took place on the route from the village of Marathon to Athens (approx. 40 kilometers) with eleven runners. Two weeks later, another marathon was held as a test for the Olympic Games with 38 runners, in which the winner Ioannis Lavrentis achieved a time of 3:11:27 h and the later Olympic marathon winner , Spyridon Louis , came fifth in 3:18:27 h has been. At another date, two women, whose names were given with Melpomene and Stamathis Rovithi, are said to have already successfully run the marathon-Athens route.
Major Papadiamanopoulos was entrusted in the preparatory committee to organize the long-distance run. Papadiamanopoulos' former errand boy was Spyridon Louis, who finally won the first Olympic marathon in 1896 in a time of 2:58:50 h. The marathon has only been an Olympic discipline for women since 1984.
The first German marathon was a "40 km distance run" on September 5, 1897. The route ran from Paunsdorf (now a district of Leipzig ) to Bennewitz and back to Paunsdorf. Of the 26 registered runners, 18 started and 13 crossed the finish line. The winner was Theodor Schöffler from VfB Leipzig in 3:35:31 hours. On July 3, 1898, another "40 km distance race" took place on the same route. All 13 runners reached the finish line, Arthur Techtow from BFV Arminia-Urania zu Berlin was first in 3:19:50 with a lead of almost 15 minutes. For a long time this run was thought to be the first marathon to be held in Germany; It was not until 1998, on the occasion of the supposed 100th anniversary of the Leipzig marathon, that people became aware of the run that was held the previous year.
Development of the running distance
In the official bulletin of the Olympic Games in 1896, the running distance from Marathon to Athens was advertised as exactly 40 kilometers. Today’s knowledge indicates that this probably does not correspond to the distance traveled by the legendary messenger. While the runner from the legend would have taken the shortest route over the Pentelikon Mountains and covered a maximum of 34 kilometers, the runners at the Olympic Games took the road along the sea and around the mountains.
For the following Olympic Games, it was not important to the IOC to link the marathon to a certain distance, as the runners competed against each other in direct combat. The length of the first Olympic marathon run in 1896 served as a guideline, but it was left to the organizers to adjust the distance to local conditions.
At the Olympic Games in London in 1908 , the distance according to a survey report was exactly 26 miles 385 yards , which corresponds to the equivalent of 42.195 km. There are many explanations for how this distance came about. The measurement log provides information. The starting point for the survey was the newly built Olympic Stadium in the London district of Shepherd's Bush . The start should take place at Windsor Castle . After measuring 25 miles (40.23 km), the traditional marathon distance, you were still 1 mile from Windsor Castle. At the end of the day, 26 miles had been measured on the east terrace of Windsor Castle. But the section from the stadium measuring point to the royal box was still missing, so another 385 yards had to be added to the distance. For this reason, Anglo-Saxon marathon runners are said to still let out a God Save the Queen on the last kilometer .
The dramatic outcome in the 1908 Olympic marathon between Dorando Pietri and John Hayes , in which Pietri was finally pushed across the finish line by officials after several falls shortly before the finish and therefore disqualified, was used after the games to do a number of in the United States Organize fights for revenge between the two. Of course, the conditions should be the same, so that the distance was always set at 42.195 km. In addition to Pietri, who took part in 8 marathons in 1909, more and more runners took part in the competitions, who soon marched through the country and finally the world like a traveling circus. Most of the races were held in an indoor arena such as Madison Square Garden , where 262 laps had to be completed.
Despite the now almost mandatory distance of 42.195 kilometers in the many professional competitions, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) did not consider it necessary to increase the distance for the marathon at the Olympic Games in Stockholm in 1912 and also in the 1920 Olympic Games in To fix Antwerp to a certain length of the route. It was not until 1921 that the International Athletics Association ( IAAF ) set the distance of 42.195 kilometers as the official distance for a marathon.
Most successful athlete
- Two Olympic victories:
- Two world championship titles:
Medal winners at international highlights:
- Waldemar Cierpinski , starting for the German Democratic Republic , Olympic champion in 1976 and 1980; Third in the world championship in 1983
- Eckhard Lesse , starting for the German Democratic Republic, European championship second in 1974
- Katrin Dörre , started for the German Democratic Republic until 1990, third in the 1988 Olympics , third in the 1991 World Cup
- Stephan Freilang , Olympic Knight 1992
- Herbert Steffny , starting for the Federal Republic of Germany until 1990, third in the 1986 European Championship
- Ulrike Maisch , European Champion 2006
- Andrea Mayr , winner of the Vienna City Marathon 2009, 2:30:43 h
- Günther Weidlinger , Frankfurt 2009, 2:10:47 h
- Roman Weger , national marathon champion (2001, 2004, 2006, 2010 and 2013) and half marathon (2000, 2001, 2002 and 2006)
- Franziska Rochat-Moser , winner of the New York City Marathon 1997, Frankfurt Marathon 1994 and Lausanne Marathon 1993; Second Boston Marathon 1999 with Swiss record in 2:25:51 h; World Championship eighth 1997
- Daniel Böltz, second in the Los Angeles Marathon 1991 with the Swiss record at the time in 2:11:10 h
- Viktor Röthlin , second in the 2006 European Championship ; Seventh New York City Marathon 2005; Eleventh New York City Marathon 2007; Winner Zurich Marathon 2004 and 2007; World Championship third 2007 in Osaka; Winner of the Tokyo Marathon 2008 with the Swiss record at the time in 2:07:23 h; Sixth Olympic Games in 2008 , European Champion in 2010 .
- Tadesse Abraham , fourth in the 2016 Seoul Marathon with a Swiss record in 2:06:40 h.
- Maja Neuenschwander , winner of the Vienna City Marathon 2015 in 2:30:09 h, second in the Hamburg Marathon 2013 in 2:30:50 h. Personal best time at the Frankfurt Marathon 2013 in 2:29:42 h
Marathon as a top sport
Some organizers of the world's largest and most prestigious marathons annually advertise the World Marathon Majors series for elite runners . Such a series lasts for one year (until 2015: two years). The races in Tokyo , Boston , London , Berlin , Chicago and New York as well as the marathon at the World Athletics Championships and / or the marathon at the Olympic Games are included in the evaluation . The best five men and women receive points according to a simple system. The prize money of 1.1 million US dollars will be divided among the most successful athletes after the last run (as of 2017). Since 2016 there has been a parallel competition for a wheelchair marathon with a separate prize money of 100,000 dollars.
The IAAF regulates all long-distance races that are held on the road in a common standard. Rule 240 for marathons is summarized as follows:
- The race track must lead over asphalt or concrete roads (English "made-up road"). If necessary, a cycle or footpath along the road is used. Segments of grass or unpaved roads are allowed but must be kept to a minimum. The route must be closed to motorized traffic.
- The distance is measured along the shortest possible path (i.e. inside of the curve). The examiners approved by the IAAF measure the route with a bicycle and a bicycle computer . Because of the required tolerance of at least one per mille , a marathon route is always slightly longer than 42,195 km.
- At the start, at the finish and approximately every five kilometers, the organizer must provide water and other refreshments. The athletes are allowed to use their own drinks etc. if they indicate in advance at which refreshment stations they will be stored. The acceptance of refreshments at other locations is permitted if there are medical reasons.
- Refreshment stations must not be on the shortest path. Those who hand over refreshments as a helper are not allowed to walk, run or drive during this time.
- Water and other refreshments may be carried by the athlete if he has been wearing them since the start or if he has picked them up at an official refreshment station. An athlete may hand over his or her refreshments to another runner at any time. Constant support of other runners is prohibited.
- Runners are allowed to leave the course under supervision if the running distance is not shortened.
Further rules 143 and 144:
- Running shoes must be widely available. Models that are only accessible to certain athletes are prohibited. According to a decision by the IAAF, shoes with a sole more than 40 mm thick or with more than one solid, embedded plate will be prohibited from April 30, 2020. At the same time it was decided that only shoes that have been publicly sold for at least four months are permitted.
- Pacemakers must participate in the race from the start. Once they have been lapped, they may no longer serve as a pacemaker. Technical devices that act as pacemakers are prohibited.
- Electronic devices (such as cell phones or MP3 players ) are prohibited.
- Devices that display heart rate, stride length, pace and / or similar data are permitted if they are worn by the runner and do not transmit any data to other people.
Additional rules apply to the recognition of world records. The straight line distance between start and finish must not exceed 50% of the running distance in order to compensate for the influence of favorable wind conditions. Likewise, the average gradient from start to finish must not exceed one per thousand of the running distance. The fact that the IAAF has only been registering marathon world records since 2004 is largely due to the fact that a globally applicable regulation for measuring race tracks was adopted very late.
Marathon as a popular sport
Starting in the 1970s (with campaigns such as “Trimm Dich!” And “Running without puffing” by the DSB ) and then in the course of the general fitness trend, running and, at the same time, marathons have established themselves as popular sports.
In 1979 the number of German marathon runners was estimated at 10,000 and there were around 50 marathons in Germany. In 2005, 153 marathon events were offered in Germany and the hard core of marathon runners is estimated by the German Athletics Association to be around 100,000 active participants. That’s less than one percent of all runners.
In 2004 there were 73 marathons in Europe with more than 1000 participants per run, 20 of them in Germany. In the previous years there were 65 (in 2003) and 60 (in 2002) with 18 races each in Germany.
Biggest events in German-speaking countries
|Vienna City Marathon||6,800|
|Marathon in the border triangle (Bregenz)||1,200|
|Swiss City Marathon (Lucerne)||2,700||2007|
Runs worldwide with more than 30,000 finishers
The following runs have had more than 30,000 finishers at least once in their history:
|Run||Finisher record||Finisher (latest edition)|
|New York City Marathon||2019||53,517||2019||53,517|
Coordination of training and competition
As with all other running routes, training has changed over the decades. While the Pedestrians ran 200 km a day, if necessary, in the 19th century, training became shorter and faster after the First World War. Interval training moved in with Woldemar Gerschler and Herbert Reindell ( Emil Zátopek ran 50 × 400 m with a 200 m break from trot), before Arthur Lydiard and Ernst van Aaken began modern training. Many coaches today believe that the most important element in marathon training, in addition to running long distances slowly, is interval training to develop endurance. For example, recreational runners try to achieve a maximum individual distance of 30 km and a weekly workload of 60 km during training. The relatively slow runners are often advised, for orthopedic reasons, to end the long endurance run after about three hours and to only increase the length of the route as they become more efficient. Advanced marathon runners also run longer distances and more kilometers per week. In the top range, 200 km and more are not uncommon. In addition to the long, slow runs, interval training also plays a decisive role in many training plans of successful trainers , but with a very small proportion of the total mileage of the training (5% to 10%).
A training plan covers a period of five or six months, with the planned route lengths gradually increasing every two weeks. The often propagated 10 to 12 week plans are only the build-up for training work that has already been done. A runner should have run regularly for at least a year, preferably two years, before attempting a marathon. Competitive experience on short distances, which are usually between 5000 m and 25 km, more rarely 30 km, is desirable and recommended. During marathon training, it is important to give the body enough time to recover. Running with a cold or fever can lead to serious illnesses (such as myocarditis ).
During the last two or three weeks before a marathon run, the runners usually reduce their weekly workload (typically up to 50 to 75% of the maximum distance) and sometimes take a complete break in the leisure area for at least two days so that the body can relax before the tough stress of the marathon can recover again. This training phase is also referred to by the English term “ tapering ” (“reduction”). Many marathon runners also consume more carbohydrates in the week before the marathon (so-called “ carboloading ”) so that the body can absorb more glycogen . The pasta parties offered by many organizers on the day before the marathon serve the same purpose , at which the participants are mainly offered dishes rich in carbohydrates.
Right before the race, many runners refrain from eating solid food to avoid digestive problems. Furthermore, care is taken to drink enough and the toilet is used again. Light stretching exercises before the race will help loosen up the muscles. In order to avoid cooling down before the start in the case of large starting fields and especially in the cold season, many marathon runners use cut-open garbage bags as clothing ("ponchos"), which they remove shortly before the start.
During the race
Trainers recommend keeping the pace as steady as possible during a marathon. But there are also recommendations to divide the route into phases. It begins with an initial phase in which a pace is maintained that is below the target average speed. This is followed by a middle section in which the target average speed is maintained. In the end part the speed is increased again. This also corresponds to the generally valid recommendation to approach a marathon slowly. Paul Tergat even managed to finish the second half a minute faster than the first in his world best time in 2003 during the Berlin Marathon.
Isotonic drinks are often offered along the way. Too much pure water can lead to salt loss and can be health-threatening if you sweat heavily ( hyperhydration ). That is why water is usually also offered at the supply points, which is mixed with table salt in isotonic concentration. If the outside temperature is not too high, it is possible to run a run without drinking breaks. Carbohydrate gels are a good source of energy, but they should be diluted with water when consumed, otherwise they can cause nausea and vomiting. The amount and type of drinks and carbohydrates that can be absorbed by the body during the run depends very much on the running speed. The faster the run is completed, the less blood flows through the digestive tract. The body can then hardly absorb carbohydrates or water. These become stressful and easily lead to nausea and vomiting.
Typically, there is a maximum permissible time after which the route is usually closed by the sweeper car . Depending on the target group and the type of event, the maximum time is five hours and thirty minutes or significantly more. The route remains open for much longer, especially in the large and important public marathons in the big cities. When you set a time goal, it's easier to keep a steady pace. Here it is beneficial for beginners to take a speed table (and watch) with them on the route.
Muscle pain after the run is normal. This pain, which is often mistakenly perceived as " sore muscles " but can be associated with it (running involves short, eccentric muscle contractions ), can last for up to a week. A complete recovery from the marathon, however, takes a much longer time. Depending on the course of the race, external conditions and training status, coaches expect at least two weeks up to two months until complete physical and psychological regeneration , which is important for rebuilding for a new race. For these reasons, successful athletes rarely run more than two marathons a year.
As with almost all sports that are also practiced as popular sports, the health benefits of marathon training outweigh any risks during the competition by far. One problem, however, is the steadily increasing average age of runners at large events such as the New York City Marathon . Despite impressive performance, older marathon runners have problems with the musculoskeletal system both in the training phase and in competition Age group but also the general risk of heart disease. The risk of sudden cardiac death during a marathon is negligible and lies between 5: 1,000,000 and 8: 1,000,000 participants. Nevertheless, the German Sports Medical Association recommends that beginners and those returning to the sport, especially if they have previous illnesses, complaints or risk factors, have a health check carried out. Other acute health problems that can occur while running are electrolyte imbalances (particularly hyponatremia ) and heat stroke . The increased risk of skin cancer in marathon runners is a warning to consistent sun protection. Annoying complaints are sore nipples (jogger's nipple) , athlete's foot and blistering caused by friction on an item of clothing .
Marathon and long-distance runners often experience an increase in the body's own substances in the blood, which are usually associated with structural damage to the heart (e.g. cardiac troponin ) or the brain ( S-100beta ). In many cases, these increases do not reflect real damage to the heart or brain, but rather a release from the skeletal muscles. In fact, there was no association between elevated damage markers and cardiac function in healthy marathon runners. One study found echocardiographic changes in cardiac function in untrained marathon runners; the results of this study are controversial. Furthermore, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract is described in medical circles. The cause of this bleeding is considered to be jarring while running, as well as taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) before and during the run to prevent muscular and skeletal pain. These NSAIDs ( ibuprofen , acetylsalicylic acid , ...) affect blood clotting by influencing the platelet function. Many runners do not seem to be aware of this danger. In medical literature, surveys are quoted that suggest an increasing trend in revenue.
Wheelchair users, hand bikes and inline skates
At many city marathons and at the Paralympic Games , in addition to the normal running discipline, competitions for racing wheelchair users have been offered since the 1970s and, since the 2000s, also for handbike riders . While these disciplines enable paraplegic athletes to take part in the marathon competition, a race for inline skaters is also offered as a further discipline at some events .
Olympic Games medalist
Medalist of the World Athletics Championships
- Olympic medalist
- Medalist at world championships
- Olympic medalists
- Medal winners at world championships
Development of world best times and world records
The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), as the umbrella organization of all national athletics federations for athletics, maintains the lists of all official world records in athletics . In road races such as the marathon, world record lists have only been kept since January 1, 2004, after special criteria for its recognition had been set at the 44th IAAF Congress in 2003. This was necessary because certain running routes favored fast times due to natural conditions. The most important rules of the IAAF state:
- If the start and finish are separated, the distance between the two points measured on a theoretical direct connection line should not be more than 50% of the route distance (IAAF rule 260.28.b). In a marathon this would be 21 km. The rule is intended to prevent running in one direction, which could have been beneficial through wind support (tail wind) and through sections of the route with a slight gradient.
- Between start and finish, the height should not decrease by more than 0.1% (1 m per km) of the route distance (IAAF rule 260.28.c). In a marathon this would be 42 m. The rule is intended to prevent the route as a whole from being downhill, which could possibly have increased the running speed.
The first official world record was run by Paul Tergat back in 2003 and received retroactive recognition from the IAAF, as the congress with the decisions on the world record criteria was held one month before Tergat's run.
In the time before regulation by the IAAF, the fastest running times were described as world best or world best time. There were different lists for these times. The most important lists were published by the IAAF and the Association of Road Running Statisticians (ARRS). With the exception of the time run by Khalid Khannouchi in the London Marathon in 2002, none of these times have and had no official character.
It is noticeable that the times published by the IAAF and the ARRS as world bests were partly achieved in runs whose running distances no longer correspond to the IAAF regulations for today's recognition as the best or record. In contrast, the IAAF and ARRS have temporarily not included the best times achieved on regular routes in their lists for reasons that are no longer comprehensible.
The world best times and world records published by IAAF and ARRS are shown below in a uniform list with different labeling.
|only best performances and records managed by the IAAF|
|only best performances and records managed by the ARRS|
|Best performances and records jointly managed by IAAF and ARRS|
Unofficial world records
|2: 55: 18.4||John Hayes||07/24/1908||London||First run over 42.195 km at the IV Olympic Games in 1908 . First at the finish line, Dorando Pietri in 2:54:46, disqualified for using outside help.|
|2: 52: 45.4||Robert Fowler||01/01/1909||Yonkers||Yonkers Marathon , canceled after seven runners at the finish due to undisciplined spectators. Route length unclear.|
|2: 46: 52.8||James Clark||02/12/1909||new York||Brooklyn- Sea Gate Marathon, turning point route to Coney Island and back|
|2: 46: 04.6||Albert Raines||05/08/1909||new York||Bronx marathon|
|2: 42: 31.0||Henry Barrett||05/26/1909||London||Polytechnic marathon , on the route of the 1908 Olympic Games|
|2: 40: 34.2||Thure Johansson||08/31/1909||Stockholm||Idrottsparken Velodrome Marathon, 368 m long laps in a bike stadium.|
|2: 38: 16.2||Harry Green||05/12/1913||London||Meanwhile, on a 50 mile (80 km) run at Stamford Bridge Stadium .|
|2: 36: 06.6||Alexis Ahlgren||05/31/1913||London||Polytechnic marathon , on the route of the 1908 Summer Olympics|
|2: 32: 35.8||Hannes Kolehmainen||08/22/1920||Antwerp||Run at the VII Olympic Games in 1920 , length officially 42.75 km, according to an estimate actually 40 km.|
|2: 29: 01.8||Albert Michelsen||10/12/1925||Port Chester||Port Chester Marathon|
|2: 27: 49.0||Fusashige Suzuki||March 31, 1935||Tokyo||Turning point route in the Shinjuku district with start / finish in Jingū Stadium. The course was hand-measured especially for record runs.|
|2: 26: 44.0||Yasuo Ikenaka||04/03/1935||Tokyo||The best was achieved just three days after the Suzuki run on the same track.|
|2: 26: 42.0||Son Kitei||03/11/1935||Tokyo||The best performance was achieved on the same track where Suzuki and Ikenaka had previously recorded their times.|
|2:29:20||Son Kitei||08/09/1936||Berlin||Run at the XI. Olympic Games 1936|
|2:25:39||Suh Yun-bok||04/19/1947||Boston||Boston Marathon , point-to-point distance does not comply with IAAF rule 260.28.b. According to ARRS route length 41.1 km.|
|2:25:15||Choi Yun-chil||10/28/1951||Pusan||According to ARRS route length 41.834 km. Deletion from the ARRS list announced.|
|2: 20: 42.2||Jim Peters||06/14/1952||London||Polytechnic marathon , point-to-point route from Windsor to Chiswick does not conform to IAAF rule 260.28.b. Route length 42.337 km.|
|2: 18: 40.4||Jim Peters||06/13/1953||London||Polytechnic marathon , point-to-point distance from Windsor to Chiswick does not comply with IAAF rule 260.28.b|
|2: 18: 34.8||Jim Peters||04.10.1953||Turku||Turku Marathon , double turning point route and an additional 14 laps in the stadium|
|2: 17: 39.4||Jim Peters||06/26/1954||London||Polytechnic marathon , point-to-point distance from Windsor to Chiswick does not comply with IAAF rule 260.28.b|
|2: 18: 04.8||Paavo Kotila||08/12/1956||Pieksämäki||Run at the 16th Finnish National Marathon Championships|
|2: 15: 17.0||Sergei Popov||08/24/1958||Stockholm||Run at the VI. European Athletics Championships|
|2: 15: 16.2||Abebe Bikila||09/10/1960||Rome||Run at the XVII. 1960 Olympic Games|
|2: 15: 15.8||Tōru Terasawa||02/17/1963||Beppu||Beppu-Ōita marathon|
|2:14:28||Buddy nobles||06/15/1963||London||Polytechnic marathon , point-to-point distance from Windsor to Chiswick does not comply with IAAF rule 260.28.b|
|2:14:43||Brian Kilby||07/06/1964||Port Talbot||Run at the Welsh Open Marathon Championships|
|2: 12: 11.2||Abebe Bikila||10/21/1964||Tokyo||Run at the XVIII. 1964 Olympic Games|
|2: 09: 36.4||Derek Clayton||December 3rd, 1967||Fukuoka||Fukuoka marathon|
|2: 08: 33.6||Derek Clayton||05/30/1969||Antwerp||Antwerp marathon , two-lap route. According to ARRS route length 41.7 km.|
|2: 09: 28.8||Ron Hill||07/23/1970||Edinburgh||Run at the British Commonwealth Games 1970|
|2:09:12||Ian Thompson||01/31/1974||Christchurch||Run at the 1974 British Commonwealth Games|
|2: 09: 05.6||Shigeru So||02/05/1978||Beppu||Beppu-Ōita marathon|
|2:09:01||Gerard Nijboer||04/26/1980||Amsterdam||Amsterdam marathon|
|2:08:18||Robert de Castella||December 6, 1981||Fukuoka||Fukuoka marathon|
|2:08:05||Steve Jones||10/21/1984||Chicago||Chicago marathon|
|2:07:12||Carlos Lopes||April 20, 1985||Rotterdam||Rotterdam marathon|
|2:06:50||Belayneh Dinsamo||04/17/1988||Rotterdam||Rotterdam marathon|
|2:06:05||Ronaldo da Costa||09/20/1998||Berlin||Berlin marathon|
|2:05:42||Khalid Khannouchi||10/24/1999||Chicago||Chicago marathon|
|2:03:02||Geoffrey Kiprono Mutai||04/18/2011||Boston||The running course of the Boston Marathon has a gradient of 136.29 meters and is therefore not suitable for record recognition by the IAAF .|
|2:00:25||Eliud Kipchoge||05/06/2017||Monza||On the racetrack in Monza for “Breaking2”. World record is not officially recognized by the IAAF, the world athletics association, because the pacemakers have been changed regularly.|
|1:59:40||Eliud Kipchoge||October 12, 2019||Vienna||“INEOS 1:59 Challenge” in Vienna. World record is not officially recognized by the IAAF, the world athletics association, because the pacemakers have been changed regularly.|
Official world record times
|2:05:38||Khalid Khannouchi||04/14/2002||London||London Marathon , first officially recognized world record|
Official world records
|2:04:55||Paul Tergat||09/28/2003||Berlin||Berlin Marathon , first officially recognized world record|
|2:04:26||Haile Gebrselassie||09/30/2007||Berlin||Berlin marathon|
|2:03:59||Haile Gebrselassie||09/28/2008||Berlin||Berlin marathon|
|2:03:38||Patrick Makau||09/25/2011||Berlin||Berlin marathon|
|2:03:23||Wilson Kipsang||09/29/2013||Berlin||Berlin marathon|
|2:02:57||Dennis Kimetto||09/28/2014||Berlin||Berlin marathon|
( pace : 2:53 min / km)
Unofficial world records
|3:40:22||Violet Piercy||10/03/1926||London||This run is generally considered to be a woman's first official timekeeping in a marathon, but due to inconsistencies in historical facts, there are doubts about its credibility.|
|3:37:07||Merry Lepper||December 16, 1963||Culver City||Western Hemisphere Marathon , Lepper took part in secret because of the starting ban for women, but remained undetected. After ARRS route too short.|
|3:27:45||Dale Greig||05/23/1964||Ryde||Isle of Wight marathon, the first generally undisputed world record for a woman. Despite the starting ban for women, Greig was allowed to participate, but she had to start 5 minutes before the field and was constantly accompanied by paramedics.|
|3:19:33||Mildred Sampson||07/21/1964||Auckland||There are contradictions in the historical facts with regard to the date (also August 16, 1964) and event.|
|3: 15: 22.8||Maureen Wilton||05/06/1967||Toronto||Canadian Eastern Championships, officially approved participation of the only 13-year-old Wilton, who completed her first marathon here.|
|3: 07: 26.2||Anni Pede-Erdkamp||16.09.1967||Waldniel||The marathon organized by Ernst van Aaken was supposed to prove that the long-distance run is also suitable for women, despite the general starting ban for women. Pede-Erdkamp had to start 30 meters behind the field and took third place in the overall result.|
|3:02:53||Caroline Walker||02/28/1970||Seaside||Trail's End Marathon. For Walker, who was only 16 years old, it was the first and only marathon run, and she only found out about her world record days later.|
|3:01:42||Beth Bonner||05/09/1971||Philadelphia||AAU Eastern Regional Championships (regional championships of the American Amateur Sports Association), the championships were not advertised for women, but the only 18-year-old Bonn was allowed to participate unofficially.|
|2:55:22||Beth Bonner||09/19/1971||New York City||New York City Marathon . 20 days earlier, the Australian Adrienne Beames ran 2:46:30 in her home country, a time under 3 hours, which was not recognized by any association due to considerable doubts.|
|2:49:40||Cheryl Bridges||December 05, 1971||Culver City||Western Hemisphere Marathon , officially open to women in its second year.|
|2:46:37||Miki Gorman||12/02/1973||Culver City||Western Hemisphere Marathon , Gorman ran her first official marathon at the age of 38.|
|2:46:24||Chantal Langlacé||October 27, 1974||Neuf-Brisach||Neuf-Brisach Marathon|
|2: 43: 54.5||Jacqueline Hansen||December 01, 1974||Culver City||Western Hemisphere Marathon|
|2:42:42||Liana Winter||04/21/1975||Boston||Boston Marathon point-to-point distance does not conform to IAAF rule 260.28.b.|
|2: 40: 15.8||Christa Vahlensieck||05/03/1975||Dülmen||Dülmen Marathon , Vahlensieck was 35 minutes ahead of the next runner.|
|2:38:19||Jacqueline Hansen||10/12/1975||Eugene||Oregon Track Club Marathon|
|2: 35: 15.4||Chantal Langlacé||05/01/1977||Oiartzun||open Spanish marathon championships|
|2: 34: 47.5||Christa Vahlensieck||09/10/1977||Berlin||German marathon championships, held parallel to the Berlin marathon .|
|2:32:30||Grete Waitz||10/22/1978||New York City||1978 New York City Marathon , distance according to ARRS 42.044 km.|
|2:27:33||Grete Waitz||10/21/1979||New York City||New York City Marathon 1979 , according to ARRS distance 42.044 km.|
|2:31:23||Joan Benoit||02/03/1980||Auckland||Choysa International Marathon, time is held as the event record for the Auckland Marathon to the present day .|
|2:30:58||Patti Catalano||09/06/1980||Montreal||Run the elite the day before the official Montreal Marathon .|
|2:25:42||Grete Waitz||10/26/1980||New York City||New York City Marathon , according to ARRS, route length 42.044 km.|
|2:30:27||Joyce Smith||11/16/1980||Tokyo||Tokyo International Women's Marathon|
|2:29:57||Joyce Smith||03/29/1981||London||London Marathon 1981|
|2:29:02||Charlotte Teske||01/16/1982||Miami||Miami Orange Bowl Marathon|
|2:26:12||Joan Benoit||09/12/1982||Eugene||Oregon Track Club Marathon|
|2:25:28||Grete Waitz||04/17/1983||London||1983 London Marathon|
|2:22:43||Joan Benoit||04/18/1983||Boston||Boston Marathon point-to-point distance does not conform to IAAF rule 260.28.b.|
|2:24:26||Ingrid Kristiansen||05/13/1984||London||1984 London Marathon|
|2:21:06||Ingrid Kristiansen||April 21, 1985||London||1985 London Marathon|
|2:20:47||Tegla Loroupe||04/19/1998||Rotterdam||Rotterdam marathon|
|2:20:43||Tegla Loroupe||09/26/1999||Berlin||Berlin Marathon 1999|
|2:19:46||Naoko Takahashi||09/30/2001||Berlin||Berlin Marathon 2001|
|2:18:47||Catherine Ndereba||07/10/2001||Chicago||Chicago Marathon 2001|
Official world records
|2:17:18||Paula Radcliffe||10/13/2002||Chicago||Chicago Marathon 2002 , first officially recognized world record|
|2:15:25||Paula Radcliffe||04/13/2003||London||London marathon|
|2:14:04||Brigid Kosgei||October 13, 2019||Chicago||Chicago Marathon 2019|
World best list
All runners with best times of 2:04:53 h and faster. Last change: 21 . March 2020
- 2:01:39 h Eliud Kipchoge , Berlin , September 16, 2018
- 2:01:41 h Kenenisa Bekele , Berlin , September 29, 2019
- 2:02:48 h Birhanu Legese , Berlin , September 29, 2019
- 2:02:55 h Mosinet Geremew , London , April 28, 2019
- 2:02:57 h Dennis Kipruto Kimetto , Berlin , September 28, 2014
- 2:03:13 h Emmanuel Kipchirchir Mutai , Berlin , September 28, 2014
- 2:03:13 h Wilson Kipsang , Berlin , September 25, 2016
- 2:03:16 h Mule Wasihun , London , April 28, 2019
- 2:03:34 h Done Molla , Dubai , January 25, 2019
- 2:03:36 h Sisay Lemma , Berlin , September 29, 2019
- 2:03:38 h Patrick Makau Musyoki , Berlin , September 25, 2011
- 2:03:40 h Herpasa Negasa , Dubai , January 25, 2019
- 2:03:46 h Guye Adola Idemo , Berlin , September 24, 2017
- 2:03:51 am Stanley Kipleting Biwott , London , April 24, 2016
- 2:03:51 h Kinde Atanaw , Valencia , December 1st, 2019
- 2:03:59 h Haile Gebrselassie , Berlin , September 28, 2008
- 2:04:02 h Leule Gebrselassie , Dubai , January 26, 2018
- 2:04:06 h Tamirat Tola , Dubai , January 26, 2018
- 2:04:06 h Asefa Mengstu , Dubai , January 26, 2018
- 2:04:06 h Lawrence Cherono , Amsterdam , October 21, 2018
- 2:04:11 h Marius Kipserem , Rotterdam , April 7, 2019
- 2:04:15 h Geoffrey Kiprono Mutai , Berlin , September 30, 2012
- 2:04:16 h Kaan Kigen Özbilen , Valencia , December 1, 2019
- 2:04:23 h Ayele Abshero , Dubai , January 27, 2012
- 2:04:24 h Tesfaye Abera , Dubai , January 22, 2016
- 2:04:27 h Duncan Kibet Kirong , Rotterdam , April 5, 2009
- 2:04:27 h James Kipsang Kwambai , Rotterdam , April 5, 2009
- 2:04:28 h Sammy Kirop Kitwara , Chicago , October 12, 2014
- 2:04:32 h Tsegaye Mekonnen , Dubai , January 24, 2014
- 2:04:32 h Dickson Kiptolo Chumba , Chicago , October 12, 2014
- 2:04:33 h Lemi Berhanu , Dubai , January 22, 2016
- 2:04:38 h Tsegay Kebede , Chicago , October 7, 2012
- 2:04:40 h Solomon Deksisa , Amsterdam , October 21, 2018
- 2:04:40 h Reuben Kiprop Kipyego , Abu Dhabi , December 6, 2019
- 2:04:43 h El Hassan el-Abbassi , Valencia , December 2, 2018
- 2:04:44 h Seifu Tura , Dubai , January 26, 2018
- 2:04:45 h Lelisa Desisa , Dubai , January 25, 2013
- 2:04:46 h Titus Ekiru , Milan , April 7, 2019
- 2:04:48 h Yemane Tsegay , Rotterdam , April 15, 2012
- 2:04:48 h Berhanu Shiferaw Tolcha , Dubai , January 25, 2013
- 2:04:49 h Tadese Tola , Dubai , January 25, 2013
- 2:04:49 h Tola Shura Kitata , London , April 22nd 2018
- 2:04:49 h Bashir Abdi , Tokyo , March 1st, 2020
- 2:04:50 h Dino Sefir , Dubai , January 27, 2012
- 2:04:50 h Getu Feleke , Rotterdam , April 15, 2012
- 2:04:51 h Abebe Negewo Degefa , Valencia , December 1st, 2019
- 2:04:52 h Feyisa Lilesa , Chicago , October 7, 2012
- 2:04:52 h Endeshaw Negesse Shumi , Dubai , January 25, 2013
- 2:04:53 h Bernard Kiprop Koech , Dubai , January 25, 2013
- 2:04:53 h Mathew Kipkoech Kisorio , Valencia , December 2nd, 2018
- German record: Arne Gabius - 2:08:33 h on October 25, 2015 in Frankfurt am Main
- Austrian record: Lemawork Ketema - 2:10:44 h on April 7, 2019 in Vienna
- Swiss record: Tadesse Abraham - 2:06:40 h on March 20, 2016 in Seoul
Fastest times on a track that did not conform to the record
According to the IAAF record recognition rules , a marathon may have a maximum gradient of 42 meters. Furthermore, the start and finish must not be more than 21.1 km apart. The running course of the Boston Marathon has a gradient of 136.29 meters and is therefore not suitable for record recognition by the IAAF .
- 2:03:02 h Geoffrey Kiprono Mutai , Boston , April 18, 2011
- 2:03:06 h Moses Cheruiyot Mosop , Boston , April 18, 2011
- 2:04:53 h Gebregziabher Gebremariam , Boston , April 18, 2011
- 2:04:58 am Ryan Hall , Boston , April 18, 2011
On May 6, 2017, Eliud Kipchoge (Kenya), Zersenay Tadese (Eritrea) and Lelisa Desisa (Ethiopia) tried to beat the 2-hour mark in the marathon for the first time at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza in Italy. The project sponsored by Nike was unsuccessful. Kipchoge reached the goal in 2:00:25 h. The IAAF did not recognize the time achieved as an official world record, as essential points of the regulations were not observed: 18 pacemakers in 6 groups were repeatedly exchanged. According to regulations, the pacemaker must run from the start, and lapped pacemakers must run alone. Food from vehicles is also not allowed, so that a best time is recognized as a world record.
INEOS 1:59 Challenge in Vienna
In a second attempt with Eliud Kipchoge , sponsored by INEOS , on October 12, 2019 in Vienna , the marathon distance was run in 1:59:41. Due to various reasons, some of which have already been mentioned above (changing pacemakers, non-public event), the time is again not recognized as a marathon world record. The start was on the Reichsbrücke, which created a gradient of 24 meters. In the straight Praterhauptallee 4.4 laps were run with a total of only 12 m gradient; a pure downhill stretch with an average gradient of 1 m per kilometer would have been allowed for an official record. Using a computer simulation, sports scientists calculated 0.11% additional energy expenditure or approx. 4.5 seconds extra running time - balancing the effort required for cornering when changing direction against profit by running downhill - compared to a completely straight and level route. A temperature of 7-14 ° C with less than 80% humidity was aimed for .
The organizer partly re-paved the running track, the turning curves at the ends of the straights were inclined inwards like on a cycling track , and again a team of pacemakers ensured an ideal pace. A car also drove ahead, showing the time and projecting lines onto the ground as an aid. Eliud Kipchoge was accompanied by 35 pacemakers - groups of seven each that were changed five times.
All runners with best times of 2:20:53 hours and faster. Last change: 21 . March 2020
- 2:14:04 h Brigid Kosgei , Chicago , October 13, 2019
- 2:15:25 h Paula Radcliffe , London , April 13, 2003
- 2:17:01 am Mary Keitany , London , April 23, 2017
- 2:17:08 h Ruth Chepngetich , Dubai , January 25, 2019
- 2:17:41 h Worknesh Degefa , Dubai , January 25, 2019
- 2:17:45 h Lonah Chemtai Salpeter , Tokyo , March 1, 2020
- 2:17:56 p.m. Tirunesh Dibaba , London , April 23, 2017
- 2:18:11 h Gladys Cherono , Berlin , September 16, 2018
- 2:18:30 h Roza Dereje , Valencia , December 1, 2019
- 2:18:31 h Vivian Cheruiyot , London , April 22, 2018
- 2:18:33 h Azmera Abreha , Valencia , December 1st, 2019
- 2:18:34 h Ruti Aga , Berlin , September 16, 2018
- 2:18:35 h Birhane Dibaba , Tokyo , March 1st, 2020
- 2:18:47 h Catherine Ndereba , Chicago , October 7, 2001
- 2:18:58 h Tiki Gelana , Rotterdam , April 15, 2012
- 2:19:12 h Mizuki Noguchi , Berlin , September 25, 2005
- 2:19:19 h Irina Mikitenko , Berlin , September 28, 2008 ( German record )
- 2:19:28 h Zeineba Yimer , Valencia , December 1, 2019
- 2:19:30 h Feyse Tadese , Dubai , January 26th 2018
- 2:19:31 h Aselefech Mergia , Dubai , January 27, 2012
- 2:19:34 h Lucy Wangui , Dubai , January 27, 2012
- 2:19:36 h Deena Kastor , London , April 23, 2006
- 2:19:36 h Yebrgual Melese , Dubai , January 26, 2018
- 2:19:39 h Sun Yingjie , Beijing , October 19, 2003
- 2:19:41 h Yōko Shibui , Berlin , September 26, 2004
- 2:19:41 h Tirfi Tsegaye , Dubai , January 22, 2016
- 2:19:44 h Florence Jebet Kiplagat , Berlin , September 25, 2011
- 2:19:46 h Naoko Takahashi , Berlin , September 30, 2001
- 2:19:47 h Sarah Chepchirchir , Tokyo , February 26, 2017
- 2:19:50 pm Edna Kiplagat , London , April 22, 2012
- 2:19:51 p.m. Zhou Chunxiu , Seoul , March 12, 2006
- 2:19:52 p.m. Mare Dibaba , Dubai , January 27, 2012
- 2:19:57 pm Rita Jeptoo , Chicago , October 19, 2013
- 2:20:13 pm Haftamnesh Tesfaye , Dubai , January 26, 2018
- 2:20:14 pm Priscah Jeptoo , London , April 22, 2012
- 2:20:14 h Ashete Bekere , Berlin , September 29, 2019
- 2:20:24 h Worknesh Edesa , Valencia , December 1st, 2019
- 2:20:30 h Bezunesh Bekele , Dubai , January 27, 2012
- 2:20:30 p.m. Aberu Kebede , Berlin , September 30, 2012
- 2:20:30 pm Sutume Asefa Kebede , Tokyo , March 1st, 2020
- 2:20:39 h Purity Cherotich Rionoripo , Valencia , December 1st, 2019
- 2:20:42 h Berhane Adere , Chicago , October 22, 2006
- 2:20:43 h Tegla Loroupe , Berlin , September 26, 1999
- 2:20:45 h Gelete Burka , Dubai , January 26th 2018
- 2:20:46 h Meskerem Assefa , Frankfurt am Main , October 28, 2018
- 2:20:47 h Galina Bogomolowa , Chicago , October 22, 2006
- 2:20:48 h Jemima Jelagat Sumgong , Chicago , October 13, 2013
- 2:20:48 am Amane Beriso , Dubai , January 22, 2016
- 2:20:51 a.m. Ababel Yeshaneh , Chicago , October 13, 2019
- 2:20:53 h Valery Aiyabei , Berlin , September 24th 2017
- Austrian record: Andrea Mayr - 2:30:43 h on April 19, 2009 in Vienna
- Swiss record: Maja Neuenschwander - 2:26:49 h on September 27, 2015 in Berlin
Fastest times on a track that did not conform to the record
According to the IAAF record recognition rules , a marathon may have a maximum gradient of 42 meters. Furthermore, the start and finish must not be more than 21.1 km apart. The running course of the Boston Marathon has a gradient of 136.29 meters and is therefore not suitable for record recognition by the IAAF .
- 2:18:57 pm Rita Jeptoo , Boston , April 21, 2014
- 2:19:59 p.m. Bizunesh Deba , Boston , April 21, 2014
- 2:20:41 am Jemima Jelagat Sumgong , Boston , April 21, 2014
- 2:20:43 h Margaret Okayo , Boston , April 15, 2002
Marathon as part of combining sports
In the long-distance triathlon , 3.86 kilometers of swimming and 180 kilometers of cycling are followed by a marathon. A duathlon can also include runs over the marathon distance. A few ultramarathon runs have a running distance that is an integral multiple of the marathon distance.
Superlatives and important key data
- In several countries "100 Marathon Clubs" have been founded, which only accept runners who have completed at least 100 marathons as full members, such as the 100 MC UK & Ireland, Japan, Germany, Finland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Australia, the Netherlands, North America , Slovakia, (South) Korea, Bosnia and Austria (in chronological order of their establishment). Ireland has meanwhile founded its own 100MC, so it is no longer represented by the British 100MC. The youngest member worldwide is Markus Korölus (Freiburg / Elbe), who already met this entry criterion at the age of 20.
- At the end of 2019, 35 people were known to have run more than 1000 marathons in their lives. The statistics are led by Christian Hottas (Hamburg) with 2845 marathons and ultramarathons for men and by Sigrid Eichner (Berlin) with 2222 marathons and ultramarathons for women (as of December 31, 2019). Christian Hottas replaced Horst Preisler from Hamburg as world number one on August 3, 2011 and was the first person to run his 2000th marathon at the TUI Marathon Hanover on May 5, 2013, with more than 80 running friends from eleven nations accompanying him as "Escort 2000", including eight board members of the 100 marathon clubs UK, North America, Denmark, Germany, Austria (represented by Anton Reiter) and Italy. On December 4, 2016, he ran his 2500th marathon in Hanover in a marathon specially organized for this anniversary. On July 19, 2020, he finished his 2900th marathon in Borstel (Schleswig-Holstein). Horst Preisler, who had topped the world rankings since 1995, is now only ranked 6th in the world with 1806 marathons and ultras.
- In Austria (as of January 31, 2020) Gerhard Wally is at the top with 673 marathons, followed by Anton Reiter (412) and Ernst Fink (258). Reiter is also the annual Austrian marathon collector with 54 marathons and an ultra marathon from 2013.
- For the "2500. Birthday “of the marathon, an anniversary run took place on October 31, 2010 on the classic route Marathon – Athens.
- On November 4, 2016, a marathon with international participation took place in Bamiyan up to 3000 meters above sea level at the turning point, in which female athletes - around 100 out of 250 participants - were represented for the first time in Afghanistan.
- The then highest mountain marathon in Europe took place on July 25th, 2015 as a new variant S42 - Davos-Dischma-Sertig-Davos circuit at the 30th Swissalpine Marathon Davos .
- Elevation gain: see mountain marathon
Numerous feature films feature main characters who are marathon runners, including:
- The marathon man , USA 1976, with Dustin Hoffman
- Running , Canada 1979, with Michael Douglas
- Steve Prefontaine - The long-distance runner , USA 1997, with Jared Leto
- Boundless , USA 1998, with Billy Crudup
- Saint Ralph Miracles Are Possible , Canada 2004, with Adam Butcher
- Run, Fatboy, Run , UK 2007, with Simon Pegg
- His last race , D 2013, with Dieter Hallervorden
- I Want to Run - The toughest race in the world , Germany 2012, by Achim Michael Hasenberg, documentary film, 92 minutes
- List of German champions in the marathon
- Eternal German leaderboard in the men's marathon
- Eternal German leaderboard in the women's marathon
- List of marathons
- half marathon
- Heiner Boberski: The Marathon Myth. Fates - Legends - Highlights. 2500 years of long-distance running. NP-Buchverlag, St. Pölten 2004, ISBN 3-85326-235-X .
- Waldemar Cierpinski , Volker Kluge : Miles and miles to a marathon. Sportverlag, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-328-00182-4 .
- Dennis Craythorn, Hanna Rich: The marathon travel guide . TibiaPress, Mülheim an der Ruhr 2000, ISBN 3-935254-00-8 .
- Hans W. Giessen: The Marathon Myth. From Herodotus to Bréal to the present. (= Landau writings on communication and cultural studies. Volume 17). Verlag Empirische Pädagogik, Landau 2010, ISBN 978-3-941320-46-8 .
- Lothar Koopmann: Mission Marathon. Or: How I didn't become a super runner. 2nd Edition. Sportwelt Verlag , Betzenstein 2010, ISBN 978-3-941297-04-3 .
- Harald Krämer, Klaus Zobel, Werner Irro: Marathon. A running book in 42,195 chapters. Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-89533-464-2 .
- Karl Lennartz : marathon run. Volume 8 of the series 100 years of athletics in Germany. Published by the German Society for Sports Documentation
- David E. Martin, Roger WH Gynn: The Olympic Marathon. The History and Drama of Sport's Most Challenging Event. Human Kinetics, 2000, ISBN 0-88011-969-1 .
- Ralf Meier: The first marathon. Easy to the finish. Meyer and Meyer, Aachen 2005, ISBN 3-89899-088-5 .
- Mierke, Ken : Running training for triathletes and marathon runners. Sportwelt Verlag , Betzenstein 2007, ISBN 978-3-9811428-2-2 .
- Ole Petersen : Marathon, the 4-hour program . 12th edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2002, ISBN 3-499-19486-4 .
- Ulrich Pramann: The fascination of the marathon. A textbook for theory and practice. Heyne, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-453-05768-6 .
- Wilfried Raatz: Right a marathon. BLV, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-405-15714-5 .
- Wilfried Raatz: marathon. BLV, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-405-16474-5 .
- Herbert Steffny , Uli Pramann: Perfect marathon training. Südwestverlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-517-06443-2 .
- Herbert Steffny: The big running book. From entry to marathon. Südwestverlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-517-06728-8 .
- Manfred Steffny : marathon training. 15th edition. Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 2001, ISBN 3-87439-455-7 .
- Thorsten Vahl: marathon. Copress Sport, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7679-0643-0 .
- Marathon History , abstract by Hugh Jones , AIMS website (Association of International Marathons and Distance Races)
- Eternal world best list of the IAAF, marathon, men and Eternal world best list of the IAAF, marathon, women (Eng.)
- according to AIMS
- Frank Gottert: Marathon City Leipzig. The marathons in Leipzig 1897-2018 . Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2019, ISBN 978-3-96023-232-2 , pp. 16-19 .
- Frank Gottert: Marathon City Leipzig. The marathons in Leipzig 1897-2018 . Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2019, ISBN 978-3-96023-232-2 , pp. 20-23 .
- About the Abbott World Marathon Majors. (PDF; 78 KB) In: nyrr.org. 2017, accessed on July 7, 2018 .
- Rob Hodgetts: Eliud Kipchoge's record-breaking Nike shoes to be banned. In: CNN. January 31, 2020, accessed February 1, 2020 .
- Gina Kolata: Measuring Marathons, Right Down to Last Inch. In: New York Times. August 15, 2008, accessed October 13, 2019 .
- Analysis of the marathon scene in Germany in 2005 ( memento of August 24, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) on Laufreport.de.
- World's Largest Marathons. In: aims-worldrunning.org. AIMS, accessed on July 28, 2017 .
- Results list of the New York City Marathon 2019. In: results.nyrr.org. Retrieved December 18, 2019 (American English).
- Chicago Marathon Race Results 2019. Unofficial Race Results. 2019, Retrieved October 16, 2019 (American English).
- London Marathon Race Results 2019. Unofficial Race Results. 2019, Retrieved October 16, 2019 (American English).
- Finisher Magazin 2019. 2019, accessed on October 16, 2019 .
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- Results and Records from Past Races. 2019, accessed on October 16, 2019 .
- Arnd Krüger : Many roads lead to Olympia. The changes in the training systems for middle and long distance runners (1850-1997), in: N. Gissel (Hrsg.): Sportliche Leistungs im Wandel. Hamburg 1998: Czwalina, pp. 41-56.
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- It's Taper Time ( Memento from October 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
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- Jokl et al .: Master's performance in the New York City Marathon 1983–1999. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 38, 2004, PMID 15273172 , pp. 408-412 (full text available).
- Steinacker among others: Orthopedic problems with older marathon runners. In: Sports injury, sports damage. 15, 2001, PMID 11338658 , pp. 12-15.
- Maron et al: Risk for sudden cardiac death associated with marathon running. In: American College of Cardiology. 28, 1996, PMID 8800121 , pp. 428-431.
- Redelmeier, Greenwald: Competing risks of mortality with marathons: retrospective analysis. In: BMJ. 2007; 335, pp. 1275-1277, doi : 10.1136 / bmj.39384.551539.25 .
- Recommendations of the German Society for Sports Medicine and Prevention ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Almond et al.: Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon. In: The New England Journal of Medicine. 352, 2005, PMID 15829535 , pp. 1550-1556.
- Ambros-Rudolph et al .: Malignant melanoma in marathon runners. In: Archives of Dermatology. 142, 2006, PMID 17116838 , pp. 1471-1474.
- Mailler, Adams: The wear and tear of 26.2: dermatological injuries reported on marathon day. In: British journal of Sports Medicine. 38, 2004, PMID 15273194 , pp. 498-501 (full text available).
- Fortescue include: Cardiac troponin Increases among runners in the Boston Marathon. In: Annals of Emergency Medicine . 49, 2007, PMID 17145114 , pp. 137-143.
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- see e.g. B. at the Boston Marathon # list of winners (wheelchair users) and Berlin Marathon # wheelchair marathon
- The athlete's son Kee-chung , who comes from the Japanese-occupied Korea, had to start under his Japanese name Son Kitei .
- The athlete Nan Sung Yong from the Japanese-occupied Korea had to start under his Japanese name Nan Shōryū .
- Nike Introduces Breaking2 news.nike.com, December 12, 2016, accessed October 10, 2019.
- Kipchoge just missed the “sound barrier”: 42.195 km in 2:00:25 hours orf.at, May 6, 2017, accessed May 6, 2017.
- INEOS 1:59 Challenge: Why was Vienna chosen for the INEOS 1:59 Challenge? youtube.com, October 7, 2019, accessed October 10, 2019. - Video (2:24)
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- Comparison with the IAAF best list on October 15, 2019.
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