The best long jumpers reach almost nine meters for men (world record: 8.95 m) and over seven meters for women (world record: 7.52 m).
Long jump is held as an individual discipline as well as an all-around discipline ( heptathlon , decathlon ). As a modification there is the triple jump . The long jump has been an Olympic discipline for men since 1896 and for women since 1948 . From 1900 to 1912 , the Olympic Games also held a long jump competition without a run-up.
Long jump was already practiced in ancient times. For the Greeks it was part of the Pentathlon . The first jump was made from a kind of threshold ( bater ) that marked the beginning of the skamma , a 50-foot (approx. 15 meter) long area in which the soil was loosened to better see the prints. News of victories beyond the end of Skamma suggest a multiple jump . Because the number five plays a special role in the Pentathlon ( every participant also had five attempts in the javelin and discus throw ), it is most likely a sequence of five jumps from a standing position. The use of jumping weights ( holders ) made of stone speaks in favor of standing jumping or metal, which only bring an advantage when jumping from a standing position by increasing the momentum, as well as the message that the long jump was accompanied by music on an aulos , a kind of flute or shawm , which possibly dictated the jump rhythm.
The Asians jumped with heels, i.e. by bringing the lower leg to the buttocks, keeping the knees closed and the thighs of the stiff legs being perpendicular to the ground. The take-off board was introduced for the first time in 1886. Since the first modern Summer Olympics in Athens in 1896 , long jump has been part of the Olympic competitions for men and, since London in 1948 , for women too.
At the beginning of the 1970s, the technique of the somersault leap appeared, but was banned in 1974 without official justification.
- First registered width for professional athletes: 5.41 m Adam Wilson ( GBR ), September 26, 1827 in Innerleithen
- First registered width for amateur athletes: 5.94 m, Edward Bourke ( GBR ), March 17, 1857 in Cambridge
- First official world record: 7.61 m, Peter O'Connor ( United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ), August 5, 1901
- First 8-meter jump: 8.13 m, Jesse Owens ( USA ), May 25, 1935
- First jump over 8.50 meters: 8.90 m, Bob Beamon ( USA ), October 18, 1968 (improvement on the old world record, 8.35 m, 55 centimeters)
- First registered width: 3.48 m, Emma Baker ( USA ), November 9, 1895 in Poughkeepsie .
- First official world record: 5.16 m, Marie Mejzlíková ( TCH ), August 6, 1922.
- First jump over 5.50 meters: 5.50 m, Kinue Hitomi ( JPN ), August 28, 1926.
- First jump over 6 meters: 6.12 m, Christel Schulz ( GER ), July 30, 1939 in Munich .
- First jump over 6.50 meters: 6.53 m, Tatjana Schchelkanowa ( URS ), June 10, 1962.
- First jump over 7 meters: 7.07 m, Vilma Bardauskienė ( URS ), August 18, 1979.
- First jump over 7.5 m: 7.52 m, Galina Tschistjakowa ( URS ), June 11, 1988.
Most successful athlete
- Mike Powell ( USA ): world record holder (8.95 m), world champion 1991 and 1993 , Olympic runner-up in 1988 and 1992
- Bob Beamon ( USA ): Olympic record holder (8.90 m) since 1968 ; World record holder from 1968 to 1991
- Carl Lewis ( USA ): Four Olympic victories in a row ( 1984 , 1988 , 1992 , 1996 ), world champion 1983 and 1987 and second world championship in 1991
- Iván Pedroso ( CUB ): Olympic champion 2000 and four world championship titles in a row ( 1995 , 1997 , 1999 , 2001 )
- Ralph Boston ( USA ): Olympic champion 1960 , Olympic second in 1964 , Olympic knight in 1968 , world record holder from 1960 to 1962 and 1964 to 1968; a total of six times improvement of the world record (most recently 8.35 m)
- Igor Ter-Owanesjan ( USSR ), world record holder in 1962 (8.31 m), 1967 (8.35 m, repetition), European champion 1958 , 1962 , 1969 , Olympic knight 1960 , 1964
- Jesse Owens ( USA ), world record holder from 1935 to 1960, Olympic champion in 1936
- Meyer Prinstein ( USA ): Olympic champion 1904 , winner of the Olympic intermediate games 1906 and Olympic knight 1900
- Most successful German: Lutz Dombrowski , Olympic champion 1980 ( starting for the GDR )
- Heike Drechsler ( GER ), Olympic champion: in 1992 and 2000 , world champion in 1983 and 1993 , Olympic silver medalist in 1988 , World Championship Second in 1991 , third World Cup 1987 bis 1990 for the GDR starting
- Jackie Joyner-Kersee ( USA ): Olympic champion 1988 , Olympic third in 1992 and 1996 ; World champion in 1987 and 1991
- Fiona May ( ITA ): World Champion 1995 and 2001 , World Championship runner-up in 1999 , World Championship runner-up in 1997
- Galina Tschistjakowa ( Slovakia ): holder of the women's world record with 7.52 m since June 11, 1988 and the only woman who ever jumped 7.50 m.
A long jump requires basic motor skills that can be improved through targeted training. Above all, speed, jumping power, agility and agility are basic requirements. The sprint speed is of particular importance for a large total jump distance.
Phases of the long jump
The length of a run should be 40–50 meters for men and 30–40 meters for women. The run-up is an increase run and is usually started from the high start (can also be started from the low start). During the approach, the frequency and length of the steps up to the jump preparation increase. The trunk should gradually straighten up. During the last three to five steps, the jumper prepares to convert the run-up (horizontal component) to the jump (vertical component). Here it is important to ensure that the speed is not reduced, since the jump distance depends two thirds on the run-up and only one third on the jumping power .
During the last three to five steps, the jumper prepares to translate the run-up into the jump. This transition phase serves on the one hand to further straighten the trunk until the upper body is barely noticeable and on the other to change the starting rhythm during the last three steps. This is intended to achieve an optimal lowering of the body's center of gravity. The penultimate step should be 20 to 30 centimeters longer than the previous and the last step. This lowers the body's center of gravity a little and thus increases the vertical impulse due to a longer acceleration path.
Since the path of the body's center of gravity can no longer be influenced after jumping, placing the ankle bone is of particular importance. In order to achieve an optimal effect on the jump distance, the ankle bone is placed almost stretched over a flat, grasping foot with a quick, gripping movement backwards and downwards, whereby the entire sole should be included.
The transition from start to jump is called the amortization phase. The jumper should be prepared as well as possible for an effective push forward and upward. The ankle bone is minimally flexed (up to 145 degrees) due to the slight yielding in the foot, hip, but especially in the knee joint. While the swing leg overtakes the talus, the foot should be slowly rolled forward over the entire sole. Care should be taken to keep the upper body upright and the head straight ahead. When putting down the ankle, a braking impact cannot be avoided. However, it should not be kept unnecessarily long by, for example, a prying movement. The leverage of the ankle bone accelerates and shifts the body's center of gravity.
In this phase it is important to achieve optimal extension of the body. In particular, the extension of the hip, knee and ankle should almost lead to a right angle with the upright upper body, using the swing arm to eye level. The last moment of the take-off foot on the ground, i.e. immediately before the flight phase, is called "take-off".
Since the trajectory of the body's center of gravity can no longer be changed in the flight phase, it is only possible to use various movements and techniques to maintain an optimal balance during the flight and to prepare for an optimal landing. The most common, because most effective, flying technique in top-class sport is the running jump technique. Here, the swing leg is moved back and down after the jump, at the same time the hip is brought forward, the ankle bone is now first bent and then stretched forwards to a horizontal position. The swing leg is then pulled forward to the height of the take-off leg. The use of circling arms is important with this technique, as these are responsible for maintaining body balance.
The running jump technique is not so widespread in the amateur field, because it is only worthwhile from a distance of about seven meters and is very complicated for amateur athletes. The more common technique is the slope jump technique: When jumping, the arms are spread out sideways to about the level of the ears. The hip is brought forward slightly. The lower legs form an angle of approx. 90 ° to the drooping thighs. The arms are only swung forward shortly before landing. With a kick you bring the lower legs and the entire leg forward at the same time with the arms.
Your feet should be in a horizontal position and your torso should be bent to your thighs. After the foot touches the ground, it is necessary to quickly slide the hip over the footrest. If the athlete falls backwards or on his buttocks, he loses the measured distance, as the imprint closest to the vaulting bar is used for the distance measurement.
In the long jump as an individual discipline, each athlete is only allowed three attempts. Then the eight best starters are allowed to complete three more attempts. If only a maximum of eight athletes are at the start, all have six attempts. In the long jump as part of the heptathlon and decathlon , all athletes are only allowed to jump three times.
A runway of at least 40 meters in length and 1.22 meters wide is required for the approach. The athlete must jump from a beam that is embedded in the ground. He may not touch the so-called jump line - this is the name of the edge of the bar that is closer to the jump pit. An insert board with plasticine is placed in the take-off board directly at the take-off line. If the athlete steps over, an imprint can usually be seen in the plasticine mass. The distance between the jump line and the pit filled with moist sand must be between one and three meters - it must be at least ten meters to the end of the pit. The jump pit must be between 2.75 and 3 meters wide.
The following facts are assessed as a failed attempt (the decision on this is made by the chairman long jump):
- the ground behind the jump line up to the jump pit is touched
- the athlete runs through without jumping off
- he loses the direction on approach and jumps off next to the take-off bar
- he performs some sort of somersault during the run-up or jump
- the ground outside the pit is touched first when landing or leaving the pit at a point closer to the take-off line than the impression in the pit
- the test time of half a minute (30 s) is exceeded
Determination of performance and ranking
The distance is measured from the jump line to the imprint which is closest to this line and which was caused by the competitor. It is always rounded down to whole centimeters. The winner is the athlete who achieved the greatest distance in one of his attempts. If there is a tie between two or more athletes, the second best distance will be taken into account - if necessary the third best distance and so on.
In the event of a tie in first place, the athletes will continue to try until a winner has been determined.
Special provision for children
In the area of the DLV, children under the age of 14 do not jump from the bar, but from an 80 cm long jump zone marked with two white lines. Within this zone, the distance is measured from the point of take-off. This means increased attention from the referee, who has to precisely determine the jump point. If a child jumps in front of the zone, measurements are taken from the beginning of the zone; a jump behind the zone is considered invalid.
Olympic Games medalist
World Championships medalist
- Olympic medalist
- Medalist at world championships
- Olympic medalists
- Medal winners at world championships
World record development (open air)
|7.61||Peter O'Connor||August 5, 1901||Dublin|
|7.69||Edward Gourdin||July 23, 1921||Cambridge|
|7.76||Robert LeGendre||July 7, 1924||Paris|
|7.89||DeHart Hubbard||June 13, 1925||Chicago|
|7.90||Ed Hamm||July 7, 1928||Cambridge|
|7.93||Sylvio Cator||September 9, 1928||Paris|
|7.98||Nambu Chuhei||October 27, 1931||Tokyo|
|8.13||Jesse Owens||May 25, 1935||Ann Arbor|
|8.21||Ralph Boston||August 12, 1960||Walnut|
|8.24||Ralph Boston||May 27, 1961||Modesto|
|8.28||Ralph Boston||July 16, 1961||Moscow|
|8.31||Igor Ter-Ovanesjan||June 10, 1962||Yerevan|
|8.31||Ralph Boston||15th August 1964||Kingston|
|8.34||Ralph Boston||September 12, 1964||los Angeles|
|8.35||Ralph Boston||May 29, 1965||Modesto|
|8.35||Igor Ter-Ovanesjan||October 19, 1967||Mexico city|
|8.90||Bob Beamon||October 18, 1968||Mexico city|
|8.95||Mike Powell||August 30, 1991||Tokyo|
|5.16 *||Marie Mejzlíková||August 6, 1922||Prague|
|5.30 *||Marie Mejzlíková||September 23, 1923||Prague|
|5.485 *||Muriel Gunn||August 2, 1926||London|
|5.50 *||Hitomi Kinue||August 28, 1926||Gothenburg|
|5.575 *||Muriel Gunn||August 1, 1927||London|
|5.98||Hitomi Kinue||May 20, 1928||Osaka|
|6.12||Christel Schulz||July 30, 1939||Berlin|
|6.25||Fanny Blankers-Koen||September 19, 1943||Suffer|
|6.28||Yvette Williams||February 20, 1954||Gisborne|
|6.28||Galina Vinogradova||September 11, 1955||Moscow|
|6.31||Galina Vinogradova||November 18, 1955||Tbilisi|
|6.35||Elżbieta Krzesińska||20th August 1956||Budapest|
|6.35||Elżbieta Krzesińska||November 27, 1956||Melbourne|
|6.40||Hildrun Claus||August 7, 1960||Erfurt|
|6.42||Hildrun Claus||June 23, 1961||Berlin|
|6.48||Tatiana Shchelkanova||July 16, 1961||Moscow|
|6.53||Tatiana Shchelkanova||June 10, 1962||Leipzig|
|6.70||Tatiana Shchelkanova||4th July 1964||Moscow|
|6.76||Mary Rand||October 14, 1964||Tokyo|
|6.82||Viorica Viscopoleanu||October 14, 1968||Mexico city|
|6.84||Heide Rosendahl||3rd September 1970||Turin|
|6.92||Angela Voigt||May 9, 1976||Dresden|
|6.99||Sigrun Siegl||May 19, 1976||Dresden|
|7.07||Vilma Bardauskienė||August 18, 1978||Chișinău|
|7.09||Vilma Bardauskienė||August 29, 1978||Prague|
|7.15||Anișoara Cușmir||August 1, 1982||Bucharest|
|7.20||Vali Ionescu||August 1, 1982||Bucharest|
|7.21||Anișoara Cușmir||May 15, 1983||Bucharest|
|7.27||Anișoara Cușmir||June 4th 1983||Bucharest|
|7.43||Anișoara Cușmir||June 4th 1983||Bucharest|
|7.44||Heike Drechsler||September 22, 1985||Berlin|
|7.45||Heike Drechsler||June 21, 1986||Tallinn|
|7.45||Heike Drechsler||3rd July 1986||Dresden|
|7.45||Jackie Joyner-Kersee||August 13, 1987||Indianapolis|
|7.45||Galina Chistjakova||June 11, 1988||Leningrad|
|7.52||Galina Chistjakova||June 11, 1988||Leningrad|
World best list
All jumpers with a performance of 8.43 meters or more. In brackets: wind in m / s. A: Distance was achieved under altitude conditions. Last change: September 28, 2019
- 8.95 m (0.3) Mike Powell , Tokyo , August 30, 1991
- 8.90 m A (2.0) Bob Beamon , Mexico City , October 18, 1968
- 8.87 m (−0.2) Carl Lewis , Tokyo , August 30, 1991
- 8.86 m A (1.9) Robert Emmijan , Zechkadzor , Armenia, May 22, 1987
- 8.74 m (1.4 m) Larry Myricks , Indianapolis , July 18, 1988
- 8.74m A (2.0) Erick Walder , El Paso , April 2, 1994
- 8.74 m (−1.2) Dwight Phillips , Eugene , June 7, 2009
- 8.73 m (1.2 m) Irving Saladino , Hengelo , May 24, 2008
- 8.71 m (1.9) Iván Pedroso , Salamanca , July 18, 1995
- 8.69 m (0.5 m) Tajay Gayle , Doha , September 28, 2019
- 8.68 m (1.7) Juan Miguel Echevarría , Bad Langensalza , June 30, 2018
- 8.66 m (1.6) Louis Tsatoumas , Kalamata , June 2, 2007
- 8.65 m (1.3) Luvo Manyonga , Potchefstroom , April 22, 2017
- 8.63 m (0.5) Kareem Streete-Thompson , Linz , July 4, 1994
- 8.62 m (0.7) James Beckford , Orlando , April 5, 1997
- 8.58 m (1.8 m) Jarrion Lawson , Eugene , July 3, 2016
- 8.56 m (1.3) Yago Lamela , Turin , June 24, 1999
- 8.56 m (0.2) Alexander Menkow , Moscow , August 16, 2013
- 8.54 m (0.9) Lutz Dombrowski , Moscow , July 28, 1980 ( German record )
- 8.54 m (1.7) Mitchell Watt , Stockholm , July 29, 2011
- 8.53 m (1.2 m) Jaime Jefferson , Havana , May 12, 1990
- 8.52 m (0.7) Savanté Stringfellow , Palo Alto , June 21, 2002
- 8.52 m (1.8) Jeff Henderson , Toronto , July 22, 2015
- 8.51 m (1.7) Roland McGhee , Sao Paulo , May 14, 1995
- 8.51 m (1.7) Greg Rutherford , Chula Vista , April 24, 2014
- 8.50 m (0.2) Llewellyn Starks , Rhede , July 7, 1991
- 8.50 m (1.3) Godfrey Khotso Mokoena , Madrid , 4th July 2009
- 8.49 m (2.0) Melvin Lister , Baton Rouge , May 13, 2000
- 8.49 m (0.6) Jai Taurima , Sydney , September 28, 2000
- 8.49 m (1.6) Sebastian Bayer , Ulm , July 4, 2009
- 8.49 m (0.7) Christian Reif , Weinheim , May 31, 2013
- 8.49 m (−0.8) Ruswahl Samaai , Potchefstroom , April 22, 2017
- 8.48 m (0.8) Joe Greene , Sao Paulo , May 14, 1995
- 8.48 m (0.6) Mohamed Salman Al Khuwalidi , Sotteville-lès-Rouen July 2, 2006
- 8.47 m (1.9 m) Kevin Dilworth , Abilene , May 9, 1996
- 8.47 m (0.9) John Moffitt , Athens , August 26, 2004
- 8.47 m (−0.2) Andrew Howe , Osaka , August 30, 2007
- 8.47 m (0.0) Li Jinzhe , Bad Langensalza , June 28, 2014
- 8.47 m (0.7) Wang Jianan , Guiyang , June 16, 2018
- 8.46 m (1.2) Leonid Voloshin , Tallinn , July 5, 1988
- 8.46 m (1.6) Mike Conley Sr. , Springfield , May 4, 1996
- 8.46 m (1.8) Cheikh Tidiane Touré , Bad Langensalza , June 15, 1997
- 8.46m A (0.0) Miguel Pate , Mexico City , May 3, 2003
- 8.46 m (0.3) Ibrahim Camejo , Bilbao , June 21, 2008
- 8.46 m (1.3) Luis Rivera , Kazan , July 12, 2013
- 8.45 m (2.0) Nenad Stekic , Montreal , July 25, 1975
- 8.45 m (0.8) Marquise Goodwin , Baie-Mahault , May 14, 2016
- 8.44 m (1.7) Eric Metcalf , Tampa , June 17, 1988
- 8.44 m (1.8) Michel Tornéus , Monachil , July 10, 2016
- 8.43 m (0.8) Jason Grimes , Indianapolis , June 16, 1985
- 8.43 m (1.8) Giovanni Evangelisti , San Giovanni Valdarno , Italy, May 16, 1987
- 8.43 m (0.1) Luis Felipe Méliz , Jena , June 3, 2000
- 8.43 m (−0.2) Ignisious Gaisah , Rome , July 14, 2006
- 8.43 m (0.7) Shi Yuhao , Shanghai , May 12, 2018
- Austrian record: 8.30 m Andreas Steiner , Innsbruck , June 4th, 1988
- Swiss record: 8.27 m Julien Fivaz , Ebensee , August 2, 2003
All jumpers with a performance of 7.05 meters or more. In brackets: wind in m / s. A: Jump in altitude conditions.
Last change: October 6, 2019
- 7.52 m (1.4) Galina Tschistjakowa , Leningrad , June 11, 1988
- 7.49 m (1.3) Jackie Joyner-Kersee , New York City , May 22, 1994
- 7.48 m (1.2) Heike Drechsler , Neubrandenburg , July 9, 1988 ( German record )
- 7.43 m (1.4) Anișoara Stanciu , Bucharest , June 4, 1983
- 7.42 m (2.0) Tatjana Kotowa , Annecy , June 23, 2002
- 7.39 m (0.5) Jelena Belewskaja , Bryansk , July 18, 1987
- 7.37 m Inessa Krawez , Kiev , June 13, 1992
- 7.33 m (0.4) Tatjana Lebedewa , Tula , July 31, 2004
- 7.31 m (1.5) Olena Chlopotnowa , Alma-Ata , September 12, 1985
- 7.31 m (1.9 m) Marion Jones , Eugene , May 31, 1998
- 7.31 m (1.7) Brittney Reese , Eugene , July 2, 2016
- 7.30 m (−0.8) Malaika Mihambo , Doha , October 6, 2019
- 7.27 m (−0.4) Irina Simagina , Tula , July 31, 2004
- 7.26 m A (1.8) Maurren Higa Maggi , Bogotá , June 26, 1999
- 7.24 m (1.0) Laryssa Bereschna , Granada , May 25, 1991
- 7.21 m (1.6) Helga Radtke , Dresden , July 26, 1984
- 7.21 m (1.9) Lyudmila Kolchanova , Sochi , May 27, 2007
- 7.20 m (−0.5) Vali Ionescu-Constantin , Bucharest , August 1, 1982
- 7.20 m (2.0) Irena Ozenko , Budapest , September 12, 1986
- 7.20 m (0.8) Jelena Sintschukowa , Budapest , June 20, 1991
- 7.20 m (0.7) Irina Muschailowa , Saint Petersburg , July 14, 1994
- 7.17 m (1.8) Irina Valyukevich , Bryansk , July 18, 1987
- 7.17 m (0.6) Tianna Bartoletta , Rio de Janeiro , August 17, 2016
- 7.16 m Iolanda Tschen , Moscow , July 30, 1988
- 7.16 m A (−0.1) Elva Goulbourne , Mexico City , May 22, 2004
- 7.16 m (1.6) Sosthene Moguenara , Weinheim , May 28, 2016
- 7.14 m (1.8 m) Nijolė Medvedeva , Riga , June 4, 1988
- 7.14 m (1.2) Mirela Dulgheru-Renda , Sofia , July 5, 1992
- 7.13 m (2.0) Olga Kutscherenko , Sochi , May 27, 2010
- 7.12 m (1.6) Sabine John , Dresden , May 19, 1984
- 7.12 m (0.9) Chioma Ajunwa , Atlanta , Aug. 2, 1996
- 7.12 m (−0.3) Naide Gomes , Monaco , July 29, 2008
- 7.11 m (0.8) Fiona May , Budapest , August 22, 1998
- 7.11 m (1.3) Anna Nasarowa , Moscow , June 20, 2012
- 7.10 m (1.6 m) Chelsea Hayes , Eugene , July 1, 2012
- 7.10 m (0.3) Ivana Španović , Belgrade , September 11, 2016
- 7.09 m (0.0) Vilma Bardauskienė , Prague , August 29, 1978
- 7.09 m (1.6) Ljudmila Ninova-Rudoll , Seville , June 5, 1994 ( Austrian record )
- 7.08 m (0.5) Marieta Ilcu , Piteşti , June 25, 1989
- 7.08 m (1.9) Nastassja Mirontschyk-Iwanowa , Minsk , June 12, 2012
- 7.07 m (0.0) Swetlana Sorina , Krasnodar , August 15, 1987
- 7.07 m (0.5) Jelena Sokolowa , London , August 8, 2012
- 7.07 m (0.4) Shara Proctor , Beijing , Aug. 28, 2015
- 7.06 m (0.4) Tatiana Kolpakowa , Moscow , July 31, 1980
- 7.06 m (−0.1) Niurka Montalvo , Seville , 23 August 1999
- 7.06 m Tatjana Ter-Mesrobjan , Saint Petersburg , May 22, 2002
- 7.05 m (0.6) Lyudmila Galkina , Athens , August 9, 1997
- 7.05 m (−0.4) Eunice Barber , Monaco , September 14, 2003
- 7.05 m (1.1) Darja Klischina , Ostrava , July 17, 2011
- 7.05 m (1.1) Brooke Stratton , Perth , March 12, 2016
- 7.05m (1.2) Lorraine Ugen , Birmingham , July 1st 2018
- 7.05 m (0.9) Ese Brume , Bursa , August 4, 2019
- Long Jump All Time - Eternal world best list of the IAAF, long jump men
- Long Jump All Time - Eternal world best list of the IAAF, long jump women
- Athletics annual world best list up to 20th place ( Memento from July 18, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
- Progression of World best performances and official IAAF World Records. 2003 edition. Monaco, 2003, pp. 170 ff. And 313 ff. (English)
- International Competition Rules (IWR), Edition 2008 (PDF)
- The Pentathlon - The Ancient Pentathlon (PDF; 132 kB). Forum Archaeologiae, Journal for Classical Archeology 42 / III / 2007. pp. 5–6.
- Ewald Walker: Bernhard Stierle; The one who danced with the somersault , Deutsche Leichtathletik Marketing , March 15, 2004
- International Competition Rules (IWR) (see 184, 185, 180.5, 180.17, 180.20, and 200.9a) ( Memento of April 12, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Ponytail costs Belarusian long jump gold , Spiegel-Online September 3, 2011.
- International competition rules, rule 185, additional provision DLV