|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Moravskoslezský kraj|
|Area :||21,401 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||289,128 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||700 00 - 720 00|
|License plate :||T|
|Next international airport :||Ostrava Airport|
|Districts:||23 city districts
37 city districts
|Lord Mayor :||Tomáš Macura (as of 2014)|
|Address:||Prokešovo náměstí 8
729 30 Ostrava
Ostrava ( German Ostrau or Mährisch-Ostrau ) is the third largest city in the Czech Republic in terms of population and area . It is the administrative center of the Moravian-Silesian Region . The city is located on the northeastern border of the Czech Republic on the Oder , ten kilometers southwest of the border with Poland and 50 kilometers north-northwest of the border with Slovakia .) (
Ostrava is located in the far northeast of Moravia in the east of the Czech Republic between the Sudetes and Beskids at the northern exit of the Moravian Gate , on the historical border between Moravia and Silesia , in the historical and cultural landscape of Lachei . Here, at the foot of the Silesian-Ostrava Castle, is the mouth of the Lučina River into the Ostrawitza (Ostravice) , which in turn - like the Oppa (Opava) and Porubka - flows into the Oder .
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Ostrava
Ostrava emerged from old settlements at the mouth of the Ostrawitza in the Oder. Here an amber road ran through the Moravian Gate. The Ostrava Basin has been known as the settlement area of the Slavic Golensizen tribe (Czech Holasici ) since the 10th century . Before it was first Celtic, then Germanic settlements.
For centuries, the Oder and Ostravice formed the border between Moravia and Silesia. At the confluence of the Ostravice with the Oder, two villages with the name Ostrava and Ostrawa arose on both sides of the tributary. Polska Ostrawa (Czech: Polská Ostrava / German: Polish Ostrau ) was first mentioned in 1229 in the castellany of Teschen . Moravská Ostrava ( Moravian Ostrau ), first mentioned in 1267, received city rights before 1279. In the second half of the 13th century a border castle of the Piast Dukes of Opole was built in Polská Ostrava , most likely the seat of the castellan named Herman in the Duchy of Teschen, mentioned as a witness in the border treaty from 1297 . During the Middle Ages, many Germans immigrated to the city, while in 1380 the Silesian village was differentiated as Wendish .
The importance of both places remained low until the 18th century. The economic importance and population growth changed rapidly with the intensive mining of the coal seams from 1763. In 1794, 1,578 inhabitants lived in Moravian-Ostrava, 6,881 in 1869.
The Witkowitzer Eisenwerke were founded in 1829 by the Prince Archbishop of Olomouc, Archduke Cardinal Rudolf of Austria. This is where the Habsburg monarchy's first puddling plant was built, and the first coke oven in ancient Austria was also located here. His successor, Prince Archbishop Ferdinand Maria Graf Chotek, leased the company in 1833 to a consortium in which the House of Rothschild already held an important position. In 1843, the Rothschild SM bank became the sole owner. The most important product was initially railroad tracks for the Northern Railway (Vienna – Krakow). Austria's first steam hammer was built in 1844. Ostrava subsequently became a very important center of the steel industry .
The population recorded by the census rose constantly: 13,448 (1880), 19,240 (1890), 30,116 (1900) and 36,754 (1910). A similar increase can be recorded for the entire region (i.e. including the surrounding area): from 18,711 (1843) to 186,613 (1910). This growth rate of the population could only be achieved through immigration, which came not only from Moravia, but also from Galicia in particular , which was made easier by the common state belonging to Austria-Hungary . The massive immigration of former rural populations into an increasingly industrialized economic region brought with it major social and socio-cultural problems.
Until 1918, Mährisch Ostrau belonged to the margraviate of Moravia and Polish Ostrau to the Duchy of Silesia (Austrian Silesia) , most recently both as crown lands . From 1918 both cities were part of the Czechoslovak Republic until 1939 . Since 1919 the eastern city was called Slezská Ostrava (Silesian Ostrava) . On January 1, 1924, the towns of Mariánské Hory (Marienberg) , Přívoz (Oderfurt) and Vítkovice (Witkowitz) with another three municipalities (Hrabůvka (Klein Grabau) , Nová Ves (Neudorf) and Zábřeh nad Odrou (Heinrichsdorf) ) became Moravská Ostrava incorporated.
Between 1939 and 1945 Mährisch Ostrau and Schlesisch Ostrau belonged to the Greater German Empire as part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia . In 1941 Mährisch Ostrau and Schlesisch Ostrau were officially united. During the Second World War , the industrial center was the target of many Allied air raids .
From 1945 the German part of the population of the city was expelled . 231 Germans were killed in a massacre in the so-called Hanke camp in Ostrau. Many new citizens from South Moravia, Slovakia, so-called repatriates and Roma settled in the following period.
After the collapse of Comecon , heavy industry and the chemical industry, which were operated with considerable damage to the environment, fell into a crisis. The coal mining was stopped on June 30, 1994 with the last funded hunt in Přívoz. In Vítkovice, the blast furnaces went out on September 27, 1998.
Sister cities of Ostrava are:
The area between Ostrava and Karviná is a large industrial area. The environment has been heavily influenced and affected by the concentration of heavy industry - coal mining, smelting works, heavy machinery, coking plants , power plants, gas works, chemical companies. In addition to Ostrava, the center of this industrial region, there are other industrial cities - Karviná, Orlová , Bohumín - with steel and wire mills and other small towns whose employment opportunities depend on these industrial centers. The surrounding areas connect to this core of the region: the Hultschiner Ländchen , the areas around Frýdek-Místek (Friedek-Mistek), Nový Jičín (Neu Titschein) and Třinec (Trzynietz).
Around 150,000 workers were employed in the coal mines in the region in the 1980s. Following the privatization of the mines, there was a threat of closure at the end of 2014. In May 2016, the New World Resources coal miner OKD (Ostravsko-karvinské doly) filed for bankruptcy. With the closure of the Passov mine on March 31, 2017, coal mining in the Ostrava part of the Ostrava-Karviná mining district also ended. Nevertheless, the restructuring of OKD is being worked on in order to maintain coal production in the region in some places (as of August 2017).
The structural change is overall better than in other former centers of European heavy industry. Not least thanks to the good qualifications of the industrial workers, foreign industrial companies were able to settle here. At 4.5% at the end of June 2017, unemployment was slightly above the (low) national average.
Ostrava was considered one of the dirtiest cities in the EU . The emission of fine dust rose in the 1980s to 80,000 tons per year. The main cause for this was and is v. a. the steelworks Nová huť , which is located directly on the outskirts. In neighboring Poland, the limit values for fine dust had to be adapted to EU standards, in the Czech Republic the limit values were three times lower than in Poland. The city administration launched several programs to protect the environment. All coal stoves in private apartments should be replaced by 2010. Fine dust emissions decreased to 1,500 tons in 2016, around 2% of the extremely high amount in the 1980s.
Urban public transport
Ostrava has a well-developed local transport network: there are trams, trolleybuses and city buses. They have had a uniform appearance since the 1990s: They are painted in blue, yellow and white.
In 2016, the tram counted 44.4 million passengers. There were 7.0 million ferry passengers on the trolleybus network, the buses carried 18.7 million people.
The main train station (Ostrava hlavní nádraží) is located near the city center, but already in the Přívoz district . In it, the Ostrava – Frýdlant nad Ostravicí railway branches off from the main Vienna – Kraków line. However, the Ostrava-Svinov train station to the west outside the city center and expanded by 2006 is of great regional importance. It is also on the Vienna – Kraków route and is the start of several other routes.
Education and culture
Ostrava is a nationally important center for trade, science and art and is home to nationally known institutions and events.
Technical University of Ostrava
The Technical University of Ostrava (TUO) was founded in 1849 as of Mining educational institution founded in 1865 for Mining Academy and in 1904 to the University of Technology collected. The former VŠB TU Ostrava University of Applied Sciences is now an important engineering university in the Czech Republic with around 15,000 students, especially in modern mining, metallurgy and engineering as well as in environmental and nanotechnology.
University of Ostrava
The beginnings of the University of Ostrava (OSU), founded in 1991, can be found in the Upper Pedagogical School in Opava , established in 1953 . In addition to educational, natural and human sciences courses, a medical faculty with a university hospital is affiliated.
Moravian-Silesian Research Library Ostrava
The Moravian-Silesian Research Library (Moravskoslezska vědecká knihovna v Ostravě) is an important scientific and existing library in the Czech Republic and occupies the side wings of the town hall complex on Prokešovo Square in the city center.
Janáček Philharmonic Ostrava
The Philharmonic Orchestra, founded in 1954, was named after the Czech composer Leoš Janáček and works with well-known conductors and soloists around the world.
Moravian-Silesian National Theater
The Moravian-Silesian National Theater (Národní divadlo moravskoslezské) was founded in 1918 and also includes the Antonín Dvořák Theater with its neo-baroque opera house , as well as the Jiří Myron Theater, built in neoclassical style at the end of the 19th century.
Ostrava Center For New Music
The Ostrava Center For New Music (OCNM) was founded in 2000 by Petr Kotík and is the organizer of the Ostrava Days and the New Opera Days Ostrava (NODO) .
Colors of Ostrava
The international music festival Colors of Ostrava has been held in the city since 2002 .
Architectural and technical sights
As the third largest city in the Czech Republic, Ostrava has numerous architectural and technical attractions.
- The Cathedral of the Divine Savior was built in the 1880s in neo-Renaissance style .
- In the north of the city there is a mining museum (Hornické muzeum) , which illustrates the work underground.
- The Vitkovice Iron Works industrial monument is located in the Vítkovice district .
- The Silesian-Ostrava Castle from the 13th century is located on a rock above the Ostravice. Today the castle is a museum and cultural center.
- West of the Petřkovice district, on the easternmost elevation of the Sudetes, there are the remains of the Přemyslid castle Landek u Petřkovic . The surrounding nature reserve is internationally known as a Stone Age site.
- A landmark of the city is the Moravská Ostrava Town Hall, which opened in 1930 and is now the headquarters of the Ostrava City Council. From its 75 meter high, square, glazed tower, a panoramic view of almost the entire city is possible.
- Also worth seeing is the town hall of Schlesisch Ostrau, which was redesigned in the neo-baroque style in 1897 .
- Ostrava has the second largest zoo in the Czech Republic.
- The city also has a botanical garden.
Stodolní Street (Stodolní ulice)
Stodolní Street (German Scheunenstrasse ) is one of the largest entertainment areas in the Czech Republic. During the week the street is a pedestrian zone with restaurants, coffee shops and hotels, at the weekend it is an entertainment area for many party-hungry people from Ostrava and the surrounding area. There are over 60 clubs in the small area on Stodolní Street. Particularly known are z. B. the Café Černá Hvězda (German Black Star) and the Irish Pub Dublin .
Other attractions are:
- Miniuni (miniatures of European sights)
- Fairy tale cellar of ghosts
- Ostrava marine aquarium
- Michal pit
- Johann Palisa Observatory and Planetarium
- Ostrava City Museum
- Fire Brigade Museum
- Brewery Museum
- Zither museum
- Museum Keltička blacksmith workshop
- Remains of the Jewish cemetery
The city is home to the ice hockey clubs HC Vítkovice Steel , which belongs to the top division of the Czech Republic, the Tipsport Extraliga , and HC Poruba , third division team from the Poruba district, and the Baník Ostrava football club .
In September 2010 the 29th European Table Tennis Championship was held here.
In May 2015, Ostrava was next to Prague the venue for the Ice Hockey World Championship .
The city is divided into 23 districts with 37 districts:
|Krásné Pole (Schönfeld)||Krásné Pole|
|Lhotka (Ellgoth-Hultschin)||Lhotka u Ostravy|
|Mariánské Hory a Hulváky||
Mariánské Hory (Marienberg)
Hulváky (Hulwaken) Zábřeh-Hulváky
|Martinov (Martinau)||Martinov ve Slezsku|
|Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz||Moravská Ostrava (Mährisch Ostrau)
Přívoz (Priwoz , 1939–1945 Oderfurt)
|Nová Bělá (New Biela)||Nová Bělá|
|Nová Ves (Neudorf)||Nová Ves u Ostravy|
|Ostrava-Jih (Ostrau-South)||Bělský Les
Hrabůvka (Klein Grabau)
|Petřkovice (Petrzkowitz)||Petřkovice u Ostravy|
|Plesná (Plesna)||Nová Plesná (New Pleßna)
Stará Plesná (Old Pleßna)
|Polanka nad Odrou (Polanka on the Oder)||Polanka nad Odrou|
|Radvanice a Bartovice||
|Slezská Ostrava (Silesian Ostrava)||Antošovice (Antoschowitz)
Slezská Ostrava (Silesian Ostrau)
|Stará Bělá (Old Biela)||Stará Bělá|
|Třebovice (Strzebowitz)||Třebovice ve Slezsku|
|Vítkovice (Wittkowitz)||Vítkovice (Witkowitz)
Prominent residents and sons and daughters of the city are included in the list of personalities of the city of Ostrava .
- The NATO days in Ostrava were first celebrated in the city from 2001; since 2003 they have been held annually at Ostrava Airport in Mošnov . Since 2010, the Air Force Days of the Army of the Czech Republic have been held in parallel .
- In earlier times the Ostrauer were teased with the nickname Chacharen - after the workers of a construction company Chachar, who were feared as rioters.
- In 2009, Ostrava hosted the Fire Brigade Olympiad , which is held every four years by the World Fire Brigade Association CTIF in different cities.
- Michael Leidner: Ostrava. A portrait of the city in 10 chapters . BoD, Norderstedt 2019, ISBN 978-3-7481-8914-5
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Johann Slokar: History of Austrian Industry and its Promotion under Emperor Franz I. Vienna 1914, p. 405 f.
- Hana Šustková: The Influence of Galicians on Life in Moravian Ostrava / Ostrau and Its Surroundings during the Era of Industrialization. In: Prager Wirtschafts- und Sozialhistorische Mitteilungen / Prague economic and social history papers, Vol. 8 (2007/08). Institute for Economic and Social History, Charles University, ISBN 978-80-7308-232-1 , pp. 185–193.
- Compare the documentation at Commons (see under the section Weblinks )
- History of Ostrava's City Administration website, accessed December 6, 2012.
- Investigations in Ostrau stopped . Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (dpa), November 26, 2010.
- Ostrava website - Partnerská města , accessed on March 28, 2017
- Christian Geinitz: From the blackest to the most colorful city in Europe. The coal field in Ostrau is awakening to new life. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of October 18, 2017, p. 21.
- OKD coal conveyor goes bankrupt. Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
- OKD coal conveyor closes Paskov mine - over 800 miners have to go. Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
- Creditors accept restructuring plan for insolvent coal miners OKD. Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
- Ocelárna Mittal zamořuje okolí karcinogenními látkami (Mittal steelworks pollutes the environment with carcinogenic substances), September 1, 2008, accessed on November 9, 2017 (Czech).
- Martina Schneibergová: Away with the smog! The Czech Republic and Poland want to reduce emissions. Radio CZ, September 30, 2011
- Informace o dopravě v Ostravě 2016. (PDF) Retrieved on September 23, 2017 (Czech).
- Vladimír Šmehlík: Ostrava. City-guide. Prague 2009, p. 18.
- Vladimír Šmehlík: Ostrava. City-guide. Prague 2009, p. 86.
- Vladimír Šmehlík: Ostrava. City-guide. Praha 2009, pp. 16–33.