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République du Benin
Republic of Benin
Flag of Benin
Benin coat of arms
flag coat of arms
Motto : Fraternité, Justice, Travail
(French for "brotherhood, justice, work" )
Official language French
Capital Porto-Novo
Seat of government Cotonou
State and form of government presidential republic
Head of state , also head of government President Patrice Talon
area 112,622 km²
population 11.8 million ( 75th ) (2019; estimate)
Population density 102 inhabitants per km²
Population development + 2.7% (estimate for 2019)
gross domestic product
  • Total (nominal)
  • Total ( PPP )
  • GDP / inh. (nom.)
  • GDP / inh. (KKP)
2019 (estimate)
Human Development Index 0.545 ( 158th ) (2019)
currency CFA Franc BCEAO (XOF)
independence August 1, 1960 (from France )
National anthem L'Aube Nouvelle
Time zone UTC + 1
License Plate DY / BJ / RB
ISO 3166 BJ , BEN, 204
Internet TLD .bj
Phone code +229
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Benin [ beˈniːn ] ( French Bénin [ beˈnɛ̃ ]) is a state in West Africa . It borders Togo to the west, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north, Nigeria to the east and the Gulf of Guinea , more precisely the Bay of Benin, to the south .

Until 1975 the country was called Dahomey . The name is in tradition of the historical kingdom of Dahomey , which until the conquest by the French at the end of the 19th century comprised the southern part of the modern state and the neighboring state of Togo . From 1975 to 1990 it was called the People's Republic of Benin .



The geographical position is between 6 ° 25 'and 12 ° 30' north latitude and 0 ° 45 'and 4 ° east longitude. The largest north-south extension is 650 km, the largest west-east extension is 320 km.

The national borders amount to a total of 1989 km, to Burkina Faso 306 km, to Niger 266 km, to Nigeria 773 km and to Togo 644 km. The length of the coast is 121 km.

Landscape image

Landscape in Atakora

The landscape of Benin is divided into five different natural areas .

The coastal region is flat and sandy and is protected by tidal swamps and lagoons . If you look more closely, it consists of a long sandbank overgrown with coconut palms . The lagoons are narrower in the western part of the country, where many have been turned into swamps by silting , and wider in the east, some are also connected to each other. In the west, the Grand Popo lagoon extends into neighboring Togo, while the Porto Novo lagoon in the east forms a natural waterway to the port of Lagos in Nigeria, although the political border makes it difficult to use. Only at Grand-Popo and Cotonou do the lagoons have direct connections to the open sea.

Behind the coastal region begins the barre country - the word is a French adaptation of the Portuguese word barro ("sound"). The Barre region is a fertile, intensively agricultural plain and includes the Lama Marsh , a vast swamp area that stretches from Abomey to Allada. The landscape is generally flat, although there are occasional hills that can be up to 400 meters high.

The four plateaus of Benin are in the area of ​​Abomey, Kétou , Aplahoué (or Parahoué) and Zagnanado . The plateaus consist of clays on a crystalline basis and are between 90 and 230 meters high.

The Atakora mountain range in the northwest of the country is a continuation of the southern Togo Mountains. It runs from southwest to northeast and reaches a height of 658 meters at its highest point, Mont Sokbaro . Inside, it consists of highly metamorphic quartzite rock.

The Niger plain in northeast Benin descends to the valley of the Niger River and consists of loamy sandstones .

The country's area is 112,622 km² (world rank 100), of which 30% forest, 12% arable land, 4% meadows and pastures.


A distinction is made between two climatic zones .

The southern zone has an equatorial climate with two wet and two dry seasons . The main rainy season is between mid-March and mid-July. This is followed by a shorter dry season until mid-September, a shorter rainy season until mid-November and a longer dry season until the rains start again in March. The amount of rain increases from west to east. Grand-Popop only receives around 800 millimeters, while Cotonou and Porto-Novo each receive around 1250 millimeters of rainfall per year. The temperatures are relatively constant and fluctuate between about 22 ° C and 34 ° C. The relative humidity is often uncomfortably high.

In the northern climatic zone there is only one dry and one rainy season. The rainy season runs from May to September, with most rains occurring in August. In the Atakora Mountains and in Central Benin, about 1350 millimeters fall annually, further north the amount of precipitation drops to about 965 millimeters. In the dry season from December to March, the Harmattan , a hot and dry wind , blows from the northeast . Temperatures average around 27 ° C, but the temperature range varies greatly between day and night. In March, the hottest month, daytime temperatures can climb up to 43 ° C.


In addition to the Niger , which with its tributaries Mékrou , Alibori and Sota drains the northeastern 40 percent of the country, the most important river in the country is the Ouémé . Together with the Mono and the Couffo, it drains the entire southern half of Benin. The Mono, which rises in Togo, forms the border between Togo and Benin near the coast. The Couffo, near which Abomey is located, flows south from the higher plains to flow into the coastal lagoons of Ahémé . The Ouémé has its source in the Atakora Mountains and flows 450 kilometers to the south; near its mouth it divides into two arms, one of which flows east into the Porto Novo lagoon and the other flows west into Lake Nokoué .

The Atakora Mountains form a watershed between the Volta and Niger Basins. The areas west of it drained over the Oti and its tributaries into the Volta system. The Oti catchment area covers 13.7% of the country's area.

Vegetation and wildlife

The predominant type of vegetation in Benin is the savannah . Benin participates in two zones of vegetation, the Sudan zone and the Guinea zone and is in a forest almost free corridor between the Upper Guinean and Congo rain forests , the Dahomey Gap . The original tropical rainforest that covered the southern part of the country has largely been cut down today and only exists near rivers. Many oil and Rônier palms have been planted and useful plants have been planted in its place , along with coconut palms , kapok , mahogany and ebony trees . There are also dry forests such as the Forêt de la Lama in central Benin and the very impressive swamp forest of Lokoli.

The flora of Benin includes around 3000 species. The savannas in the north of the country are protected by the W National Park and the neighboring Pendjari National Park , both part of the trinational and cross-border WAP National Park complex. Here you can still find elephants , leopards , lions , antelopes , monkeys , wild boars , crocodiles and buffalo . There are also many species of snakes , including pythons and puff adders . Birds include guinea fowl , wild ducks, and partridges, as well as many tropical species.

Settlement image

Traditional dwellings of the Somba

The southern provinces make up a quarter of the total area, but are inhabited by more than two thirds of the population. The area around the port of Cotonou , where the political and economic life of the country is concentrated, and the official capital, Porto-Novo , are very densely populated . On the outskirts of the city, the cultivation of subsistence crops such as corn , cassava and sweet potatoes is very intensive. The settlement density decreases towards the north. The villages that are still common in the south are now more dispersed. The colonial market town of Parakou forms an important center in the north.

The cities show traditional African, colonial European and modern influences. Pre-colonial mud houses , markets, shrines and statues can be found in small towns as well as in Abomey, Porto-Novo and, to a lesser extent, Cotonou. The Somba region in the northwest is characterized by traditional thatched roof and tower houses. In most cities, colonial European styles dominate. Colonial buildings, some of which date from the 18th century, include train stations, government buildings, and private homes, as well as structures such as the former Portuguese fort at Ouidah, which was a center of the slave trade. Modern architecture can be found in private houses, docks and hotels.


Population development in millions of inhabitants
Age pyramid in 1000 inhabitants

In 2019, 11.8 million people lived in Benin, the majority of whom live in the agricultural coastal region and in the approx. 200 km inland area. The fertility rate is 4.8 children per woman and has been falling continuously since its peak of 7.03 children per woman in 1980. According to the UN's mean population forecast, a population of around 24 million is expected for the year 2050.

About 39.2% of the total population belong to the Fon , which is at the same time the socially dominant population group in the country, especially in the south. 15.2% of the population are Adja . 12.3% of the population, especially in the east, speak Yoruboid languages , i.e. they belong to the Yoruba and similar ethnic groups. The formerly independent Bariba make up 9.2% of the population. A large minority, 7%, are the Fulani , which are widespread in the entire Sudan zone. The Otamari make up 6.1% of the population of Benin. Yoa-Lokpa and related peoples make up 4% and the Dendi in the north form a small minority of 2.5% of the population. There are also members of the Atakora group (disparagingly called Somba ).


Bilingual signs in Fon and French on a telephone
shop in Ganvié

French has been the only official language since the French rule. In addition to French, 53 different languages ​​and idioms are spoken. The focus is on Gur (the speakers of the Lama and Atakora languages), Hausa languages , the Evé language group (including Fon ) and Mina . Fon is the main lingua franca in southern Benin and is spoken by around 1.7 million people; a total of 47% of the population speak Fon as their mother tongue.


Mosque in Parakou

In the 2002 census, only 23.4% of the population stated traditional religions as their beliefs. In Benin these include the religion of the Yoruba and the religion of the Ga ; officially 17.3% declared themselves to be part of the voodoo religion.

However, many of the 6.5% of the population who do not belong to any denomination and a number of Christians and Muslims are also likely to practice this religion. Strongholds of the cult are the departments of Atlantique , Couffo , Mono and Zou . The Atakora department is another stronghold of traditional religions.

The largest religion is officially Christianity with a population of 42.3%. Among them are 23.0% Catholics , 5.1% followers of the Eglise de Céleste and 4.2% Methodists as the largest individual communities. The Catholics only make up an absolute majority in the Littoral department , but they are strongly represented everywhere with the exception of the Alibori and Couffo departments . The followers of the Eglise de Céleste can mainly be found in the departments of Ouémé , Atlantique , Zou and Plateau . The Methodist strongholds are the departments of Collines , Ouémé and Plateau. Other Christian communities are the Pentecostal movement (e.g. Assemblées de Dieu ), the Mormons , the New Apostolic Church , the Nigerian Apostolic Church , the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Baptists .

About 27.8% of the population of Benin are Muslim . Among the larger peoples, almost all of the Fulbe and Dendi and a small number of the Otamari (minority of Christians) and about half of the Yoruba (45% Christians) belong to them. Islam is the religion of the majority of the population in the northern departments of Alibori, Borgou and Donga and also has numerous followers in the departments of Atakora, Collines, Littoral, Ouémé and Plateau. A considerable part of the immigrants from West Africa ( Burkina Faso , Mali , Niger , Nigeria and Senegal ) belong to it.

There are also communities of the Baha'i , the Moon and the Eckankar .


Benin has a public health system with hospitals in Cotonou, Porto-Novo, Parakou, Abomey, Ouidah and Natitingou, as well as birthing centers and other small, specialized health facilities. International organizations provide grants to make up for a shortage of medical staff and medicines. Malaria is a serious health risk, especially for young children. The prevalence of HIV / AIDS in Benin is well below the average for sub-Saharan Africa and is similar to or lower than that of neighboring countries.

In 2019, the infant mortality rate was 59 per 1,000 live births. In the same year, the number of doctors was four per 100,000 inhabitants. Life expectancy in 2019 was 61.8 years.

On March 16, 2020, the country's first COVID-19 case was confirmed in Porto-Novo, the capital of Benin.


The public education system has followed the French model since colonial times. A six-year primary school cycle (for children aged 6 to 11) is followed by a four-year school. This is followed by a three-year school that concludes with a baccalaureate university entrance . The expected school attendance of the current generation of students is 12.6 years. Due to the short school attendance of those over 25, which is only 3.8 years, the illiteracy rate in the age group in 2020 was still 57.6%.

In the mid-1970s, major reforms were introduced in line with the then prevailing Marxist-Leninist ideology, also to shake off French influence. The reforms failed as teachers, parents and students protested against the lowering of standards and the reforms were largely abandoned in the late 1980s.

The Abomey-Calavi University (1970–75 known as Dahomey University and 1975–2001 National University of Benin), based in Cotonou, was founded in 1970. The student body of the University, in addition to the workers since the early 1980s, the main political force in the country. The University of Parakou was founded 2,001th


French troops captured Dahomey between 1892 and 1894

The area of ​​today's state of Benin formed the largest part of the kingdom of Dahomey from the 17th century until it was occupied by the French on behalf of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805 and incorporated as a colony into the French Empire . The colony was abandoned in 1814 when it was defeated by Great Britain in the British-French colonial conflict. Around 1830 the area became a protectorate of France and was later part of the Federation of French West Africa as the Dahomey colony . On August 1, 1960, it was given independence as the Dahomey Republic . In 1961 Dahomey occupied and annexed the small Portuguese colony of São João Baptista d'Ajudá . The annexation was only recognized by Portugal in 1975 after the Portuguese Carnation Revolution . In 1974 Marxism-Leninism became a state ideology, which also led to the introduction of a one-party system and the nationalization of factories. At the same time, the Dahomey Republic was renamed the People's Republic of Benin in 1975 . The name refers to the Bay of Benin , which in turn refers to the black African kingdom of Benin , which existed from the 13th century to 1897, but which was largely in the area of ​​today's Nigeria .

For twelve years, Benin suffered from an unstable government and multiple coups d'état that began three years after independence . The regime of President Mathieu Kérékou , who came to power in a coup in 1972, initially brought more stability. His Marxist-Leninist policy, which he introduced in 1974, culminated in repressive military rule in the late 1970s , which, however, was largely ended in the early 1980s. During this period, the People's Revolutionary Party of Benin (PRPB) was the only admitted political party.

Benin was the first African country to transition away from Marxism-Leninism after the Cold War . In December 1989, Kérékou himself gave up the Marxist-Leninist doctrine that he had promulgated in the mid-1970s. In December 1990 a new constitution was adopted which guarantees human rights , the freedom to form political parties, the right to private property and universal suffrage .

In 1989 and 1990, the population, with unrest due to the catastrophic economic situation, forced a national conference under the leadership of the Catholic Archbishop of Cotonou , Isidore de Souza . She named the former Executive Director of the World Bank, Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo , as Prime Minister and laid down the guidelines for a new democratic beginning, including the abandonment of the Marxist-Leninist doctrine, the establishment of a democracy, the approval of political parties, respect for human rights, freedom of expression and freedom of assembly and freedom of the press as well as the introduction of the market economy. The first local elections in Benin in December 2002 marked an important step in the decentralization of the country.


Political indices
Name of the index Index value Worldwide rank Interpretation aid year
Fragile States Index 72.5 out of 120 77 of 178 Stability of the country: increased warning
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
Democracy index   4.58 out of 10   102 of 167 Hybrid regime
0 = authoritarian regime / 10 = complete democracy
Freedom in the World 65 of 100 --- Freedom status: partially free
0 = not free / 100 = free
Freedom of the press ranking 35.11 out of 100 113 of 180 Difficult situation for freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)   41 out of 100   83 of 180 0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean 2020

Benin has deteriorated in the indices in recent years. In 2002, the country still ranks 21st in the ranking of press freedom. In the democracy index, it recorded the lowest value and the lowest rank since the beginning of the investigations in 2006 and was downgraded from a defective democracy to a hybrid regime.

Political system

Under the 1990 Constitution, Benin is a presidential republic. The president is directly elected for a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms and is also head of state and government . The President can be assisted by the Prime Minister , although this position is not constitutionally required and was not filled from May 1998 to May 2011 and from August 2013. In April 2016, Patrice Talon was elected the new President of Benin with 65% in the second ballot. The election took place according to democratic standards.

The legislature is exercised by the National Assembly, whose 83 members are elected for a four-year term using proportional representation. After the 2015 elections still met democratic standards and eleven parties moved into parliament, the parliamentary elections of April 2019 were no longer considered free and fair, as the opposition was effectively excluded by a new electoral law. As a result, only two pro-government parties moved into parliament, the Progressive Union with 47 seats and the Republican bloc with 36 seats.

The development of women's suffrage was determined by the conditions in France. According to the Loi Lamine Guèye of 1946, all citizens had the right to vote in elections to the French parliament and also in local elections. The right to stand as a candidate was not specifically mentioned in the law, but it was not excluded either. In French West Africa , to which Dahomey belonged, there was no two-tier suffrage as in other French colonies in the elections to the Paris Parliament, but there was for all local elections. In 1956 the loi-cadre Defferre was introduced, which guaranteed in Article 10 the universal right to be active as elector. When the country gained independence in 1960, this legal situation was confirmed.

Since the country was democratized in 1991, there have been several free elections and non-violent changes of government, making the country one of the most stable democracies in Africa. In the election on April 28, 2019, however, for the first time since democratization, no opposition parties were allowed to vote; before that, the opposition's rights to demonstrate were revoked.

Human rights

Amnesty International rates prison conditions as extremely harsh. They are far below the international standard. The security forces still do not have to fear criminal prosecution, even if they can be shown to be responsible for the brutal use of force and mistreatment. Children particularly suffer from the conditions of detention. There is no special treatment or accommodation for them. Homosexual acts among adults are considered a criminal offense under Section 88 of the 1996 Criminal Code and punishable by up to three years in prison. In practice, however, no one appears to have been convicted under this section. With the introduction of the new Criminal Code in 2019, these relationships are no longer a criminal offense. Numerous restrictions on freedom of expression and assembly persist. Excessive and indiscriminate violence by security forces is often reported during demonstrations.

Administrative structure

The departments of Benin
The state is divided into twelve departments
Surname Capital Residents
Alibori Kandi 1 868.046
Atakora Natitingou 769,337
Atlantique Ouidah 1 1,396,548
Borgou Parakou 1,202,095
Collines Dassa Zoumè 716,558
Couffo Dogbo Tota 1 741,895
Donga Djougou 1 542605
Littoral Cotonou 678,874
Mono Lokossa 495307
Ouémé Porto-Novo 1,096,850
plateau Sakété 1 624.146
Zou Abomey 851.623
1After the reorganization of the departments in 1999, capitals were not yet officially designated as capitals, but they perform all capital functions. The population of the departments is based on the 2013 census (RGPH4).

The departments are divided into 77 communes , which in turn are divided into arrondissements and finally into villages or districts.



According to the 2013 census, the largest cities are: Cotonou 679,000 inhabitants, Porto-Novo 264,000 inhabitants, Parakou 255,000 inhabitants, Godomey 253,000 inhabitants, Abomey-Calavi 118,000 inhabitants, Djougou 95,000 inhabitants, Bohicon 94,000 inhabitants and Ekpé 75,000 inhabitants.


Benin has a 578 km long railroad network in meter gauge that extends from the coast to Parakou . Passenger transport was initially due to commence at the end of 2015 on the 25 km long stretch Cotonou - Pahou , the wagons for this were taken over from Switzerland by the Zentralbahn . A 574 km long new line from Parakou to Niamey in neighboring Niger is planned.


The coast of Cotonou with the harbor in the background

Benin is one of the poorest countries in the world. According to the World Bank definition, almost half of the Benin population live in absolute poverty (less than 1.90 US dollars per day). The gross domestic product (GDP) for 2019 is estimated at 14.4 billion US dollars. The country's economy is largely shaped by agriculture (primary sector ), which generated 26.1% of GDP in 2017. Industry (secondary sector) generated 22.8%, the service sector (tertiary sector) 51.1%.

The seaport of Cotonou is of great importance for the national economy . The majority of all goods handled in the seaport come from businesses with neighboring Nigeria. Benin is also a very important transit country for Niger, Burkina Faso and Mali. As an economic factor, the seaport accounts for over ten percent of the gross domestic product.

Due to the high level of foreign debt , Benin is currently unable to participate in the larger international development cooperation programs, which require a certain amount of personal contribution.

Economic growth is partially impaired due to insufficient reform steps in public financial management and the poorly developed infrastructure of the country. In addition to the existing corruption, the private sector also lacks legal certainty.

In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Benin ranks 120th out of 137 countries (as of 2017-2018). In 2017, the country ranks 96th out of 180 countries in the index for economic freedom .

Key figures

All GDP values ​​are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).

year 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
(purchasing power parity)
2.69 billion 3.70 billion 4.75 billion 6.59 billion 9.06 billion 12.33 billion 13.22 billion 14.38 billion 15.38 billion 15.86 billion 16.39 billion 17.23 billion 18.39 billion 20.03 billion 21.69 billion 22.38 billion 23.57 billion 25.33 billion
GDP per capita
(purchasing power parity)
740 866 954 1,115 1,321 1,545 1,608 1,701 1,768 1,773 1,782 1,821 1,890 2.003 2.111 2.121 2.175 2,277
GDP growth
9.3% 4.3% 9.0% 6.0% 4.9% 1.7% 3.9% 6.0% 4.9% 2.3% 2.1% 3.0% 4.8% 7.2% 6.4% 2.1% 4.0% 5.6%
(in percent)
9.6% 1.2% 1.1% 14.5% 4.2% 5.4% 3.8% 1.3% 7.9% 0.4% 2.2% 2.7% 6.7% 1.0% −1.1% 0.3% −0.8% 0.1%
Public debt
(as a percentage of GDP)
... ... ... ... 54% 39% 11% 20% 25% 26% 29% 30% 27% 25% 30% 42% 50% 55%


Cultivation of cotton in the north of the country
Extensive agriculture in northern Benin near Djougou

In Benin, agriculture is the second constitutive pillar of the economy, along with the customs revenue from the seaport of Cotonou, and makes a significant contribution to the overall economic situation of the country, because it generates a quarter of all economic output. More than two thirds of the population work in agriculture. Mainly corn , sorghum , cassava , yams , sweet potatoes and legumes are grown. The traditional chopping culture prevails . Cotton , cashew and pineapple are added to the traditional crops as cash crops .

The animal husbandry has mainly status character, the cattle are not held for commercial purposes.

Foreign trade

Mainly industrial goods, foodstuffs and fuels (approx. 5.3 billion US dollars) are imported. The main exports are cotton (around 3 billion US dollars in total).

State budget

The state budget in 2017 comprised expenditures of the equivalent of 2.15 billion US dollars, which was offset by income of the equivalent of 1.58 billion US dollars. This results in a budget deficit of 6.2% of GDP . The national debt was 54.2% of GDP in 2017.

Share of government expenditure (in% of GDP) in the following areas:


The cultural life, especially of the educated classes of the population in the southern cities, is shaped by the French colonial rule and the close ties with France that this entails. This French influence is also often mingled with the various centuries-old traditions practiced in the largely Muslim north as well as the animist and Christian south.

In Cotonou there are many localities with a French flair, such as restaurants , cafes and discos . Diplomats from foreign governments and many of Benin's elites live in new development areas , where cinemas and hotels provide entertainment according to modern standards. In the other parts of the city, however, cultural life is dominated by tradition. Large families live here in large residential complexes, where religious rites are practiced and festivals are celebrated with music and dance . Important centers of daily life are markets where food , clothing and traditional medicines as well as artifacts are sold.


Yoruba wooden masks from Orossi

The traditional handicrafts in Benin are very old and can be found in practically every village. The most important is plastic art . Carved wooden masks depicting images and spirits of the deceased are used for traditional ceremonies. Other works of art include bronze statuettes , pottery , applied tapestries that tell the story of the kings of pre-colonial Dahomey , as well as fire engravings on wooden bowls, which often have religious significance. The most famous art objects are the wooden masks of the Yoruba from the Porto-Novo region, which are used for the Gelede festival.

On April 9, 2005, the state of Benin became the first African state to publicly and officially end the circumcision of young girls. In 2003, female genital cutting was banned in Benin. During the celebration, more than 200 former circumcisers presented their sometimes archaic tools that had cost the lives of not a few victims and brought many women lifelong suffering.

Cultural institutions

The Royal Palaces of Abomey , which the UNESCO - World Heritage Sites include seat are of a historical museum . There is also an ethnographic museum in Porto-Novo, a historical museum in Ouidah and an open-air ethnographic museum in Parakou. The National Library is located in Porto-Novo. Cultural centers sponsored by the French and American governments maintain libraries and organize lectures , concerts and other cultural activities. Art galleries are housed in the Center Arts et Cultures and the Center Culturel Français in Ouidah.


Radio programs are broadcast from Cotonou in French, English and a number of national languages. There is also a limited TV offer. A government-controlled newspaper , La Nation , appears in Cotonou . In addition to two other daily newspapers, there are also some weekly and bi-weekly publications. French-language newspapers from Senegal and the Ivory Coast are also sold in bookshops and kiosks .


  • Thomas Bierschenk : Democratization without Development: Benin 1989–2009. In: International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, 22, 2010, pp. 337-357
  • Jennifer C. Seely: The Legacies of Transition Governments in Africa: The Cases of Benin and Togo. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire 2009, ISBN 978-0-230-61390-4

Web links

Commons : Benin  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Benin  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikimedia Atlas: Benin  - geographical and historical maps
Wikivoyage: Benin  - Travel Guide

Individual evidence

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  2. Population growth (annual%). In: World Economic Outlook Database. World Bank , 2020, accessed March 20, 2021 .
  3. World Economic Outlook Database October 2020. In: World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund , 2020, accessed March 20, 2021 .
  4. Table: Human Development Index and its components . In: United Nations Development Program (ed.): Human Development Report 2020 . United Nations Development Program, New York 2020, ISBN 978-92-1126442-5 , pp. 345 (English, [PDF]).
  5. ^ FAO - The Niger River basin
  6. Les Ressources en eaux Superficielles - De la République du Benin
  7. a b World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved September 10, 2017 .
  9. World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, accessed January 24, 2021 .
  10. CIA WORLD FACT BOOK. Retrieved August 15, 2011 .
  11. The Great Xenos World Atlas . XENOS, Hamburg 1996.
  12. ^ A b c d Johnson Ikechukwu: L'appel de l'Afrique - Société des Missions Africaines . No. 274 . Lyon September 2018, p. 9 .
  13. Maria Zandt, “On the situation of Christians in Africa South of the Sahara”, in: KAS-Auslandsinformationen, 6 (2011), p. 38.
  14. Dov Ronen: Benin. Health and welfare. In: Encyclopædia Britannica . Accessed November 23, 2018 .
  15. World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, accessed January 24, 2021 .
  16. Country Health System Fact Sheet 2006 ( Memento from January 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  17. World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, accessed January 24, 2021 .
  18. More African countries confirm first coronavirus cases as Jack Ma pledges aid . In: Reuters . March 22, 2020 ( [accessed April 19, 2020]).
  19. a b c d The Educational system of Benin Republic American Embassy Benin
  20. Human Development Reports. Accessed January 3, 2021 .
  22. ^ Fragile States Index: Global Data. Fund for Peace , 2020, accessed March 25, 2021 .
  23. ^ Democracy Index. The Economist Intelligence Unit, accessed March 25, 2021 .
  24. ^ Countries and Territories. Freedom House , 2020, accessed March 25, 2021 .
  25. 2020 WORLD PRESS FREEDOM INDEX. Reporters Without Borders , 2020, accessed March 25, 2021 .
  26. Transparency International Deutschland eV: CPI 2020: Tabular ranking list. Retrieved March 25, 2021 .
  28. ^ Franz Ansperger: Politics in Black Africa: The modern political movements in Africa with French characteristics. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH Wiesbaden, 1961, p. 73.
  29. ^ Mart Martin: The Almanac of Women and Minorities in World Politics. Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, 2000, p. 39.
  30. June Hannam, Mitzi Auchterlonie, Katherine Holden: International Encyclopedia of Women's Suffrage. ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, Denver, Oxford 2000, ISBN 1-57607-064-6 , p. 9.
  31. Elections in Benin take place without opposition:
  32. Amnesty International Annual Report 2009
  33. ^ Laws on Homosexuality in African Nations. The Law Library of Congress, Global Legal Research Center, February 2014, p. 2
  34. Benin: Travel and safety information from the Federal Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany, as of October 30, 2019
  35. Benin Annual Report 2017. Amnesty International, accessed August 13, 2017 .
  36. Results provisoires RGPH4 2013 , Institut National de la Statistique et de l'Analyse Economique (PDF, approx. 210 kB)
  37. Population of the departments of Benin according to the most recent censuses. Retrieved January 24, 2021 .
  38. Benin passenger service to launch this year , Railway Gazette International, June 10, 2015
  39. ^ Benin - Niger railway agreement signed , Railway Gazette International, 23 August 2015
  43. Benin . German Society for International Cooperation (Ed.). Accessed December 28, 2015.
  44. Country / Economy Profiles . In: Global Competitiveness Index 2017-2018 . ( [accessed January 24, 2018]).
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  46. ^ Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. Retrieved September 9, 2018 (American English).
  47. a b c The World Factbook

Coordinates: 9 °  N , 2 °  E