A nightclub (also disco , just disco or disco , commonly known in Germany Disse called) is a restaurant business , regularly in the, especially on weekends, dance events take place. The dance music is usually not performed by bands , but recorded by DJs (disc jockeys) from sound carriers . Outdated terms are Tanzlokal , Tanzbar or Dancing . Today, many discos are based on the English-speaking model asClub or club (see below ). In discos it is mainly young people who meet to dance, but also to initiate and maintain social contacts and to consume legal and, in some cases, illegal drugs .
The expression “discotheque” (from the Greek discos “disc” and “bar” “container, box, box”, French discothèque analogue to library) originally referred to a collection of sound carriers such as records, tapes, cassettes, CDs. In radio studio technology, the term was also transferred to studio consoles with record players, on which the presenter could put the records on himself during the broadcast.
Today, the term discotheque usually refers to a fixed gastronomic facility that focuses on two elements: playing music from the record or other sound carriers and dancing . The music is usually played or mixed by a DJ . In addition, there is usually a bar .
In addition to permanent disco bars, a single dance event organized by private persons or associations, for example in a multi-purpose room or marquee, is sometimes referred to as a “disco” (“tent disco”, “fire department disco”). Such events are usually only carried out on a weekend, an evening, or at least at long intervals.
The term “disco” also refers to rooms that have been set up for regular or even occasional dance parties, but which can also be used for other purposes. Such disco rooms can be found in youth centers, youth hostels or in church parish rooms, for example.
In most languages the discotheque has a name similar to that in German, in French it is called discothèque , in Japanese デ ィ ス コ , disuko (the u is almost mute). In English , however, one speaks of a club or nightclub ; this term includes both discos in the German sense, i.e. facilities in which DJs put on records, as well as places with live performances by bands and singers. In English, the word "disco" primarily describes the music style disco .
The professional association Dehoga defines discos and dance halls as follows: "Bars with dance music, combined with the sale of drinks, generally for consumption on the spot, possibly also with accompanying entertainment."
Precursors to the discos emerged in the 1930s. In the USA in particular, bars emerged where the jukebox was an important attraction and guests regularly danced whole evenings to the music from it. At that time, bars appeared in Marseille that actually functioned similarly to libraries. In the port city on the Mediterranean Sea, sailors left their favorite records in the premises of their favorite bars; when they were on holiday on shore they could listen to their favorite music in the same bar. The first documented appearance of a DJ is said to have taken place in Otley , West Yorkshire , in 1943 and involved Jimmy Savile , who later became the presenter of Top of the Pops .
First discos in France
The first club, simply called La Discothèque by analogy with a library , was created as a bar in occupied Paris during World War II. Since live music was hardly possible under the circumstances at the time, jazz records were played. The first disco was opened by the former jazz pianist Éduard Ruault , who later successfully founded a band and a record company as Eddie Barcley. La Discothèque inspired other organizers to put together improvised sound systems in cellars and underground bars, which could then be used to play jazz music, which was not loved by the occupiers.
After the war, other clubs opened in Paris that specialized in putting on records to get their customers to dance. The first of its kind bar was opened in 1947 Whiskey a Go Go by Paul Pacine . The other specialty, very unusual for the wine country France at the time, was whiskey - and the music it played was exclusively jazz. Then the Chez Castel opened , recognizable from the outside only through a miniature door sign; only invited guests were admitted there. At Chez Castel , the evening usually began with a film screening, before retiring to the discothèque and dancing to "tight dance music" on the copper and steel floor. The club especially served the Parisian scene. B. Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir frequent guests. Other Parisian discos such as Chez Régine or New Jimmy set standards that other European metropolises quickly followed.
The idea is internationalizing
After Paris, London was the second city to develop clubs immediately after the war where people danced to the music of records. After the war, London had a wild, largely illegal jazz scene that spontaneously met in basements, demolished buildings and the like. The first British allnighters took place in jazz clubs at this time, the first British drug raid in 1950 at Club Eleven . Following the Parisian model, these clubs also switched to playing music from records on at least a few evenings and installing appropriate music systems. Additional input came from the Caribbean and the local party culture. The first English star DJ was Count Suckle , a Jamaican immigrant. In the USA, platter parties or sock hoppers emerged in the 1950s , with DJs playing music in public. However, these were primarily intended to promote radio broadcasts and were therefore very much based on these broadcasts in terms of style and sequence.
The disco reached the Federal Republic of Germany after 1959
On May 15, 1959, one of the first discos in Germany opened under the name Ocambo Club in Osnabrück, Lower Saxony . This club, in which the music was played by turntables to create the illusion as if dance bands were live on stage, was designed according to the statements of its operator at the time, based on a model in Hanover called the Mocambo Club . The existence of the club is documented by an advertisement and an editorial contribution in an Osnabrück event calendar from May 1959.
Another discotheque in Germany developed from the Aachen eatery " Scotch-Club " , located directly on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands . After this had not “worked” properly, the owner tried it in 1959 with a so-called “Jockey Dance Bar”, in which Klaus Quirini (“DJ Heinrich”) claimed to be the first German disc jockey to record records based on the pattern of broadcasts Radio Luxembourg should bring to life. The disco came to the United States thanks to a French immigrant who opened Le Club in New York City in 1960 . When the disco wave went around the world in the 1970s, there were already 42 discos in Aachen. The term discotheque only slowly gained acceptance in German-speaking countries as a name for a music and dance facility with a moderating disc jockey. In the mid-1960s, the Duden had added the word “discotheque” to its vocabulary. Germany's first large-capacity disco came into being in 1967 with the internationally known Blow Up club in Munich, which for the first time had an elaborate light show with hundreds of spotlights that responded to the rhythm of the music.
The DJ becomes more than the record announcer
In the mid-1960s, the first DJs began to emancipate themselves from the function of pure record hanger. Until then, they had put on one piece after the other and moderated in between, it was especially Terry Noel , who played at Arthur in New York City in 1965 , who began to expand the DJ's musical repertoire and create new music himself. Noel began to personally take control of the lighting system, set up a sound system that allowed him to let a sound wander across the room and began to allow himself previously unknown freedoms in mixing pieces. He put several pieces on top of each other to create new sounds and to create music from records that could not be found on a record. Basically, however, these early American discos, as well as Studio 54 and Xenon , were mainly in-places, where it was less about music and more about the people present. Disco as a music style and partly as an art form developed in underground clubs. In 1969 Noel moved to the newly opened Salvation (later Sanctuary ) on West 43rd Street in Manhattan. The Salvation placed more emphasis on music, was the first disco to be clearly geared towards and shaped by its gay audience, and with the Brooklyn- born Italian-American Francis Grosso, it had the first real star DJ at the mixer.
Disco becomes a style of music
Disco music developed in the early 1970s . In the early 1970s, soul and funk dominated the dance floors in American cities. Around 1973/1974, the freely improvising beat dancers in the discos returned to the dance posture, from which the Discofox emerged. Around the same time, major record companies began discovering the scene and pushing "disco music" to compensate for their declining rock sales. The disco scene received significantly more money and also spread to the provinces. Large discos had increasingly sophisticated technology. Light and laser shows became standard features in large discos. Discos such as Studio 54 in New York and the Fac 51 Haçienda club in Manchester in the late 1980s were famous in the 1970s . In the 1980s, German discotheques had a total of 100 million visitors annually. Currently there are around 80 to 90 million.
At the beginning of the 1970s, discos emerged in the Federal Republic of Germany, some based on the English model, which saw themselves as an alternative to primarily commercial discos. Their musical program was mainly dedicated to blues, rock, soul and progressive rock music and some discos used so-called psychedelic light shows to create a special atmosphere among their guests. The entrance fee was deliberately kept low. The compulsion to consume was not very pronounced. Most importantly, everyone over the legally prescribed minimum age had access. There was no clothing or face check. In 2007, the Jever Castle Museum dedicated an exhibition to the alternative discos and dance halls from the Weser-Ems area under the title “Break on through to the other side”.
Raves, techno and club culture
In the late 1980s, raves , one-day or multi-day events in special locations that served ecstatic dance to electronic music, developed in northern England . Originally developed as an anti- commercial counter-movement to Thatcherism of the 1980s in Great Britain, commercial and market-like structures soon developed in this scene too. Originating from the acid house scene, behaviors and customs that had developed at the raves soon established themselves in many stationary and permanent discos. This included the strong and exclusive focus on electronic music with no or minimal singing and continuous events lasting several days. Alcohol was consumed little compared to other nightclubs, drugs like ecstasy partly replaced the previous party drugs like weed, cocaine and heroin.
Events and program
DJ and music
In recent years, in many discotheques, responsibility for the sound recordings has been transferred to self-employed DJs, who often work on a fee basis. They are often the owners of the phonograms and take them home after work.
The setting of discos and clubs has changed in the context of house / techno and hip-hop music . Here the DJ no longer simply puts the records on, but mixes them together, creating new sound collages by overlaying pieces and manipulating the speed ( pitch bending ) as well as scratching . In the hip-hop area, this music is overlaid by the spoken word ( rap ) of the MCs ; in the techno area, the DJ often mutates into a star who mixes the pieces into one another in such a way that there is no break, but the different pieces become one throughout the night Merge piece. Moderations in between are taboo.
In “hip” discos it is often not possible to fulfill musical wishes. In some cases, however, it is possible to submit a music request on the club's website on the Internet. In most cases, however, the size of the disco is decisive: especially in small discos where the DJ knows many guests personally, he can be carried away to fulfill individual requests, provided he has the title in stock. In larger discos, there is often a structural separation between the DJ and the dancing people, for example through high stages.
Dancing is the most important form of experiencing music in a disco and, for most disco goers, its main occupation there. At the beginning of the disco era, dancing was limited to couple dancing, but dance styles quickly developed in the disco that were danced alone or in groups. The first of these dances was the twist , this and the following allowed those present to break away from the couple bond and are interpreted as emancipatory for women and later homosexuals.
Nowadays, disco-goers, who are practically always alone in the crowd, can choose from a wide repertoire of actions in and with the room: They can move in a central and conspicuous manner or rather withdrawn at the edge of the crowd or in the shade. You can behave expressively and spaciously or move sparingly so that the dancing takes place for the most part in your head, use trained and practiced movement sequences or surrender to the music and at least partially lose conscious control over your own body. Even within the dancing groups there can be different behaviors, the movements between strong similar interaction, mutual casual ignoring or grouping around a few central dancers. Disco operators themselves can create different situations, for example by covering the dance floor with sparse lighting and artificial fog, or by using pedestals to emphasize the optical elements.
During the hippie movement in the late 1960s, German discotheques and other nightlife venues were initially dominated by the consumption of cannabis , which was quickly followed by drugs such as LSD, opium and heroin. Stories and field reports from the 1970s often point to cocaine as the drug of choice at this time. With the rise of the rave and techno scene , the consumption of illegal substances also increased, which are also known in English-speaking countries as "club drugs" or "dance drugs". Although by no means all disco-goers use drugs, evaluations of the British crime statistics have shown that young people who regularly go to discos are twice as likely to have taken drugs as their disco-abstinent peers. The figures were even clearer for cocaine and ecstasy .
Among the drugs that became popular in the 2000s, there are substances that are directly related to club culture (ecstasy, ketamine ), which have experienced a renaissance (LSD) or have been able to extend their already existing popularity to club culture ( Amphetamine ). While with the emergence of the rave and techno culture, only individual substances were often taken, in the years since then there has been an increasing mixture. Often several illegal drugs are combined; even in scenes that were comparatively critical of alcohol, such as technoculture, alcohol was again consumed more by being combined with other drugs. Drugs such as speed or cocaine are often combined with alcohol in order to reduce the effects of heavy alcohol consumption and to stay fit. Disco-goers achieve the same thing, albeit on a smaller level, when they consume alcohol and energy drinks.
Social conflict and violence
Conflicts occur again and again, especially in the vicinity of large discos. The high level of alcohol among the guests often leads to disputes, which are often carried out with the use of force. There is also potential for conflict between discotheque operators and residents who complain about nocturnal disturbance of the peace and the consequences of the additional volume of traffic around the discotheque.
Discos are usually closed spaces, including basements, lofts, converted apartment buildings, warehouses and factories, or purpose-built functional buildings. In Germany, a discotheque is often equated as an event with the room used. In the statistics, bars, discos as well as dance and entertainment venues are therefore considered in summary. It does not reveal whether and how often these rooms are actually used for dancing. The Dehoga trade association estimated the number of discos, dance and entertainment venues to be around 2000 in 2016.
Discos and clubs
In many cases, operators and users also speak of a "club" instead of a disco, in order to deliberately set themselves apart. This is the case in the field of the techno scene , here we are talking about techno clubs - analogous to the term jazz club . Dance halls that emerged from GDR youth clubs are also often referred to as clubs. Dance halls that feel obliged to a minority culture or an artistic claim or claim to belong to a non-commercial underground also often do not call themselves a discotheque, but rather a "club". In some major German cities, the term “club” has prevailed over the term disco. This is sometimes intended to indicate that it is not a " Ballermann -" or " Bagger- Disco", but an institution that is primarily concerned with music or with maintaining a certain scene culture . In terms of the operating concept with strict entry controls, some discos are more like a club. Because of the associated discrimination, there were isolated legal disputes.
Large discos initially emerged in commercial areas on the outskirts and in rural areas. They often consist of several separate individual dance levels ("floors"), which are open to visitors after paying the entrance fee. Many large discos have separate chill-out zones and often have their own catering facilities. Some also have a summer terrace or have other architectural features such as a hinged roof.
Many large discotheques often follow a certain style with their interior design, depending on the target group, and have complex building services for lighting and sound. Particularly on the largest floor, which is also intended as a dance floor, special light effects (e.g. laser light shows) are often used. In some large discotheques, the facade of the building has also been extensively prepared.
As a rule, a certain genre of music is played in different discotheques in order to bind a regular audience to the bar. However, within the framework of special programs previously announced by notice or flyer , this principle is occasionally deviated from and a different musical focus is temporarily set (“Techno Night”, “Black Music Night”).
Especially in larger cities, there are often several clubs competing with each other, which differ in their target groups. This is particularly evident from the differences in the prevailing musical styles and the price policy of a discotheque. There are dance halls that specifically address an older audience through their choice of music and equipment, such as the over-thirty-year-old group. A club scene has developed in some metropolitan areas that appeals to a variety of musical tastes and scene cultures. In addition to large discotheques, there are usually an abundance of small clubs with their own profile that are integrated into the culture of a small scene and often have an identity-forming role for them.
In large cities there are also so-called “scene” or “noble discotheques”, which are characterized by the strict selection of their guests and are known for being regularly visited by celebrities. For these special guests, there is usually a "VIP lounge" available to which only a small group of guests has access.
In small towns and in rural areas there are smaller dance halls, many of which are unrivaled locally and are mostly visited by local youth. These discos are occasionally ridiculed as "peasant discos". The transition between these discos and the open-plan discos is fluid.
The variety of nightclubs is difficult to grasp. In rural areas, a few large discos usually dominate. The operators usually try to reach as many musical tastes as possible, but at the same time to stay within the range of the mass-compatible mainstream. In rural areas, discos are often the only nightlife institutions, so they are also places of relaxation, entertainment and contact, especially flirting. In the country, large discos can usually only be reached by car, as local public transport (with the exception of the disco buses in some municipalities) is usually only used during the day. Large discos therefore usually provide large parking spaces. Lovers of rarer styles of music (e.g. Gothic or Psychobilly ) find no way to realize their preferences in the country and therefore often travel long distances to the next metropolis.
In Germany, most of the discotheques are, from a legal point of view, pubs , i.e. restaurants . Most of the discos are sole proprietorships. If several discos belong to the same operator, they usually have similar names, are designed in a similar way and offer a similar music program. There are also large chains of discotheques.
In addition to the operators from the catering industry, who expect a financial gain from operating the discotheque, there are also occasional non-profit organizations such as church parishes or public youth centers who have prepared an area of their premises for the occasional or regular implementation of dance parties and call it a “disco " describe. The technical equipment of these discos is usually not comparable with professionally operated dance halls. In addition, they often differ in that there is no or only a low entrance fee, there is a strict ban on alcohol and nicotine, or the dance events are carried out under the supervision of educators, social workers or other adult helpers and end in the early evening. Since minors are also allowed under these conditions, this type of discotheque is sometimes also referred to as “children's discos”. Some of the children and young people who visit them regularly are expected to cooperate, e. B. as disk jockeys, counter service or when cleaning up after the end of an event.
Another category are traveling discos. Similar to discos organized by youth centers and non-profit organizations, they use rented rooms, marquees or outdoor event areas and dismantle their equipment after each event. In contrast to the former, however, they are commercially oriented. Wandering discos are particularly common in rural areas. Due to official requirements, such discos have to close earlier than those in permanent buildings.
A mobile discotheque is understood to mean individual DJs or rental companies who set up the lighting and sound equipment at the (variable) venue and hang it up there for a limited period of time.
There are mobile discos that are mounted on vehicles, others are set up in event rooms (hotels, restaurants, private rooms) or in tents. Mobile discotheques are now in competition with the band , music group or solo entertainer due to the extensive music repertoire and the ability to dynamically adjust the volume .
The interior design of discos is usually designed in such a way that both acoustic and visual perception are very different from the outside world. The visual perception is severely restricted, while the acoustic perception moves much more into focus.
The sonication in discotheques is generally carried out by PA systems consisting of powerful amplifiers and speakers . The systems often reach volume levels at which acoustic perception dissolves into physical perception, especially the bass.
Very high sound pressure levels of over 100 dB can be achieved at which hearing damage is possible. In particular, regular sound exposure at very high volumes results in sensorineural hearing loss that is initially unnoticed by the person concerned . Even brief exposure to high sound pressure levels can lead to a sound trauma with temporary or permanent impairment of hearing. Disco visitors often report noises in their ears ( tinnitus ) after going to the disco. When the ear is given time to recover, these sometimes go away on their own within a few hours to days, but they are clear signs of a noise trauma that results in premature hearing deterioration. To avoid these problems, the use of hearing protection is recommended. However, it is even better if the DJ has the volume under control and the system does not turn up excessively loud. (See also DJ driving license ).
In general, indoor discos are comparatively dark in order to give less weight to visual perception and orientation. This is often reinforced by various special effects. From the classics of the simple light organ and mirror balls to complex large-scale systems with laser use, pyrotechnics and other special effects, everything can be found.
A combination of PAR lights ("conventional light"), " scanners ", " moving heads " and stroboscopes is generally standard today . Their effects are supported by the use of fog from fog machines and hazers, which makes the beam path visible and serves as an independent effect. Black light is also a popular light effect as it makes the dancers' clothes and decorations seem to glow. More elaborate installations include larger numbers of the aforementioned devices with sometimes very complex controls, movable decorations and dance floors, laser shows and pyrotechnics . The use of confetti throwers , foam parties and similar effects is also becoming increasingly popular .
Arrival and Departure
The car is the most important means of transport to get to the disco. In Germany, at the beginning of the millennium, over two thirds of the disco visitors used a car to get there. Driving to nightclubs can be up to 200 kilometers one way, especially in rural areas. Compared to the number of disco visitors, but also the number of young driver license holders, men are strongly overrepresented as drivers. Just as the journeys themselves are social experiences: the number of passengers on journeys to and from the disco is significantly higher than normal road traffic conditions. In large cities, on the other hand, it is often possible to travel to and from the hotel by public transport, and the night-time routes of the transport companies are often even aimed at urban areas with (many) discos. In addition, some discos in large cities are also within walking distance or are close enough that a taxi ride is relatively cheap, especially for several people.
So-called " disco accidents " are road traffic accidents that usually occur in the early morning hours on the way back from the discotheque. A 1989 study by the German Federal Highway Research Institute examined 216 disc accidents that resulted in 64 deaths and 484 seriously injured people. The accidents investigated occurred almost exclusively on weekend nights between 11 p.m. and 4 a.m. The most common cause was excessive speed, often followed by heavy alcohol consumption. Alcohol increases risk behavior, which makes young male drivers in particular a particularly accident-prone group of drivers. A German study from 2002 found that over a third of male disco visitors drank alcohol, although they later had to leave the disco by car, and more than ten percent of women. The men, who make up the majority of drivers, also drink significantly more on average than the women. Other drugs, especially cannabis, are still used by just under 10 percent of male drivers and around 5 percent of female drivers.
Entry and entry
Not only “trendy discos” pre-select their guests in the entrance area. In many discotheques, one or more doormen , who exercise housekeeping for the management, decide on the basis of certain specifications (for example, the cloakroom of the potential guest) whether a guest can be admitted or not. In Germany, legal regulations regarding admission to discotheques only exist within the framework of the Youth Protection Act (“ Muttizettel ”) and the so-called “ Anti-Discrimination Act ”. In principle, each operator can determine himself who is allowed to enter and who is not - but the Anti-Discrimination Act sets limits that have since been the subject of judicial review. Refusing entry simply because of a “foreign appearance” is not only inadmissible, but also offers the right to compensation (for example AG Bremen, file number 25 C 0278/10 and OLG Stuttgart, file number 10 U 106/11).
People who are heavily drunk or who are noticeable aggressive at the entrance are turned away.
In clubs that value a particularly exclusive image , great attention is also paid to the external appearance of the visitors. Those wishing to visit, whose clothing is perceived as unsuitable or who do not belong to the desired target group for other reasons, are usually refused entry without a reason. What is considered appropriate can vary greatly: While loose-fitting trousers or sneakers are rather undesirable in a luxury discotheque, a smart suit (too mainstream, too extravagant) can be an obstacle in a techno club. However, security considerations can also play a role in such decisions, for example if those wishing to enter with high heels are denied access to a techno club in an old industrial plant due to the risk of injury.
Visiting a discotheque is usually not free. In many discos, the guest receives a stamp on the arm after the fee has been paid. This can also be done with the help of a special color that can only be made visible under UV light . This stamp, which is checked by the doorman at the entrance, entitles you to re-enter the restaurant without having to pay again. The stamp motif varies from club to club and night to night to ensure that everyone has paid the required entry price. The stamp does not necessarily have to be associated with the club name or “motto”. Sometimes the stamp is even a misused postmark. A widespread alternative to stamps are disposable wristbands made of paper, plastic film or textiles , which cannot be removed from the wrist without being damaged in order to prevent unauthorized disclosure to other persons willing to enter. Using different colors, further information can be quickly visible here, for example whether someone has access to the VIP area or is a minor. In some large discos you get a payment card on which the entrance fee and consumed food and drinks are saved. Payment is made at the exit when leaving the restaurant. The advantage of the simplicity of the system, for example because no cash register but only a card scanner is required at the bar, is offset by the disadvantage that the visitor easily loses track of his expenses.
Drinks / food
In every discotheque, the usual alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks can be bought at the counter, with payment either in cash or by a note on the payment card and subsequent payment when leaving the restaurant. A drink is often included in the entry price. Numerous larger discos also have a pizzeria and occasionally a dining restaurant, which is separated from the dance floor by a soundproof partition. In discos without their own catering facilities, you can sometimes find a snack stand right next to the bar. In some large discotheques, drinks, cloakroom and other services are not paid for in cash at the counter, but with the help of payment cards. These are chip or magnetic cards , and occasionally also cardboard cards , which the visitor receives at the entrance. They can often only be used up to a certain amount, e.g. B. in the case of theft of a card, to keep the costs for the stolen person within limits. When the maximum amount on a card has been reached, you can usually get a new one at the cash register by paying for the old card, or you can pay for the entire card directly at the counter and receive a new card. When leaving the restaurant, the guest pays his drinks at a central cash desk. Since all guests have to pay when leaving the premises, longer waiting times can often be expected in such establishments at the end of operations. In the case of discos with payment cards, the operator must ensure that no one leaves the restaurant without paying, for example through an emergency exit.
In many discos, special events that change regularly are held to entertain the visitors. The dance floor is temporarily covered with foam (“ foam party ”), water (“ Fiesta del Aqua ”), popcorn (“popcorn party”), feathers (“spring party”) or the like. Occasionally special dance performances or striptease shows are offered, which are also performed by professional go-go dancers . The mood is also heated by drinking and party games, in which individual guests of the discotheque are included in the action by a moderator. Many of these games involve the competitive drinking of alcoholic beverages or have an erotic component, such as miss pageants, in which the participants are encouraged to bare their breasts or even to undress completely, which has earned many discotheques the reputation of being primitive places to be open sexism. Even hypnosis shows are occasionally offered.
It is also common to have certain days on which generally lower drink prices or free admission apply (“50 Cent Party”, “Ladies' Night”, “Gentlemen's Club”).
Advertising for discos
At some discos there are advertising stickers to take away at the exit. Sometimes the name of the discotheque is also printed on the glasses used in the bar. Such glasses are occasionally sought-after collector's items. Other discotheques put advertisements on the change. Often, guests are also handed out free flyers, lanyards, pens or the like, (English for commonly known as "giveaways" giving away are) referred. Sometimes you also get discount stamps for fast food chains.
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