from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The collage is both a visual art technique and a work of art created using this technique . Traditionally, a new whole is created by gluing different elements onto a base, hence the name (from French coller , "sticking"). There is also collage beyond the limits of the fine arts, namely as music videos in the style of Yes We Can , as literary collages in the style of Walter Kempowski , as text and sound collages such as Alfred Andersch's The Death of James Dean or as text-image collages Collages like Herta Müller's .


The term “collage” is borrowed from French, where it is derived from the verb “coller” (glue, glue) and from the noun “colle” (glue), which in turn comes from the Greek, “kόlla”.


Collage using photo collage technique
Collage as a "family memory" with photos, letters, document extracts and other texts
Collage in connection with graphic elements

An artistic collage can contain, for example, newspaper clippings , ribbons, pieces of colored paper, photographs that have been glued to a solid surface or canvas . The early collages of Cubism are called paper collé . Further areas of application are photo collages and diacollages , which consist entirely or largely of photographs, parts of photographs or slide material. The Décollage referred tearing of surfaces, such as poster breaks, to make visible to the underlying layers. If three-dimensional objects are combined with one another, the term objet trouvé is used for this .

The principle of collage was also transferred to other genres of art , such as music / acoustic art (sound, sound or music collages, see also the article " Sampling (music) "), to literature (see Montage (literature) ) and the movie.

The collage technique is transferred to three-dimensional objects in the assemblage .

Musical collage

The musical collage is the combination of various independent compositions to form a new musical work. While the medley or the potpourri connect the individual works with more or less well-composed modulation , the collage is characterized by the lack of transitions and the associated sound frictions. These frictions are intended by the composer of the collage.

Theatrical collage

There are also collages in the performing arts . A theater collage consists of scenic, poetic and literary elements and is often used to interpret contemporary or socially critical works (for example in the Polish theater before the fall of the Iron Curtain ).

Literary collage

Collage artists and exemplary works

Art movements in which collages and montages played a major role

Collage by Juan Gris : Man in a Cafe , 1914, oil and sticker
Collage by Emmanuel Flipo , 1998
  • Cubism (1907–1921 / 1940), art movement with a higher degree of abstraction, often shows the objects in the picture fragmented and from several sides.
For the first time real objects were glued to the canvas: old wallpaper, sheet music, glass, newspaper; the collage was elevated to an art technique (see also: paper collé ).
Höch is considered to be the inventor of photo montage, a technique that she developed with Raoul Hausmann and that was quickly taken up by Johannes Baader , John Heartfield and George Grosz .
Typical of surrealism was the playful Cadavre Exquis , which also served as a source of inspiration for “great” works of art.


The collage is controversial in terms of copyright . One can see in it a non-free processing, in which the approval of the works of other authors must be obtained, or a free processing. A free adaptation is when the impression of the original compared to that of the new works "fades".


  • Hanne Bergius : Dada's laugh. The Berlin Dadaists and their actions , Anabas-Verlag, Giessen 1989, ISBN 978-3-8703-8141-7 .
  • Hanne Bergius: assembly and metamechanics. Dada Berlin - Aesthetics of Polarities (with reconstruction of the First International Dada Fair and Dada Chronology), Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 978-3786115250 .
  • Hanne Bergius: Dada triumphs! Dada Berlin , 1917–1923. Artistry of Polarities. Montages - Metamechanics - Manifestations. Translated by Brigitte Pichon. Vol. V. of the ten editions of Crisis and the Arts. The History of Dada, ed. v. Stephen Foster, Thomson / Gale, New Haven, Conn. 2003, ISBN 978-0-816173-55-6 .
  • Jula Dech, Ellen Maurer (ed.): Da-da between speeches to Hannah Höch. Orlanda Frauenverlag, Berlin 1991.
  • John and Joan Digby: The Collage Handbook. Thames and Hudson, New York, 1985
  • Hans Emons: Montage - Collage - Music . Frank & Timme, Berlin 2009. (Art, Music and Theater Studies, Vol. 6). ISBN 978-3-86596-207-2 .
  • Marta Herford (ed.): Rest disorder. Forays into the world of collage. Verlag Kettler, Bönen 2013. ISBN 978-3-86206-300-0 .
  • Karoline Hille, Raoul Hausmann and Hannah Höch: A Berlin Dada Story. Rowohlt, Berlin 2000.
  • Institute for Modern Art Nuremberg, exhibition catalog "From Collage to Assemblage", with contributions by Jürgen Claus, Franz Mon, Wolf Vostell a. a., Nuremberg 1968
  • Miriam Seifert-Waibel: Collage - a differentiation of terms. In: Dies .: A picture made up of a thousand contradicting tattles. The role of the collage in Hubert Fichte's 'Explosion' and the 'House of Mina in Sao Luiz de Maranhao'. Aisthesis, Bielefeld 2005, ISBN 3-89528-519-6 , pp. 24-46.
  • Collage and reality. Historical aspects of collage. In: Aspects of collage in Germany from Schwitters to the present. Hans Thoma-Gesellschaft / Kunstverein, Reutlingen 1996, pp. 7–24.
  • Herta Wescher: The collage / story of an artistic means of expression. Publishing house DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1968.

Web links

Commons : Collages  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Collage  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ So Christoph Hilgert: The unheard of generation. Youth on West German and British radio, 1945–1963. Wallstein, Göttingen 2015 ISBN 978-3-8353-2821-1 , p. 269 ( online preview at Google Books).
  2. ^ Friedrich Kluge : Etymological dictionary of the German language. 24th, reviewed and expanded edition by Elmar Seebold . Verlag de Gruyter, Berlin, 2002, p. 174.
  3. ^ Lech Raczak: Theater without drama . In: Wojciech Dudzik (ed.): Theater consciousness: Polish theater in the second half of the 20th century: ideas - concepts - manifestos . Lit Verlag , Münster 2011, ISBN 978-3-643-11170-8 .
  4. Fromm / Nordemann, Copyright, 9th edition, § 24 Rndr. 2