Kurt Schwitters

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Kurt Schwitters, before 1927, on a photograph by Genja Jonas

Kurt Schwitters (born June 20, 1887 in Hanover ; † January 8, 1948 in Kendal , Cumbria , England ) was a German artist, painter , poet, spatial artist and commercial artist who developed a Dadaist “overall view of the world ” under the keyword Merz . His works include the styles of Constructivism , Surrealism and Dadaism , to which they were only similar because of their opposites. From today's perspective, Schwitters is one of the most influential artists of the early 20th century.

Live and act

Floor relief in Hanover with a poem by Kurt Schwitters from 1920 on the city and its residents, by Siegfried Neuenhausen

Kurt Schwitters was born as the son of the married couple Eduard and Henriette Schwitters (née Beckemeyer) in Hanover as a house birth on the ground floor of Rumannstrasse 2 , the building with today's house number 8. His father co-owned a women's clothing store that he sold in 1898. He invested the proceeds in a few apartment buildings. In 1893 the Schwitters family moved to Waldstrasse (later renamed Waldhausenstrasse) in Döhren (Hanover) . After attending the Realgymnasium in Hanover , Kurt graduated from high school in 1908 and studied for a short time at the Hanover School of Applied Arts . After conventional Impressionist and Expressionist beginnings as a pupil of Carl Bantzer in the summer of 1909 in the Willingshausen painters' colony , Schwitters attended courses with Carl Bantzer and other professors, such as Emanuel Hegenbarth , who taught at the Royal Saxon Academy of the Arts in Dresden , until 1914 . At that time he hardly noticed the artistic upheaval during this time, which was expressed in Italian Futurism , French Cubism , the Blauer Reiter and the Brücke artists' group, which was founded in 1905 .

After completing his studies, Schwitters married Helma Fischer in 1915. He was drafted for military service in the First World War in March 1917 and released in June because of his unstable health - he suffered from epilepsy and was prone to depression. Until November 1918 he was obliged to work as a draftsman in an ironworks. His first son Gerd was born on September 9, 1916, but died a few days later, on September 17, 1916. His second son Ernst was born on November 16, 1918. Also in 1918 he met Herwarth Walden and had his first exhibition in his gallery “ Der Sturm ” in Berlin , where he showed the first “MERZ picture” in 1919 after a brief recapitulation of Cubism and Expressionism. Other artists who exhibited there were Paul Klee , Johannes Molzahn and Magda Langenstraß-Uhlig . Until 1919 he studied architecture for two semesters in Hanover.

Schwitters was hardly politically active, even though he sympathized with the Novembergruppe , a radical artist group founded in 1918 . Since such a definition was alien to him, he met with rejection from the politically influenced Berlin Dadaist group . Richard Huelsenbeck in particular dealt negatively with Schwitters and later called him in his work Dada and Existentialism "a genius in the roasting skirt" or the "Kaspar David Friedrich of the Dadaist revolution." However, relations between Huelsenbeck and Schwitters were initially friendly. At the first meeting in the spring of 1919, Huelsenbeck was enthusiastic about Schwitters' work and offered his support; At the same time, Schwitters promised to find a publisher for Huelsenbeck's Dada publications. Huelsenbeck visited Schwitters at the end of 1919 and received a lithograph as a gift, which he kept for his entire life. The relationship was now tense, although Huelsenbeck wrote a conciliatory letter in January 1920: “You know that I am very friendly towards you. I also think that the certain contradiction that you and I have noticed between our tendencies should not prevent us from taking joint action against the common enemy, the bourgeoisie and the penniless ”. The dispute did not begin until mid-1920, probably because of disagreements regarding Schwitters' planned contribution to Huelsenbeck's (never published) Dada Atlas Dadaco . It is also very unlikely that Schwitters wanted to join the Berlin dada movement, since he was under contract to Herwarth Walden's Der Sturm ; rather, he was looking for an opportunity to exhibit his Merz pictures.

Since Schwitters' first contacts with both Berlin Dada and Zurich Dada explicitly mention his Merz pictures, there is no reason for the widespread opinion that the rejection of the Dadaists encouraged Schwitters to invent his own Merz movement.

In any case, Schwitters was not admitted to the First International Dada Fair in Berlin in 1920 . However, he worked with the Dadaists Hans Arp , Raoul Hausmann , Hannah Höch and Tristan Tzara , was the initiator of the Dada Hanover movement and opened his own MERZ series with a Dada number, the Holland Dada . In contrast to the Dadaists, who rejected art, Schwitters saw his Merz art as art and defended Merz as an "absolutely individual hat that only fit on a single head" - on his own.

Merzz. 53rd (1920)

With Merz called Schwitters his technique of newspaper clippings, advertisements and waste collages create. As a counter-project to the more destructive Dadaism , these pictures and sculptures, created since 1919, should stand for a reconstruction, which brings Schwitters close to constructivism . The term “Merz” was created in a collage from an advertisement for “Commerce and Private Bank” and evokes associations with “Commerce”, “Eliminate”, “Joke”, “Mink”, “Heart” and the month of March, which is the beginning of spring stands.

The Merzbau (a grotto-like collage room sculpture with memorabilia), which Schwitters worked on for about twenty years mainly in his apartment in his parents' house on Waldhausenstrasse, was destroyed, as was many of his works, in a bomb attack in 1943. A reconstruction can be seen in the Sprengel Museum Hannover .

Title page of the Merz magazine from 1924, design by El Lissitzky

In addition to working with Hans Arp, Hannah Höch and Raoul Hausmann, Schwitters had contacts with constructivists such as the Dutch Theo van Doesburg and the Russian El Lissitzky . In 1922 Van Doesburg introduced Dadaism in the Netherlands and published - under the pseudonym IK Bonset - the Dadaist magazine Mecano. On January 10, 1923 he initiated with u. a. Schwitters launched the “Dada campaign” in the Netherlands with the first Dada evening in The Hague. The last Dada soirée took place again with Schwitters on April 13th in the Frisian town of Drachten. In that year 1923, the actions of Dadaism finally ended. He published the magazine Merz at irregular intervals and worked as an advertising and commercial graphic artist for the city of Hanover and the stationery manufacturer Pelikan, among others .

Envelope for Anna Blume , 1919

In the A. Molling & Comp. Kurt Schwitters worked together with the artist Käthe Steinitz on the design of his fairy tales from Paradise , which he also had Molling printed in 1925. "In the basement of the imposing print shop [... he collected] misprints for his works of art". His most famous work, however, was the typographical design for the Dammerstock estate in Karlsruhe . Around 1928 he became a member of the German Werkbund . Most of his livelihood (after his father's death in 1931) earned him rental income from four houses in Hanover.

In 1928 Schwitters initiated the artists' association, the abstract hannover . On March 12, 1928, the other founding members Hans Nitzschke , Friedel Vordemberge-Gildewart , Karl Buchheister and Rudolf Jahns met in his apartment at Waldhausenstrasse 5 in the Hanover district of Waldhausen .

In 1932 Schwitters joined the SPD .

Kurt Schwitters also left an extensive body of work as a poet and writer . Influenced in his youth by Expressionists such as August Stramm , 1919 marked the breakthrough for the poet Schwitters to develop an independent style with the poem An Anna Blume . The large-scale sound poem Sonate in Urlauten (or Ursonate ), which reproduces the sonata form, also became known. There is also a sound recording of this text by Schwitters, whose lecture qualities have often been praised. With phonetic or typographical poems, Schwitters tried to fuse different genres of art. His narrative and dramatic texts are adventurous and often humorous. The story Auguste Bolte plays with the narrowing and alienation of discourses of educated middle class and can be understood allegorically as a critique of art criticism .

Kurt Schwitters hut on the island of Hjertøya off Molde

Ostracized by the National Socialists as “ degenerate ”, he emigrated to Norway in January 1937 , where he had already spent the summer months in previous years. Two more Merz buildings were built in Norway, in Lysaker (destroyed in 1951) and on the island of Hjertøya (near Molde ); mind you, he only referred to the first as the Merzbau . After the German invasion of Norway, he fled to England in 1940.

He was interned in various camps in Scotland and England for ten days in Midlothian two weeks in Edinburgh , six weeks York , about four weeks in Bury and from 17 July to 21 November 1941 at the Hutchinson Internment Camp in Douglas on the Isle of Man , where he set up a studio in a small house. Here he lived with Alfred Sohn-Rethel . He portrayed Sohn-Rethel twice, the one time on a piece of floor wood that they tore away from under a cupboard and made a canvas. Schwitters produced numerous portraits of fellow internees, published stories in the internees' magazine The Camp and regularly held concerts in the camp's artist café. There he met Fred Uhlman , painted his portrait, and became a member of the Association of Free German Artists in Great Britain .

Kurt Schwitters' grave in Hanover at the Engesohde city cemetery

In December 1941, after Schwitters was released from internment, he went to London and lived at 3 St. Stephen's Crescent. In London he met his future partner Edith Thomas (1915–1991; nickname "Wantee") and made the acquaintance of Jack Bilbo , who exhibited Schwitters' works in his Modern Art Gallery . May 1942 he met Ben Nicholson and his wife Barbara Hepworth . August 1942 Schwitters moved with his son Ernst and his Norwegian colleague Gert Strindberg to 39 Westmoreland Road in the London suburb of Barnes.

From 1945 he lived in Ambleside , in the Northern English Lake District . In Elterwater he constructed one last Merzbau ( Merz barn ), a job that he did not, however, finish. He has had serious health problems since 1944, when he suffered a stroke following a severe flu . In 1946 he suffered a physical collapse and also broke the femur .

Schwitters died on January 8, 1948 in the presence of Edith Thomas and Ernst Schwitters in the Kendal Hospital in Kendal in the county of Westmorland . The cause of death was pulmonary edema and myocarditis . He was buried in St. Mary's Cemetery in nearby Ambleside . In 1970, the remains of Kurt Schwitters were transferred to the Engesohde city cemetery (Department 6) in his hometown of Hanover . His satirical play Das Familiengrab, composed in exile in 1946, is set in this cemetery . The tombstone bears his motto “You never know”. His son Ernst († 1996 in Oslo) was also buried in the family grave in 1998.

After moving to the north of England, Schwitters had his work with his friends, the Alfred H. Ungers family, in their house (London, Belsize Park ). After the father's death, his son picked her up there. Some of his works were shown posthumously at documenta 1 (1955), documenta II (1959) and documenta III in 1964 in Kassel .


Location of the former house of Kurt Schwitters in Hanover- Waldhausen , new building after it was destroyed in the war
Stumbling block for Kurt Schwitters and his son Ernst in Hanover- Waldhausen

In memory of Kurt Schwitters, two state schools have been named after him, one in Hanover-Misburg and the other in Berlin-Pankow. The special language school in Düsseldorf-Gerresheim is named after him. In addition, the joint library of the Hanover University of Music, Drama and Media and the Hanover University of Applied Sciences , and the library in the Kurt-Schwitters-Forum at the EXPO-Plaza were named after him. His hometown Hanover honored him by naming the square in front of the Sprengel Museum with his name. A street in Wittmund was named after him.

On November 20, 2015, in the Waldhausen district of Hanover, two stumbling blocks were laid by the artist Gunter Demnig in memory of Schwitters and his son in front of Kurt Schwitters' former house at Waldhausenstrasse 5 in the presence of Mayor Stefan Schostok .


Kurt Schwitters bequeathed over 600 works to his son Ernst Schwitters. In 1963, Ernst commissioned the Marlborough Gallery in London to manage and sell the works. In 1995 Ernst suffered a stroke and died in 1996, so that Kurt's grandson Bengt Schwitters took over the management of the estate. Bengt had "no interest in art or the works of his grandfather" and terminated the family's agreement with the Marlborough Gallery. In 2000, after a long legal battle, the gallery was awarded NOK 18 million as compensation.

As early as 1996, Bengt and his mother Lola offered the Norwegian Ministry of Culture to transfer all works to a foundation in order to preserve the entire collection of works and not have to sell them because of tax claims. The Norwegian Ministry of Culture showed no interest. In 2001 the “Kurt and Ernst Schwitters Foundation” was established in Hanover, which took over around 350 abstract and 300 naturalistic works of art, as well as documentary material, books and sketches, as well as a large number of photographs by Ernst Schwitters. It was not until 2009/2010 that the Henie Onstad Art Center presented the first major exhibition in Norway on the life and work of Kurt Schwitters and has been building up a collection of his works since then.

Numerous pictures by Schwitters can also be seen in the Museum Insel Hombroich near Neuss .


Visual arts

Maraak, Variation I , 1930

Architecture / spatial art



  • The literary work . Edited by Friedhelm Lach. 5 volumes. DuMont, Cologne 1974–1981.
    1. Poetry . 1974
    2. Prose 1918-1930
    3. Prose 1931-1948
    4. Plays and scenes
    5. Manifestos and critical prose
  • Anna Blume and others . Literature and graphics. Edited by Joachim Schreck. DuMont, Cologne 1986. New edition 1997, ISBN 3-7701-4433-3 .
  • "Hurry is the joke's time". A selection from the texts. Edited by Christina Weiss and Karl Riha. Reclam, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-15-008392-3 .
  • The estate of Kurt and Ernst Schwitters . Kurt-and-Ernst-Schwitters-Foundation, arr. by Isabel Schulz, Kurt and Ernst Schwitters Foundation, Hanover 2002.
  • KUWITTER. Grotesques, scenes, banalities . Nautilus, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-89401-132-7 .
  • The collective notebooks 1919–1923. (= “All texts”, Volume 3). Edited by Julia Nantke and Antje Wulff. De Gruyter, Berlin 2014.
  • We play until death picks us up. Letters from five decades . Selected and commented by Ernst Nündel. Ullstein, Frankfurt am Main 1975, ISBN 3-548-03381-4 .

Secondary literature

  • Heinz Ludwig Arnold (Ed.): Kurt Schwitters. text + kritik, No. 35/36, Boorberg Verlag, Munich 1972.
  • Roger Cardinal, Gwendolen Webster: Kurt Schwitters. Hatje Cantz, Stuttgart, 2011, ISBN 978-3-7757-2512-5 (English); ISBN 3-7757-2512-1 (German).
  • John Elderfield: Kurt Schwitters. Claassen, Düsseldorf 1987, ISBN 0-500-23426-4 .
  • Dietmar Elger : The Merzbau by Kurt Schwitters. A work monograph. 2nd edition König, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-88375-362-9 . (Art History Library. Vol. 12)
  • Manfred Engel : Collage as carnivalization. Schwitters Merzkunst. In: Bakhtin in dialogue. Festschrift for Jürgen Lehmann. Edited by Markus May and Tanja Radtke. de Gruyter, Heidelberg 2006, ISBN 978-3-8253-5279-0 , pp. 271-296.
  • Walter Fähnders, Helga Karrenbrock: "I say the opposite, but not always." Kurt Schwitters' avant-garde manifestos. In: Manifestos: Intentionality. Edited by Hubert van den Berg and Ralf Grüttemeier. Rodopi, Amsterdam / Atlanta 1998, ISBN 90-420-0318-9 , pp. 57-90.
  • Georg Franzen: The work of art as a space for experience: associations in Merzbau. In: Music, Dance and Art Therapy , 12, pp. 72–76. Hogrefe, Göttingen 2001.
  • Evelyn Fux: Cut through the upside-down Merzwelt. Conceptions of the narrative in Kurt Schwitters' prose. Edited by Anja Ohmer. Weidler, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-89693-484-0 ( Aspects of the Avant-garde , Volume 10).
  • Friedhelm Lach: The Merz artist Kurt Schwitters. DuMont documents, Cologne 1971, ISBN 3-7701-0577-X .
  • Adrian Notz and Hans Ulrich Obrist (Eds.): Merz World - Processing the Complicated Order. JRP Ringier, August 2007, ISBN 978-3-905701-37-1 . With contributions from Stefano Boeri , Peter Bissegger, Dietmar Elger, Yona Friedman , Thomas Hirschhorn, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Karin Orchard and Gwendolen Webster.
  • Otto Nebel : Kurt Schwitters in memory . In: text + kritik, No. 35/36, Munich 1972, in: Schriften zur Kunst ed. with a foreword by Rene´Radrizzani. Mäander, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-88219-405-7 .
  • Ernst Nündel: Kurt Schwitters with self-testimonies and photo documents . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1981, ISBN 3-499-50296-8 .
  • Werner Schmalenbach : Kurt Schwitters DuMont Schauberg, Cologne, 1967.
  • Karin Orchard:  Schwitters, Kurt. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 24, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-428-11205-0 , pp. 90-92 ( digitized version ).
  • Karin Orchard, Isabel Schulz: Kurt Schwitters. Works and documents. List of holdings in the Sprengel Museum Hannover. Catalog. Sprengel-Museum, Hannover 1998, ISBN 3-89169-132-7 .
  • Karin Orchard, Isabel Schulz: Kurt Schwitters Catalog raisonné. Edited by Sprengel Museum Hannover. Ostfildern-Ruit, Vol. 1, 2000: ISBN 3-7757-0926-6 / Vol. 2, 2003: ISBN 3-7757-0988-6 / Vol. 3, 2006: ISBN 3-7757-0989-4
  • Gerhard Schaub (Ed.): Kurt Schwitters: "Citizen and Idiot". Contributions to the work and impact of an overall artist. With unpublished letters to Walter Gropius. Fannei and Walz. Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-927574-19-8 .
  • Bernd Scheffer: Beginnings of experimental literature: the literary work of Kurt Schwitters. Bouvier, Bonn 1978, ISBN 3-416-01396-4 .
  • Klaus Stadtmüller: Schwitters in Norway. Works, documents, views. Postscript, Hanover 1997, ISBN 3-922382-73-8 .
  • Kate T. Steinitz (d. I. Käte Steinitz ): Kurt Schwitters. Memories from the years 1918–1930 , contains u. a. Memories of musical occasions and personalities as well as sheet music examples in facsimile as well as photos and drawings, Zurich: Verlag Die Arche, 1963; One-time special edition for the 100th birthday of Kurt Schwitters 1987, Zurich: Verlag Die Arche, 1987, ISBN 3-7160-3101-1
  • Gwendolen Webster: Kurt Merz Schwitters. A biographical study. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 1997, ISBN 0-7083-1438-4 . [1]
  • Gwendolen Webster: Kurt Schwitters' Merzbau. PhD dissertation, 2007. [2]
  • Lambert Wiesing : Style instead of truth. Kurt Schwitters and Ludwig Wittgenstein on aesthetic forms of life. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-7705-2704-6 .


  • 1987: Postage stamp with a value of 80 Pfennig, issued by the Deutsche Bundespost for the 100th birthday of Kurt Schwitters.
  • 2007: 172 pence postage stamp issued by the Isle of Man Philatelic Bureau.


Sound carrier

  • Kurt Schwitters: Herbst , Die Raddadistenmaschine , Hanover , Dorf , Kritiker . In: Expressionist poets of the storm - Otto Nebel speaks: August Stramm, Kurt Schwitters, Otto Nebel. rec. Vienna 1962; Amadeo AVRS 2060.
  • Ursonate . Orig. Performance by Kurt Schwitters. Mainz: WERGO records, Mainz 1994. 1 CD, mono, AAD + booklet. (series Music of our century. )
  • Kurt Schwitters: From the throat to the toe . Presented by Bernd Rauschenbach . Zurich: No & But 2003. 1 double CD. + 1 companion. ISBN 3-0369-1142-1
  • Kurt Schwitters: Ursonate . Voiced by Jaap Blonk. Aalsmaar (NL): Bastamusic 2004. 2 CDs. 61 minutes.
  • Kurt Schwitters: Urwerk . Edited by Robert Galitz, Kurt Kreiler and Klaus Gabbert. Zweiausendeins, Frankfurt am Main 2008. 1 MP3 CD. 4 hours of playing time. (In addition to various interpretations of the Ursonata, it contains numerous other pieces of Schwitter's sound poetry.)
  • For further recordings of the Ursonate see: Ursonate


  • Ernst Schwitters tells: Kurt Schwitters - backwards from near. DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne 1988.
  • Laure Prouvost: Wantee. ( Turner Prize 2013.)


  • 1982: Immortality is not for everyone. Kurt Schwitters . Script and direction: Klaus Peter Dencker. Production: Saarländischer Rundfunk / Saarländisches Fernsehen (60 minutes).


Web links

Commons : Kurt Schwitters  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Robert Darmstädter: Reclam's artist lexicon . Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 1979, ISBN 3-15-010281-2 , p. 650
  2. Conrad von Meding: Schwitters' birthplace is elsewhere , article on the page of the Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung from May 27, 2016, last accessed on October 20, 2018
  3. ^ Walter Selke , Christian Heppner: The house where Kurt Schwitters was born in Hanover. In: Hannoversche Geschichtsblätter , New Series, Vol. 70 (2016), pp. 66–71
  4. http://www.schwitters-stiftung.de/bio-ks.html
  5. Ernst Nündel: Schwitters. Rowohlt Verlag, pp. 13-19.
  6. Ralf Burmeister: 'Related by contrast'; Differences in mentality between Dada and Merz. In: Kurt Schwitters: Merz - an overall view of the world. Aus.cat. Museum Tinguely, Basel 2004, pages 140–149.
  7. Karin Orchard & Isabel Schulz (eds.): Kurt Schwitters Catalog Raisonné 1905–22. Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern, 2000, No. 575.
  8. Ralf Burmeister, 'Related by contrast'; Differences in mentality between Dada and Merz ', in Kurt Schwitters: Merz - a total world picture, Auss. Cat. Museum Tinguely, Basel 2004, page 144.
  9. ^ Raoul Schrott, dada 15/25, Haymon Verlag, Innsbruck 1992, pages 225 and 229
  10. Ernst Nündel: Schwitters , pp. 19 f, 33–36
  11. Friedhelm Lach (Ed.): Kurt Schwitters. The literary work , Volume 5, Cologne 1981, quoted from: Kurt Schwitters, 1887–1948 , Frankfurt am Main / Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-549-06667-8 .
  12. a b Pleasure and jokes for children's hearts. From Hanover into the world ( Memento from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) PDF document of the leaflet for the exhibition of the same name in the Hanover Historical Museum from January 18 to April 15, 2012
  13. Compare the high-resolution digital version of the title page from the page kettererkunst.de
  14. a b Hugo Thielen : abstract hannover- die ah In: Klaus Mlynek, Waldemar R. Röhrbein (ed.) U. a .: City Lexicon Hanover . From the beginning to the present. Schlütersche, Hannover 2009, ISBN 978-3-89993-662-9 , p. 10.
  15. Sabine Seitz and others: March 12, 1927: Foundation of the artists' association “Die Abstrakten” , radio broadcast on NDR 1 [ undated ], last accessed on January 29, 2013
  16. Ernst Nündel, 'Kurt Schwitters, We play until death picks us up, letters' Ullstein 1975, page 286
  17. ^ Kurt Schwitters, portrait of Alfred Sohn-Rethel, 1940
  18. Comparison view
  19. Edith “Wanty” Thomas 1915–1991 ( Tate Gallery , English, accessed January 14, 2019)
  20. ^ Tanya Ury : Excerpt from the text of the audio cassette DIE HÄNGTEN. Walkman with rope, 1999 . In: Bettina Flittner, Doris Frohnapfel, Tanya Ury, Mona Yahia: PEOPLE LIKE YOU AND ME. Four artists for the exhibition War of Extermination, Crimes of the Wehrmacht 1941 to 1944 . (April 14 to May 24, 1999. Cologne Gallery of the Cologne City Museum , City of Cologne ), p. 20. Korridor Verlag. ISBN 3-9804354-6-6
  21. Simon Benne : Out of town / memorial stones will be relocated on Friday / stumbling stone reminds of Kurt Schwitters , article on the page of the Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung (HAZ), last accessed on January 31, 2019
  22. Simon Benne: Miniature memorials / stumbling blocks for Schwitters laid ... , article on the HAZ website from November 20, 2015, last accessed on January 31, 2019
  23. Alexander, Leslie. Marlborough Vindicated. Art & Antiques. April 2001: 38.
  24. Dagbladet December 6, 2001: Schwitters kunst til Tyskland.
  25. ^ Henie Onstad Art Center (ed.): Schwitters in Norway . Exhibition catalog, ed.Karin Orchard, 2009, ISBN 978-3-7757-2420-3
  26. ^ The Kurt Schwitters Project , accessed August 16, 2017
  27. Over 130 works of the Schwitters collection of the Sprengelmuseum Hannover in their time. Project management: Norbert Nobis. Hanover: Schlueter 1996. 1 CD-ROM. + Leaflet. (M-Art-Edition. 1)
  28. ^ IOM internment art features on new Manx stamps . BBC UK, 5th August 2010
  29. ^ Laure Prouvost on the 2013 Turner Prize website . Accessed December 3, 2013.
  30. Review: Jonas Engelmann: Da Da Da. In: Dschungel , supplement to jungle world , July 27, 4, 2012, pp. 2–5. (also online)