First international Dada fair
The First International Dada Fair was an exhibition organized by Dadaists . It took place from June 30 to August 25, 1920 in Berlin and was organized by the gallery Dr. Otto Burchard organizes. With its exhibits, the fair was a rejection of bourgeois culture, but it was a documentation of the artistic creativity that the Dada revolt had set free and whose impulses inspired the further development of modern art. Examples are Pop Art , the concept art and object art and the developing of Paris from the ideas and mostly spontaneous techniques of Dada Surrealism to call by these techniques were systematized by the Paris Dadaists.
On February 5, 1916, Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings , who had emigrated to neutral Switzerland as a result of the First World War , founded Cabaret Voltaire in a Zurich bar - named after the philosopher Voltaire , whose conception of society was “ce théâtre et d'orgueil et d'erreur ” (this stage of arrogance and error) the Dadaists saw a critical approach that they used as an anti-German effect - to have a place for their events and exhibitions. Hans Arp , Sophie Taeuber , Richard Huelsenbeck , Marcel Janco and Tristan Tzara met here for the first time ; these encounters are now seen as the beginning of Dada .
The cabaret , which lasted about six months, was a mixture of an art salon and literary cabaret; Young poets and artists met there, who presented their works, showed their pictures or made music. After the First World War, the first Dada galleries opened in France, Germany and the United States, Dada magazines were published and Dada manifestos were published. Independently of Zurich, a group of friends followed in New York , to which Marcel Duchamp , Francis Picabia , Man Ray and others belonged, with similar thoughts on the idea of liberating conventional painting from the all too strong glorification of personal handwriting and “countered it with an art of ideas in which, as with Duchamp's ready-mades , the artist's craftsmanship could fail at all. ”In Cologne, Hans Arp and Max Ernst organized the first Dadaist meetings. Richard Huelsenbeck, who brought the word Dada from Zurich to Berlin in 1917 , and Raoul Hausmann founded Club Dada in Berlin in January 1918 : a loose group without rules, statutes, statutes or a fixed program. Members included the artists George Grosz , Hannah Höch and John Heartfield , as well as for a time Franz Jung , Walter Mehring and Erwin Piscator . In this environment, the Malik-Verlag , founded by Wieland Herzfelde , excelled with the publication of various, mostly short-lived Dada magazines such as Jedermann sein own Fussball and Die Bleite . Some of Grosz's caricatures and Hausmann's essays were published in Die Pleite . Hausmann pursued a political-aesthetic program, which he emphasized in manifestos. He mainly addressed the Expressionists by asking: “Is there even one of your works of art more lively than a dress-up doll? What, neighbor, do you say the spirit in the work of art? I don't give a damn about that stupid look! The imagination of the curling iron, the hot air hair dryer and the electric iron is more necessary than the imagination of the artist. "
Berlin Dadaism was not a copy of the Zurich group - the post-war situation was not comparable to that of Switzerland - on the contrary, the Berlin Dadaists in their illusion-free image of war contrasted the majority of Expressionists with the majority of Expressionists, who viewed the world war as the judgment of God and the purification of humanity the way to earthly paradise. The radical refusal of "sense" was also a demand directed against Expressionism.
The Dada fair
“The sun, moon and stars still exist - although we no longer worship them. If there is immortal art, it cannot die because the art cult is overthrown. "
Raoul Hausmann and Hannah Höch
External web link !
After a few Dada tours through Dresden, Leipzig, Prague, Karlsbad, Hamburg and Teplitz-Schönau in the spring of 1920, the organization of the Dada fair began, which was also to be the last public form of Berlin Dada . The main organizers of the exhibition were "Marshall" George Grosz, "Dadasoph" Raoul Hausmann and "Monteurdada" John Heartfield. The Dadaists had no formulated program, but they largely agreed on the point that an actionist anti-art should be created, as a result of which bourgeois culture would be smashed. The Dada fair was supposed to become the focal mirror of Dada Berlin, which bundled the actionist impulses in a single artistic space. Likewise, the Dadaists declared war on the established art forms. Through an ironic synthesis of the primitive, the banal and modern technology, they tried to illustrate the futility of logic, intellect and bourgeois culture. Noise music, simultaneous lectures, random poems, photo montages and collages from newspaper clippings, photos and everyday objects were among her means of expression.
The exhibition catalog
External Weblink !
The organizers recruited Otto Burchard, gallery owner and manager of a branch of the van Diemen art trade, to collaborate; he was named "Finance Dada". Burchard made the rooms of his gallery in the back yard of the house on Lützow-Ufer 13 ⊙ available. A photographer was appointed especially for the press, who staged the opening of the fair with photos that showed the exhibitors in front of their works.
The large-format, four-page catalog, reminiscent of a newspaper, was published fourteen days after the exhibition opened. 174 Dadaist “products” from a total of 27 exhibitors were recorded. The front cover featured John Heartfield's life and goings-on in Universal City at 12.5 noon . The inside pages contained a review written by Raoul Hausmann, in which the exhibition was torn up in advance, “as well as two images of corrected masterpieces after Picasso and Rousseau , signed 'Grosz-Heartfield mont.'” The “mont.” Stands for “pinx . ”(Latin pinxit = drawn ) and not only means assembled in a collage technique, but also refers to the clothes of the“ Monteurdada ”, who always wore a blue mechanic suit, because he did not see himself as an artist, but as a technician. A little later Bertolt Brecht saw himself as an "engineer" and drew the comparison between building a drama and the design plan of a car.
Art is dead. Long live the new machine art Tatlin's
external web link !
- Photo: Art is dead ... George Grosz and John Heartfield in front of their madman Heartfield
Equating art and technology was a rejection of the idea that art was a genius creation. Machines instead of souls, objective materials instead of individual brushwork - this was the program represented by the Dadaists. At the fair, Grosz and Heartfield had themselves photographed in front of the wild bourgeois Heartfield , a jointly redesigned tailor's dummy, with a large cardboard sign that said The art is dead. Long live Tatlin's new machine art . A lightbulb served as the head of the doll, a set of teeth was clamped between the legs, and the Order of the Black Eagle stood out next to rusty cutlery on the chest and the number "27" on the belly. The philistine Heartfield , so the statement, is “not a person with understanding, but can be manipulated. His brain can be turned on and off at will. ”A bell replaced the left arm, the right a revolver.
Not only the Urdadaists, like the organizers as well as Johannes Baader and Hannah Höch , were represented at the exhibition, Hans Arp, "Dadamax" Max Ernst , the "Zentrodada" Johannes Theodor Baargeld , Alois Erbach, Rudolf Schlichter , Georg Scholz , Fritz Stuckenberg , Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt and Otto Dix their works. Just like Francis Picabia, who presented paintings and his magazine 391 , which appeared in 1917 and which deliberately alluded to the in-house magazine of Galerie 291 in terms of title and presentation , Richard Huelsenbeck contributed as an author with his Dadaist novel Germany must go under . Walter Serner exhibited a photo portrait, and Hugo Ball's poem Karawane was printed on a sheet of the Dadaco , a planned but never realized Dadaist hand atlas ; only Kurt Schwitters , who Huelsenbeck regarded as a “bourgeois-romantic nut”, was prohibited from participating in the fair. Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp and Tristan Tzara were also not represented.
Ben Hecht , a friend of Grosz and war correspondent for the Chicago Daily News and thus a representative of the New World , represented the international claim of the exhibition, which the organizers pursued . In addition, the family members of the artists exhibited, such as Max Schlichter, a brother of Rudolf Schlichter, who ran the prominent artist restaurant "Willys" on Kurfürstendamm. Maud Grosz, George Grosz's wife, also contributed the first “Dadaist pillows”, and the music critic Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt was represented with five collages. Hans Citroen, then 14-year-old brother of Paul Citroen , exhibited four works for the “Dada youth group” .
The rooms and the works on display
Opening of the Dada fair
External web link !
- Photo: The hanging Prussian Archangel . From left to right: Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch (seated), Otto Burchard, Johannes Baader, Wieland Herzfelde, Margarete Herzfelde, Dr. Oz (Otto Schmalhausen), George Grosz and John Heartfield.
"Down art - amateurs rise up against art!"
The exhibition consisted of two rooms. In the main room, there were huge photo portraits on one side, with which the three organizers introduced themselves as Dada agitators. Posters proclaimed their slogans such as: Take DADA seriously, it's worth it , Dada is BIG and John Heartfield is his prophet , Art is dead . Between these hung paintings, printed sheets, collages, book covers, watercolors, drawings, Dada newspapers, posters and advertising drafts, whereby no distinction was made between the original and the printed matter. The walls were covered with pictures from the baseboard to the ceiling, some of which overlapped. The Prussian Archangel (ceiling sculpture) by Heartfield and Schlichter hung from the ceiling in the middle of the room, a stuffed officer's uniform with a knife in his sleeve and a pig mask instead of a face; Tied around the belly, the figure carried the message “I come from heaven up here”.
Works from the exhibition
External web links !
- Germany a winter fairy tale , 1918 (lost)
- Da-Dandy 1919
- Cut with the kitchen knife. Dada through the last Weimar beer belly culture epoch in Germany 1919
Two oil paintings vilifying contemporary German philistines and militarism dominated the main room. One was the picture Germany a Winter Tale by George Grosz, created between 1917 and 1919 ; the work is lost. It showed a fat "philistine" clinging convulsively to a knife and fork, in the midst of the tumult of murder, prostitution and shoving . The three pillars of society - church, military and school - "which Grosz clearly portrays perverted, [...] give the picture support." The second picture hung on the opposite wall, it was by Otto Dix and was entitled: 45% employable! It showed "the war cripples, omnipresent in those days, under the command of a non-commissioned officer who proudly wore the Iron Cross."
Johannes Baader put the products in the main room - the Dadaists didn't want to talk about works of art - travel equipment for the Oberdada on his first escape from the madhouse on September 17, 1899. (Dada Reliquie. Historically) , HADO = Handbook of Oberdadaism , draft for an animal paradise in the Jardin d'Acclimation, Paris . In the small adjoining room there was The great Plasto-Dio-Dada-Drama with its subtitle Germany's Groesse und Untergang by teacher Hagendorf or The fantastic life story of the Oberdada , a five-story "Drama" with floors I: The preparation of the Oberdada ; II: The metaphysical test ; III: The initiation ; IV: The World War ; V: world revolution ; Ueberstück: The cylinder screws itself into the sky and announces the resurrection of Germany through teacher Hagendorf and his lectern. Forever. set up.
Hannah Höch made a cut with the kitchen knife. Dada through the last Weimar beer belly culture epoch in Germany and Da-Dandy , both works from 1919, as well as a Dada-Rundschau from the same year. Rudolf Schlichter showed "improved" versions of Venus von Milo and Apollo von Belvedere and Johannes Theodor Baargeld the picture for excited expressionists . A plaster cast of Ludwig van Beethoven's death mask was provided by Otto Schmalhausen with untidy hair, a thick mustache and slightly squinting eyes, and "was intended to remind us that the celebrated composer was a difficult person who, deaf and mentally ill, died completely lonely. ”Max Ernst, the second representative of the Cologne Dada next to Baargeld, exhibited Erectio sine qua non .
The fair visitors were mostly outraged by the exhibited works, wrote an anonymous visitor in the German daily newspaper : "[...] There is a system in poisoning the German mind, the German heart and the German soul with violence." The writer and journalist Kurt Tucholsky saw Dada as a “cramp”: “From nine to seven o'clock you are constantly in a devastatingly funny and satirical mood. . A Dadaism against three marks and thirty cents Entree "Tucholsky took but Grosz from:" This one, by which the visit is worth, is George Grosz, a real man and a boy full of infinite acrimony [...] Its portfolio God with us should No bourgeois family table is missing - the grimaces of the majors and sergeants are infernal ghosts of reality. He alone is Sturm und Drang, riot, mockery and - how rarely: revolution. "
Gertrud Alexander had already attacked KPD members Grosz and Heartfield because of their art rag - pamphlet in the communist newspaper Die Rote Fahne ; it intensified the attack in the July 25, 1920 issue by warning workers of such perversions that were on display in the fair and denying the Dadaists the right to call themselves communists.
Adolf Behne , who sympathized with the movement, saw the fair positively: “Dada shows the world in 1920. Many will say that in 1920 it was not that hideous. It is like this: Man is a machine, culture is shreds, education is conceit, the spirit is brutality, the average is stupidity and the master of the military. "
The actors themselves took stock and became the historiographers of their own movement. In the same year four writings by Huelsenbeck appeared: Dada siegt. A balance sheet of Dadaism ; Germany must go under. Memories of an old Dadaist revolutionary ; En avant Dada. A history of Dadaism and the Dada Almanac with the self-confident résumé in the introduction: “[…] Dada does not die of Dada. His laughter has a future. "
On April 21, 1921, the headline appeared in the Berliner Tageblatt : “The excesses of the Dada fair. A trial for insulting the Reichswehr. - The Oberdada in court. ”And further it was said:“ The witness Captain Mathäi, who visited the exhibition, got the impression that the exhibition represented a systematic agitation against the officers and the men of the army. ”The Reichswehr Ministry had one Trial due to insulting the Reichswehr, the occasion was Grosz's portfolio God with us and the stuffed soldier with the pig's head, designed by Schlichter and Heartfield. In addition, Grosz and Heartfield also incriminated a woman's torso, which was also stuffed and had an iron cross on its rump. The court imposed fines of RM 300 against Grosz and RM 600 against his publisher Wieland Herzfelde, Malik-Verlag.
Kurt Tucholsky was disappointed with the behavior of the defendants with the exception of Herzfeld, who did not offer any involvement in the trial in the Dadaist manner. He wrote about the defendants: “In other respects the company was similar to the Kapp Putsch : it did not have a leader. None of the boys had been the one who broke the window pane. [...] As for Grosz, I don't know whether the weakness of his defense is due to the fact that he cannot speak. He didn't say a word that would have been adequate to a single line of his leaves. "
“On the whole, the defense was aimed at presenting Grosz as joking about what is bitterest and most serious. Fritz Grünspach , who can defend both draftsmen and those who have been drawn, was skillful enough not to focus on the strong attack on the emperor's mind, but on its excesses. His pleading saved Grosz the collar and was devastating for him and his friends. Is this your defense? You didn't mean it that way? "
Raoul Hausmann summed up in his 1972 book In the Beginning Dada Was Disappointed and reflected on Pop Art and Neo-Dada : “You showed all sorts of boldnesses in material, conception, invention that are not yet surpassed by NeoDADA or Popart - but the audience didn't take part, nobody wanted to see DADA anymore […] DADA was dead, without fame after a state funeral. Simply dead. The Dadaists found themselves in private life. "
The end of the Berlin Dada movement
The first Dada fair in Berlin was the climax and at the same time the end of the Berlin Dada movement. The plan to show part of the Dada mass in an exhibition of the “Société Anonyme” in New York was not realized, despite the announcement at the end of the catalog. Katherine Sophie Dreier , who wanted to organize this exhibition, is said to have selected the works for the United States in July 1920, in fact they were never shipped. Another reason for an early end to the Berlin Dada may have been the politically destructive chaos.
There was no fixed orientation among the participating artists: Some sympathized with the Spartacus League , Bolshevism and Communism , while George Grosz, despite membership in the KPD, shared an open sympathy for everything American with the Herzfeld brothers (Wieland Herzfelde and John Heartfield). This resulted in a kind of anarchism . In addition, the Berlin Dada was much more political than the New York Dada movement, which primarily pursued artistic aspects. One of the exhibition slogans read, for example: “Dada fights on the side of the revolutionary proletariat”; notwithstanding this, Herzfelde wrote in retrospect in his book John Heartfield. Life and work , that the Berlin proletariat obviously did not notice the partisanship and would certainly not have wanted these comrades-in-arms, because the Berlin Dadaists at that time led a bohemian life and not a political struggle. Huelsenbeck remembered a night when he, Jung and the two Herzfelds drank in a liqueur room near the Zoological Garden until dawn, enjoyed cocaine , then became loud and aggressive and continued the excessive celebration in Wieland Herzfeld's studio.
From 1922 the international Dadaists went their separate ways. Dada dissolved into a new direction in art - surrealism. However, none of the Berlin Dadaists took this route. The co-founder of the De Stijl movement, Theo van Doesburg , organized a “Dada campaign” in the Netherlands from January 1923 , which no longer deterred the public. It turned into a cheerful epilogue.
Significance for art history
As on February 5, 1966, the Zurich Mayor Emil Landolt at the house Spiegelgasse 1 in Zurich the inscription "In this house was on 5 February 1916, the Cabaret Voltaire opened and Dadaism founded" revealed in a gilded navel marble by Hans Arp, was this is an official recognition of Dadaism 50 years after its foundation by an official representative of society. This act was also his funeral, because Dada saw himself as a radical protest against this society and its art.
The importance of the fair in art history was demonstrated, for example, by “The Berlinische Galerie” in the Gropius building when it hosted the exhibition “Stations of Modernism. The most important art exhibitions of the 20th century in Germany ”opened in Berlin. She reconstructed twenty exhibitions from the years 1910 to 1930, including the “ Brücke ”, the “ Blaue Reiter ” and the “Dada Fair”. The rooms and exhibits are shown in the gallery's catalog. At the Center Pompidou in Paris , the largest Dada exhibition to date, from the end of 2005 to the beginning of 2006, featured the originally recreated room of the mass, from whose ceiling the Prussian Archangel dangled.
- Helen Adkins (Commentator): Catalogs of epoch-making art exhibitions in Germany 1910–1962 / First International Dada Fair: Art Salon Dr. Burchard, Berlin 1920 . Bookstore Walther König, Cologne 1988, ISBN 978-3-88375-087-3 .
- Hanne Bergius : Dada Berlin . In: Trends of the Twenties. 15th European Art Exhibition Berlin 1977 . (Catalog) Dietrich Reimer, Berlin 1977; Pp. 3 / 65–3 / 77
- Hanne Bergius: Dada's laugh. The Berlin Dadaists and their actions (= Werkbund Archive , Volume 19), Anabas. Giessen 1989, ISBN 3-87038-141-8 .
- Hanne Bergius: assembly and metamechanics. Dada Berlin - Artistry of polarities (with reconstruction of the first international Dada fair and Dada chronology). Gebrüder Mann, Berlin 2000, ISBN 978-3-7861-1525-0 .
- Karl Riha , Günter Kämpf (Ed.): In the beginning there was Dada. Raoul Hausmann . 3rd revised edition, Anabas, Giessen 1991, ISBN 3-87038-166-3 .
- Bernd Klüser , Katharina Hegewisch (Hrsg.): The art of the exhibition. A documentation of thirty exemplary art exhibitions of this century . Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1991, ISBN 3-458-16203-8 .
- Hermann Korte : Die Dadaisten , Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1994, 5th edition 2003, ISBN 3-499-50536-3 .
- Karl Riha: Dada Berlin - texts, manifestos, actions . Reclam, Ditzingen, 9th edition 2005, ISBN 3-15-009857-2 .
- The four-page catalog
- Description in zeitenblicke.de
- Die Zeit : interlude as a frightening of the citizens. At the Rudolf Schlichter retrospective in Berlin in 1984
- Berlin Dada fair 1920. Knife stabbing into German beer belly culture , spiegel.de on the 100th anniversary of the opening, June 30, 2020
Notes and individual references
- ↑ Quoted from akg-images , akg-images.de
- ^ Hanne Bergius: The grotesque as criticism of reality: George Grosz . In: Monika Wagner (ed.): Modern Art II. The Funkkolleg for understanding contemporary art . rowohlts enzyklopädie, Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-499-55517-4 , p. 408
- ^ Hermann Korte: Die Dadaisten , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1994, p. 77
- ↑ Keyser's Grosses Stil-Lexikon Europa. 780 to 1980 . Keysersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-87405-150-1 , p. 482
- ^ Hanne Bergius: Dada as ›Buffonade and funeral mass at the same time‹ . In: Stefanie Poley: Under the mask of the fool . Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-7757-0166-4
- ↑ a b Keyser's Great Style Lexicon Europe. 780 to 1980 , p. 479
- ↑ Andrea Bärnreuther / Peter-Klaus Schuster: The XX Century. Art, politics and society in Germany . DuMont, Cologne 1990, ISBN 3-7701-5064-3 , unpag.
- ↑ Hannah Höch. 1889 to 1978 . In: Artists of the Remmert and Barth Gallery, Düsseldorf
- ^ Hermann Korte: Die Dadaisten , pp. 66, 75
- ↑ a b Karin Thomas: Until today. Style history of the fine arts in the 20th century . DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne 1986, ISBN 3-7701-1939-8 , p. 95
- ^ Hermann Korte: Die Dadaisten , p. 59
- ↑ Quoted from Riha: Dada Berlin , p. 117. In: Dada-Messe , p. 2 f.
- ^ A b Hermann Korte: Die Dadaisten , p. 66
- ^ A b c Helen Adkins: "First International Dada Fair", Berlin 1920 . In: Bernd Klüser, Katharina Hegewisch (Hrsg.): The art of the exhibition. A documentation of thirty exemplary art exhibitions of this century . Insel Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. / Leipzig 1991, p. 70
- ↑ after Hanne Bergius: Das Lachen Dadas , p. 359. In: Hermann Korte: Die Dadaisten , p. 77
- ^ Michael Töteberg : Heartfield , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1978, ISBN 3-499-50257-7 , p. 33
- ↑ Ludger Derenthal: Dada, the dead and the survivors of the First World War. historicum.net, accessed February 28, 2009 .
- ↑ Michael Töteberg: Heartfield , p. 36
- ↑ Michael Töteberg: Heartfield , p. 36 ff.
- ^ A b c Helen Adkins: "First International Dada Fair", Berlin 1920 . In: Bernd Klüser, Katharina Hegewisch (Hrsg.): The art of the exhibition. A documentation of thirty exemplary art exhibitions of this century , p. 73
- ↑ Anna Blume - Dada or Merz. kurt-schwitters.org, archived from the original on October 11, 2010 ; Retrieved September 4, 2012 .
- ^ Helen Adkins: "First International Dada Fair", Berlin 1920 . In: Bernd Klüser, Katharina Hegewisch (Hrsg.): The art of the exhibition. A documentation of thirty exemplary art exhibitions of this century , p. 70 f.
- ^ Hanne Bergius: The grotesque as criticism of reality: George Grosz . In: Monika Wagner (Ed.): Modern Art II. The Funkkolleg for Understanding Contemporary Art , Reinbek bei Hamburg 1991, p. 409
- ^ Hanne Bergius: The grotesque as criticism of reality: George Grosz . In: Monika Wagner (Ed.): Modern Art II. The Funkkolleg for Understanding Contemporary Art , p. 410
- ^ A b c Helen Adkins: "First International Dada Fair", Berlin 1920 . In: Bernd Klüser, Katharina Hegewisch (Hrsg.): The art of the exhibition. A documentation of thirty exemplary art exhibitions of this century , p. 74
- ↑ a b Hans Peter Neuheuser: For the republication of exhibition catalogs and reconstructions of exhibitions (with illus. On page 4). www.bibliothek-saur.de, accessed on February 25, 2009 .
- ↑ Quoted from weblink dada-companion. com
- ^ The German daily newspaper was published from 1894 to 1934 by the publishing house of the same name in Berlin. (Source: Hypress , ÖAW (accessed February 25, 2009))
- ↑ Quoted from Karl Riha: Dada Berlin , p. 125. In: Kurt Tucholsky: Gesammelte Werke , Vol. 1, Rowohlt, Reinbek 1972, p. 702 f.
- ↑ Michael Töteberg: Heartfield , p. 41
- ^ Adolf Behne: Dada , in: Die Freiheit, July 9, 1920 , cited above. after Rosamunde Neugebauer Countess von der Schulenburg: George Grosz. Power and powerlessness of satirical art. The graphics follow God with Us, Ecce Homo and Background . Berlin 1993, (= Phil. Diss. Heidelberg 1990), p. 54
- ^ Helen Adkins: "First International Dada Fair", Berlin 1920 . In: Bernd Klüser, Katharina Hegewisch (Hrsg.): The art of the exhibition. A documentation of thirty exemplary art exhibitions of this century , p. 71 f.
- ↑ Hermann Korte: Die Dadaisten , p. 77 f.
- ^ Hanne Bergius: Dada Berlin . In: Trends of the Twenties. 15th European Art Exhibition Berlin 1977 . (Catalog) Dietrich Reimer Verlag Berlin, Berlin 1977; P. 3/72
- ↑ a b c Lothar Fischer: George Grosz , p. 74. In: Kurt Tucholsky: Gesammelte Werke , Vol. 1, Reinbek 1972, p. 801
- ^ Helen Adkins: "First International Dada Fair", Berlin 1920 . In: Bernd Klüser, Katharina Hegewisch (Hrsg.): The art of the exhibition. A documentation of thirty exemplary art exhibitions of this century , p. 75
- ^ Töteberg: Heartfield , p. 33 ff.
- ^ Hermann Korte: Die Dadaisten , pp. 130, 137 ff.
- ↑ Ernst Nündel: Schwitters . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1981, ISBN 3-499-50296-8 , p. 34
- ↑ Esther Buss: The whole "Dadaglobe". Retrieved February 26, 2009 .