Creative Commons

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Logo of the Creative Commons organization
Example of a photo under the license CC BY-SA 2.0 de. In the case of further use, the following must be stated: the name of the author and the license including a URI / URL , ie "Robin Müller, CC BY-SA 2.0 de ".

Creative Commons (abbreviated CC ; English for creative commons , creative all-ends ) is a non-profit organization that was founded in 2001 in the USA. It publishes various standard license agreements with which an author can easily grant the public rights of use to his works. These licenses are not tailored to a single type of work, but can be used for any work that falls under copyright law , for example texts, images, pieces of music, video clips, etc. This creates free content .

Contrary to a common misconception, Creative Commons is not the name of a single license, but of an organization . The various licenses of Creative Commons vary considerably. Some CC licenses restrict usage relatively strongly, while others ensure that copyright is avoided as much as possible. For example, if someone publishes a work under the CC BY-SA license, then they allow other people to use it on the condition that the author and the license in question are identified. In addition, the user may change the work on condition that he publishes the edited work under the same license. This is the license that Wikipedia uses.

Free content , whether under a CC license or another, is important for people who cannot or do not want to spend money on texts, images, music, etc. In addition, content may be changed and processed under certain CC licenses. This is important for people who, for example, want to deal artistically with the content.


Sign on a pub in Granada, Spain, where only CC-licensed music can be heard, 2006
Free Knowledge Thanks to Creative Commons Licenses : Risks and Side Effects of the Non-Commercial Condition - NC (2013)

The works of a creator (such as text, music, images, videos, etc.) are usually protected by copyright. However, the Creator can choose to make works available to other people without them having to specifically ask for permission. To do this, he publishes the works with a corresponding note that he grants, for example, the right to copy, change and republish to all others.

However, it is difficult for legal laypeople to formulate a corresponding legal text. Ultimately, it should be clear what is allowed and what is not, and it should not be possible to misuse the works made available (for example, someone claiming to be the creator of these works). In order to counter this problem, the organization Creative Commons was founded to develop such legal texts (licenses).


The CC BY-SA license in version 1.0 up to version 4.0

The Creative Commons Initiative was founded in 2001 in the USA, with the main brain behind the initiative being Lawrence Lessig , then a law professor at Stanford Law School (now Harvard ), together with Hal Abelson , Eric Eldred and with the support of the Center for the Public domain . The first article on Creative Commons in a medium of broader public interest was published in February 2002 by Hal Plotkin . The first set of licenses was released in December 2002. The founding team that developed the licenses and the Creative Commons infrastructure as we know it today consisted of a. from Molly Shaffer Van Houweling , Glenn Otis Brown, Neeru Paharia and Ben Adida. Matthew Haughey and Aaron Swartz also played important roles early in the project. The Creative Commons initiative is led by a board of directors with a technical advisory staff.

In 2008 around 130 million works were published under various Creative Commons licenses. The photo host Flickr alone had over 200 million Creative Commons licensed photos in October 2011.

On October 21, 2014, Creative Commons and artlibre announced that the CC BY-SA 4.0 license is fully compatible with the older Free Art license , which was introduced in 2000 . Works that are under these licenses can henceforth be combined as desired and distributed under one of the two licenses or with a double license.


As part of the initiative, several open content licenses were developed, initially primarily relating to United States copyright law . In the meantime, however, licenses tailored to other legal systems are also being developed. The status of the adaptation to German law is documented under Creative Commons International: Germany; Legal Project Lead for the German legal area has been John H. Weitzmann since February 2007, supported by the European IT Academy of Law and the Institute for Legal Informatics at Saarland University . Public Project Lead and therefore responsible for public relations and community building in Germany is Markus Beckedahl , supported by the Berlin agency newthinking communications . In the German-speaking area there are also the country projects Creative Commons Austria (Austria) and Creative Commons Switzerland (Switzerland).

When searching for a suitable license for further use could originally three ruling can provide:

In theory there can be eleven combinations. Seven of the options are offered (and are not declared obsolete). If you answer “no” to the first question, to the second and third with “yes” and to the fourth with “no”, then you put your work in the public domain . If you answer the fourth question with “yes”, you get something similar to the GPL .

As of version 2.0, the “Public Domain” option is no longer offered, but is still available in a different form with version CC0.

The rights modules

Icon Abbreviation Name of the module Brief explanation
Cc-by new.svg by Attribution The name of the author must be mentioned.
Cc-nc.svg nc Non-commercial ( N on- C ommercial) The work may not be used for commercial purposes.
Cc-nd.svg nd No processing ( N o D erivatives) The work may not be changed.
Cc-sa.svg sa Share Alike conditions ( S hare A like) The work must be passed on under the same license after changes.
Film with a checklist for avoiding copyright infringements when using media under free licenses

The current licenses

The CC licenses, arranged according to their openness: from the Public Domain ( Public domain PD) up to " All rights reserved " ( All rights reserved ). The “ Approved for Free Cultural Works ” licenses are dark green , the two green areas mark the licenses that are compatible with the “ Remix culture”.

By combining the above-mentioned rights modules, the effect of the release of a work can be graded according to the wishes of the author. Depending on what is to be released, the corresponding rights modules are selected and at the end the specific license is designed. For example, an author might object to a third-party publisher selling his book on the basis of the CC license without receiving a share of the proceeds. Then he can reserve the commercial use of his work by choosing the rights module NC . Since the rights modules ND for “no processing” and SA for “forwarding [of processing] only under the same conditions” are logically excluded and the rights module BY for “naming” is mandatory for all these licenses, the four rights modules mentioned above result from the above exactly six self-contained, specific licenses, the so-called “core licenses”. Of the possible and recommended licenses ( CC SA has expired), two (three with the "Un-License" CC0 ) modules, CC BY and CC BY-SA, correspond to the definition of free licenses and are marked accordingly on the Creative Commons license selection page .

full name License terms "Approved for Free Cultural Works"?
unported ported
for D
for A
for CH
no copyright if possible ( public domain ) ("no copyright") 1.0 - - - Yes
Cc-by new.svg
Attribution 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 Yes
Cc-by new.svgCc-sa.svg
Attribution, disclosure under the same conditions 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 Yes
Cc-by new.svgCc-nd.svg
Attribution, no editing 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 No
Cc-by new.svgCc-nc.svg
Attribution, not commercial 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 No
Cc-by new.svgCc-nc.svgCc-sa.svg
Attribution, non-commercial, sharing alike 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 No
Cc-by new.svgCc-nc.svgCc-nd.svg
Attribution, non-commercial, no editing 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 No

A (English for the word "unported" not adjusted license variant marked) refers to the non-ported for a specific legal source text of the respective core license in English. In terms of terminology and formulation, it is based on international agreements and the terms of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), forms a common basis for the various legal forms of the different countries and may therefore not be legally binding on all points in every country. The German license variant, on the other hand, has been adapted to the subtleties of German legislation.

All six core licenses grant the general public rights of use under certain conditions for basically all known and (in the German port only from version 3.0) all previously unknown types of use. The right of reproduction, worldwide distribution, public access and performance as well as other rights of use are included. The right to publish edited versions of the work (English “derivatives”) is limited in the core licenses with the name part SA (“share alike”) to distribution under the same conditions and for those with the name part ND (“no derivatives”) even not granted. The core licenses with the name part NC ("non-commercial") exclude any commercial use. The basic condition BY (for "attribution") present in all core licenses requires the name of the author of the work used for each use.

Three different modes of representation

The license terms of the selected Creative Commons license are provided in three ways:

  • Short version for laypeople (“Commons Deed”), which presents the essential basic ideas of the “long version” intended for lawyers in a generally understandable and simplified manner (internationally the same). There is a lay version so that a normal user can grasp the legal rules created by the license without much effort. This should make it superfluous in most cases to seek advice from a lawyer. However, only the "long version" is complete and legally authoritative.
  • Long version of the license as legal full text. This “legally readable” version is the only legally authoritative one and, depending on the version and porting status, is “ported” to national legal systems (United States, Germany, France, etc.). H. text adapted to the respective national law. All “ports” adapted to the respective national legal systems should ultimately have the same legal effects as possible and are based on the same basic ideas. These basic ideas are summarized in the short version. As a result, the content of the short version is always identical, regardless of which country-specific port was selected.
  • Machine-readable version in RDF format so that the license can be recognized by search engines (also internationally identical).

Ports to local legal systems

Since copyright is handled very differently in many countries, there are versions for many CC licenses that are tailored to the local legal system, so-called “ported licenses” or “ports” for short. They are each adapted to a specific legal system. The choice between a country-specific “port” of the license and the respective “unported” license is left to the author or rights holder of the work. All “ports” aim to achieve the same results against the background of national law as provided for in the “unported” license. This procedure is necessary because there is no uniform global copyright law.

Overview of the countries with specific CC licenses (as of 2014):
  • existing
  • in implementation
  • intended
  • License versions for Brazil have existed since June 4, 2004 , and implementations for Germany and the Netherlands followed on June 11 and June 18 . Version 3.0 of the German Creative Commons licenses was released on July 24, 2008. Austrian licenses have also been available since 2004 and in version 3.0 since August 2008. A Swiss version of the CC licenses in version 2.5 has been available since May 26, 2006, and version 3.0 since April 2012. Version 3.0 has also been available for Ireland since February 2012 . A German translation (no porting) of the “international” version 4.0 of the Creative Commons license was made available in January 2017.

    Legal evaluation in Germany

    In German law, the Creative Commons licenses represent general terms and conditions for which there are specific legal requirements. For example, these must not contain any surprising contractual clauses. Doubts regarding the interpretation of the licenses are always at the expense of the licensor in accordance with Section 305c (2) BGB. In the case of older, "unported" versions that were not available in German, it was unclear whether the licensees were able to reasonably take note of the content of the CC license when the contract was concluded.



    The NDR in a pilot project provides individual contributions of shipments of Extra 3 and ZAPP on to download under Creative Commons Non-Commercial-No-Derivatives license.

    BBC Archives

    The BBC planned a project using a CC license with a film archive - Creative Archive - which was made accessible online. Lawrence Lessig helped develop the licensing framework . The pilot phase was completed in 2006. However, the films may only be redistributed within the UK . After the pilot phase ended, the BBC stopped the release of films under the Creative Archive license.

    Open Choice

    Due to the upheaval of the Open Access initiative, the free publication of scientific papers on the Internet, Springer-Verlag offers its authors the opportunity to activate their works in full text and under a CC for a flat rate of 3000 dollars (2200 euros without VAT ) - to provide license.


    Since December 2011, selected contributions from the program quer on Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR) have been published under the CC license "Attribution, non-commercial, no editing 3.0 Germany".

    In February 2013, the BR decided to only support the program Space Night with music under CC license in future. This step took place after the broadcaster had announced the discontinuation of the program due to excessively high GEMA fees and an initiative by fans had formed to preserve it through the use of music under CC licenses. It is the first broadcast on public television to use CC-licensed music in principle.


    Screenshot of the former platform

    Under the title “ZDFcheck”, ZDF operated a platform on the Internet with which the statements of political applicants were checked in the run-up to the 2013 federal election . Internet users could contribute with comments, the editorial selection was the responsibility of the ZDF editorial team. According to the Wikimedia Germany association , which supported ZDFcheck, the project was “a first milestone in the collaboration with a public broadcaster”. The results, a total of 20 graphics, two of which could actually be used in articles, appeared under the CC license Attribution 3.0 and should be used cross-media on ZDF and on . The project continued for a while with other topics.

    Radio Fritz

    Fritz , the youth wave on Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg , occasionally broadcasts short clips between two songs, often with a satirical character. These jingles are published under the CC Attribution, No Commercial Use, No Editing license and are available on the broadcaster's website.

    Audioportal of Free Radios

    The Federal Association of Free Radios e. V. operates an exchange platform for radio reports. There are well over 50,000 radio broadcasts on the portal that can be listened to, downloaded and broadcast directly from other radio stations. Most of the contributions are offered under the CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 de Creative Commons license.

    Cultural Broadcasting Archive

    The Free Radios in Austria have a common platform, administered by the Free Radio Upper Austria, where almost a quarter of a million contributions from 14 free radios and 3 free television stations in Austria are now available. Many broadcasts from the stations are often put online as a whole (with the non-CC part, mostly the music, being faded out when listening), and many individual contributions and interviews are also put online. Most of the programs are CC BY-NC-ND, but the uploaders can decide for themselves whether the contributions may be distributed commercially or edited.

    CC licenses in literature

    In the area of ​​scientific non-fiction in particular (as a form of open access), as in the area of ​​music, it is now common to publish under a CC license. In contrast to this, these licenses have so far found little use in the field of literature, especially in fiction, in German-speaking countries. The novels and stories of the Canadian author Cory Doctorow , which were also translated into German and published under a CC license, can be regarded as groundbreaking . The writer Francis Nenik takes a similar approach , who used his prose works such as a. published the novels "XO" and "Coin Controlled History", also under a CC license.

    CC licenses in public administration

    On, the Federal Chancellery in Austria has created a platform where Austrian authorities have been able to provide data under CC BY 3.0 since 2012.

    Other legal tools

    CC Plus

    CC + license field

    CC + is a protocol that can automatically handle the granting of additional rights that go beyond the Creative Commons license. The project aims to facilitate the use of Creative Commons licenses in the commercial sector. One possibility would be the commercial use of a work released for non-commercial use only or an implementation of the Street Performer Protocol . CC + uses ccRel, an established method for labeling CC-licensed content.


    Icons Abbreviation full name License terms (Unported) "Approved for Free Cultural Works"? Cc-zero.svg CC0 no copyright if possible ( public domain ) (“no copyright”); if not, as in Germany, an unconditional license Version 1.0 Yes

    CC0 (pronounced cc zero ) combines two legal tools, a waiver and an unconditional license. The unconditional license acts as a fallback license in the event that the priority waiver is not fully effective under the applicable law. The waiver declares the waiver of all property rights. This is intended by the author or rights owner active in the work of the respective public domain be transferred (English "voluntary public domain"). If this transfer is not legally possible - as for example in Germany or Austria - the "fallback license" contained in CC0 represents a creative commons license without the usual license conditions (BY, SA, ND, NC, see above). According to the idea of ​​Creative Commons, CC0 should also and especially be suitable for databases. After the project had been in the beta phase since January 16, 2008, version 1.0 was presented in March 2009. CC0 replaces the now obsolete “Public Domain Dedication and Certification” (PDDC). A well-known database work that was placed under CC0 is the common authority file .

    Older licenses

    In newer licenses, a name (BY) is mandatory. In older licenses (version 1.0) this was not the case. The licenses that prohibit non-commercial copies were also discontinued. These include the Sampling and DevNations licenses .

    These licenses are still valid; their use in new works is no longer recommended by Creative Commons.

    Icons short form meaning License terms "Approved for Free Cultural Works"? Reason for hiring
    Cc-nd.svg ND No editing Version 1.0 No no demand
    Cc-nd.svg Cc-nc.svg ND-NC no editing, not commercial Version 1.0 No no demand
    Cc-nc.svg NC Noncommercial Version 1.0 No no demand
    Cc-nc.svg Cc-sa.svg NC-SA Non-commercial, share-alike Version 1.0 No no demand
    Cc-sa.svg SA Distribution under the same conditions (similar to the GPL , but incompatible) Version 1.0 Yes no demand
    Cc-by new.svg CC-devnations.svg DevNations Attribution required, applies only in developing countries Version 2.0 No no demand, no global non-commercial reproduction allowed
    Cc-by new.svg CC-sampling.svg  Sampling Attribution required, copying of the work prohibited. Re-use of parts of the work (for film or music) or as part of a new work (for pictures) is permitted Version 1.0 No no demand, no global non-commercial reproduction allowed
    Cc-by new.svg CC-sampling.svg Sampling Plus Attribution derivative works only in the form of sampling or mash-ups allowed Version 1.0 No Not compatible with other CC licenses, no demand
    Cc-by new.svg CC-sampling.svg Cc-nc.svg NonCommercial Sampling Plus Attribution, derivative works only allowed in the form of sampling or mashups, not commercial Version 1.0 No No demand

    Developing countries

    The “Developing Nations License” only allows developing countries to change and process (derivatives) of any kind. In this context, developing countries are those that the World Bank does not classify as a “high-income economy”. Users from industrialized countries are excluded from these rights, they only have read rights. This license has now been discontinued because it brought significant compatibility problems with it. In general, all open licenses promote knowledge sharing with developing countries, so there was little need for a special license.

    Sampling Licenses

    The sampling licenses (adapted for the United States and Brazil ) were developed in collaboration with Gilberto Gil , Minister of Culture in Brazil and well-known musician.

    Music Sharing License

    The music sharing license is not an independent license, but just another name for the by-nc-nd license, which is no longer used on the CC website . It allows the user to download , swap and webcast the music licensed by the author in this way , but not to sell, edit or use it commercially. The term “Music Sharing License” is misleading. Although it gives the impression that this license is the only possible or recommended CC license for musical content, other, less restrictive CC licenses can of course also be used. For example, all six current licenses are used on the Internet music platform Jamendo . On the other hand, this license can of course also be used for other types of content.

    Founders' Copyright

    In addition to the core licenses and CC0, Creative Commons provided a kind of legal "simulation" of the old American copyright law , namely the declaration that the author placed his work under the so-called "Founders' Copyright" of 1790. At that time, the "copyright" was valid. of only 14 years ago, which could be extended by another 14 years. The work was then considered in the public domain. This legal effect can still be reproduced today, at least against the background of US American law, by means of a public statement drafted by Creative Commons. The Creative Commons "Founders' Copyright" project ended in 2013.

    For comparison: According to the basic regulation of the “Revised Berne Convention”, which is valid almost everywhere today, copyright has a term of at least 50 years after the death of the author, but in most industrialized countries a standard protection period of 70 years has been chosen. Furthermore, in the United States there is the possibility for companies to have a copyright over 95 years.



    Criticism and problems

    There are some points of criticism, but also prejudice against licenses from Creative Commons:

    • Comprehensibility: The abstracts of the licenses are not necessarily sufficient to understand exactly what is allowed. The user then has to read the long version, which may be technically too difficult. Michael Seemann wrote on December 6, 2012 in Zeit Online : "The licenses are only really understood in nerd circles who have specialized in them."
    • Compatibility: The principle of copyleft (in Creative Commons one speaks of share alike ) states that new, modified works must be published under the same license as the original work. If you combine works that are under different licenses, the result may not be properly licensed. This “bastard problem” applies both to the case that all works are under CC licenses and to the case that licenses are taken from the GNU project , for example .
    • The Free Software Foundation recognizes CC BY 2.0 and CC BY-SA 2.0 as a free license (for works other than software or its documentation). However, the project was heavily criticized by Richard Stallman because licenses were published that did not allow global non-commercial reproduction (CC Sampling, CC DevNations). Creative Commons then discontinued said licenses.
    • The Non-Commercial module occasionally causes problems because it is not clearly defined what exactly is meant by commercial . The definition was not made more precise even with version 4.0.
    • The Attribution module can also lead to problems, as correctly fulfilling the requirement can be complicated. One example is the continued use of Wikipedia articles, where the attribution requirement can be difficult due to the possible large number of authors.
    • Much of the information is only available in English.


    • Netherlands: Rechtbank Amsterdam, March 9, 2006
      Adam Curry , a pioneer of podcasting , published photos of his family on the Flickr web community under the “Non-commercial Share Alike (by-nc-sa)” license (for non-commercial purposes only). The Dutch tabloid Weekend used the photos for a report on Curry's fifteen-year-old daughter. On March 9, 2006, a court in Amsterdam recognized a copyright infringement and sentenced the magazine to pay Curry EUR 1,000 per picture for further infringements. Although the penalty was relatively minor, the validity of Creative Commons was confirmed here.
    • Spain: Juzgado de Primera Instancia nº 6 de Badajoz, February 17, 2006
      Another judgment was passed in Spain. There, the Spanish collecting society Sociedad General de Autores y Editores had sued a bar owner. But since he only played music that was under CC license, he was right. The rights of the collecting societies therefore do not extend to non-proprietary content.
    • USA: United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, January 16, 2009
      No decision in the matter for lack of personal jurisdiction over the defendant. In August 2008, however, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) confirmed violations of the terms of free licenses as copyright infringement (Jacobsen v. Katzer, JMRI Project license ).
    • Belgium: Tribunal de Première Instance de Nivelles, October 26, 2010
      Compensation for the band Lichôdmapwa for violating “BY” and “NC”; the organizer of the Spa Theater Festival had used the play "Aabatchouk" as background music in a radio commercial. However, the awarded amount fell short of the claims, because the band released their work for non-commercial exploitation, but demanded compensation for damages above the usual tariffs for commercial use.
    • Israel: Jerusalem District Court, January 6, 2011.
      Compensation for two amateur photographers for using Flickr photos by a travel book publisher in violation of “NC”.
    • Germany:
      • OLG Cologne , judgment of October 31, 2014; LG Cologne , judgment of March 5, 2014
        The Cologne Higher Regional Court saw several violations of the CC regulations in the use of a section of a picture under CC BY-NC 2.0 on the website of a public broadcasting company: It violates "BY", because the name of the author that was superimposed on the original photo was cut off in the lower corner during the trimming. The provisions on permissible processing were also not complied with because it was not pointed out that the version used was an excerpt. The OLG sentenced to cease and desist. However, due to the lack of clarity as to what is meant by “non-commercial”, no compensation was awarded. Because the value of the non-commercial use of an image under CC BY-NC 2.0 is zero. According to German law, the violation of the obligation to name only leads to a 100% surcharge on the compensation - the OLG explains: “But 100% of 0 is still 0; It must also be taken into account that the defendant named the claimant as the author, even if not in the form owed under the license conditions. "
      • District Court Berlin , preliminary injunction of October 8, 2010.
        The copyright infringer, a party, had used a photo of the photographer in her blog without marking her name and the source according to the underlying Creative Commons license Attribution - ShareAlike 3.0 Unported . With an injunction, the photographer enforced that the party must comply with the license conditions of the CC license.

    Scientific publishers

    In May 2019, Springer Nature changed its requirements for journal authors to the effect that contributions that are distributed as preprints can also be published on a corresponding platform under a Creative Commons license.


    Web links

    Commons : Creative Commons  - collection of images

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Creative Commons: History . Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
    2. Plotkin, Hal (2002-2-11): All Hail Creative Commons Stanford professor and author Lawrence Lessig plans a legal insurrection . Retrieved March 8, 2011.
    3. ^ History of Creative Commons . Archived from the original on February 13, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
    4. ^ Matt Haughey: Creative Commons Announces New Management Team . September 18, 2002. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved on May 7, 2013.
    5. Lawrence Lessig: Remembering Aaron Swartz . January 12, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
    6. ^ History of Creative Commons . Archived from the original on February 13, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
    7. Kay Kremerskothen: 200 million Creative Commons photos and counting! . Flickr blog. October 5, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
    8. Big win for an interoperable commons: BY-SA and FAL now compatible . Retrieved October 22, 2014.
    9. Compatibilité Creative Commons BY + SA & License Art Libre . Retrieved October 22, 2014.
    10. Creative Commons - ShareAlike 1.0 Generic - CC SA 1.0. Retrieved November 10, 2018 .
    11. Creative Commons - CC0 1.0 Universal. Retrieved November 10, 2018 .
    12. ^ "Definition of Free Cultural Works" , accessed on September 14, 2013
    13. ^ "Approved for Free Cultural Works" logo on the license website, accessed September 14, 2013
    14. German Creative Commons licenses in version 3.0 available . ( Memento of July 27, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
    15. Swiss 3.0 Creative Commons licenses now available . ( Memento from January 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), April 16, 2012
    16. ^ Announcing the new Creative Commons 3.0 Ireland suite ., February 27, 2012
    17. Martin Steiger: Creative Commons 4.0 licenses in German translation. January 22, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2017 .
    18. OLG Cologne, judgment of October 31, 2014, Az. 6 U 60/14 = GRUR 2015, 167 ff .; OLG Cologne, judgment of April 13, 2018, Az. 6 U 131/17 = GRUR-RR 2018, 280ff, Rn. 16.
    19. Reto Mantz: “Creative Commons Licenses as Reflected in International Legal Proceedings .” In: GRURInt 2008, pp. 20–24, p. 24.
    20. OLG Cologne, judgment of October 31, 2014 - 6 U 60/14, (MIR 2014, Doc. 121, )
    21. Tanja Dörre: “Current jurisprudence on Creative Commons licenses.” In: GRUR-Prax 2014, pp. 516-518.
    22. Overview: CC videos of the NDR
    23. BBC Creative Archive - Homepage ( Memento from March 26, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Creative Commons attracts BBC's attention ( Memento from January 31, 2005 in the Internet Archive ), June 11, 2004, in the web archive
    24. BBC Creative Archive pilot , accessed October 21, 2017.
    25. ^ BBC - Creative Archive License Group. Retrieved November 10, 2018 (UK English).
    26. ^ BBC - Creative Archive License Group - FAQs. Retrieved November 10, 2018 (UK English).
    27. ^ Springer Open Choice License . (by-nc 2.5)
    28. Even more Creative Commons from across the board. (No longer available online.) Horizontal , December 2, 2011, archived from the original on July 20, 2013 ; Retrieved July 24, 2013 .
    29. Finally free - The BR relies on CC music for the Space Night . on on Feb. 19, 2013
    30. Will the first public broadcast with cc music be coming soon? - Interview with Tobias Schwarz on Radio corax on February 13, 2013
    31. Barbara Fischer: What Wikipedians are particularly good at . Wikimedia Germany Blog, April 24, 2013-04-24
    32. commons: Category: ZDFcheck ( Wikimedia Commons )
    33. ^ Fritz Jingles. Retrieved November 10, 2018 .
    34. - Audio Portal of community radio. Federal Association of Free Radios , accessed on February 6, 2019 .
    35. Attribution - non-commercial - distribution under the same conditions 2.0 Germany (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 DE). Retrieved on February 6, 2019 (explanation of the CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 license).
    36. ^ Cultural Broadcast Archive. Retrieved October 19, 2013 .
    37. xo - the quandary novelists. In: Retrieved April 5, 2016 .
    38. fiction. In: Retrieved April 5, 2016 .
    39. Literarily special under Creative Commons license. Retrieved October 16, 2013 .
    40. Objective of April 20, 2012, accessed on November 29, 2015.
    41. License conditions: CC0 1.0 Universal
    42. New in the program: CC0 - Creative Commons Germany. March 17, 2009, accessed on November 10, 2018 (German).
    43. CC0 beta / discussion draft launch - Creative Commons . In: Creative Commons . January 15, 2008 ( [accessed November 10, 2018]).
    44. Linked Data Service of the German National Library . Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
    45. officially discontinued CC licenses (English)
    46. ^ Founders Copyright - Creative Commons. Retrieved November 10, 2018 .
    47. Michael Seemann: 10 years of Creative Commons. The eco shop of the nerd elite. In: The time. December 6, 2012 ( ).
    48. Declaration by the FSF for the licensing of works other than software or documentation .
    49. Free Software Foundation blog .
    50. .
    51. Andrea Müller: Creative Commons Version 4: the discussion starts. In: Heise online. December 13, 2011, accessed February 1, 2012 .
    52. Version 4.0 is here! - Creative Commons Germany. Retrieved on November 10, 2018 (German).
    53. How to Correctly Use Creative Commons Works (English).
    54. OpenAttribute: Making Creative Commons Attribution Easy .
    55. File number 334492 / KG 06-176 S (LJN: AV4204): Dutch , English (PDF; 142 kB); Note from Reto Mantz (PDF; 180 kB).
    56. Blog comment ( Memento from March 17, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
    57. File number 761/2005: Spanish ( Memento of 23 May 2011 in the Internet Archive ), English (PDF; 144 kB); Note from Reto Mantz (PDF; 180 kB).
    58. ^ Article in German and judgment in Spanish ( Memento of March 6, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
    59. File number 3: 07-CV-1767-D (Chang v. Virgin Mobile USA): English ; Note from Reto Mantz (PDF; 180 kB).
    60. File number 2008-1101: English ( Memento of March 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 66 kB).
    61. File number 09-1684-A: French (PDF; 1.3 MB); .
    62. File number 3560/09, 3561/09: Hebrew (PDF; 695 kB); English summary ( Memento of December 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive ); .
    63. Cologne Higher Regional Court, file number 6 U 60/14: MIR 2014, Doc. 121 , , [BeckRS 2014, 21041]
    64. ^ Regional Court of Cologne, file number 28 O 232/13: .
    65. Regional Court Berlin, file number 16 O 458/10: (PDF).
    66. NN: Springer Nature journals unify their policy to encourage preprint sharing . In: Nature . tape 569 , 2019, pp. 307 , doi : 10.1038 / d41586-019-01493-z ( ).