|motto||The wind of freedom blows|
Stanford , California ,
|including professors||2,219 (2019)|
|Annual budget||US $ 6.8 billion (2020)|
|Foundation assets||US $ 27.7 billion (2020)|
|University sports||Cardinal ( Pacific-12 Conference )|
|Networks||Association of American Universities|
The Leland Stanford Junior University (short Stanford University or Stanford , nickname "The Farm") is a private American university in Stanford , California . It is located about 60 kilometers southeast of San Francisco near Palo Alto and was founded by Leland Stanford and his wife Jane Stanford in 1891 in memory of their only son who died young. There are currently 16,122 students enrolled at the university and studying in one of the seven faculties . Its president is Marc Tessier-Lavigne .
It is one of the most research-intensive and renowned universities in the world. Since its inception, 30 teachers have been awarded the Nobel Prize. The university has more Turing Awards (“Nobel Prize for Computer Science”) winners than any other institution in the world and currently has 21 Nobel Prize winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners and 24 MacArthur Fellows . The university regularly achieves top positions in various ratings for academic institutions.
With his research, Stanford is also considered to be the main founder of the nearby Silicon Valley , an important business location that is home to numerous companies in the IT and high-tech industries.
In university sports, the university is represented with its Cardinal team in the League Pacific-12 Conference (PAC-12) and takes part in many different sports competitions. At the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, athletes from the university won 25 medals, including 8 gold medals . In 2012 in London, 12 Stanford athletes received gold medals.
Stanford is one of the richest universities in the world with approximately $ 28 billion in endowment. Since 2008 Stanford has stopped charging tuition fees for undergraduate students whose parents earn less than 100,000 (since 2020: 150,000) US dollars a year. This means that around a third of all Bachelor students can study free of charge. Students whose parents earn less than $ 65,000 also receive free board and lodging.
The decision to found the company was made by the former California entrepreneur and governor Leland Stanford and his wife Jane Stanford a few weeks after the death of their only 15-year-old son Leland Stanford junior in 1884. They provided in 1885 for the establishment of the university named after the deceased Funds and the area of their Palo Alto Stock Farm in the Bay Area , about 60 kilometers south of San Francisco , are available for the establishment of The Leland Stanford Junior University Foundation . After a six-year planning and construction phase, the university was opened and teaching began on October 1, 1891.
The concept of the university was unusual for the time, because it enabled women and men to study equally and was not affiliated with any religious community. The Stanford couple wanted a major private university to be built on the American west coast. On a visit to Boston, the Stanfords asked then-President of Harvard University , Charles Elliot, how much it would cost to duplicate Harvard in California, to which he replied that $ 5 million (rate of 1884) should be sufficient. The first few years, however, turned out to be financially difficult despite the large fortunes of the Stanfords. At times, Jane Stanford pawned personal property to cover the running of the university. In particular, a $ 15 million litigation weighed on the university's budget. After the dispute was settled, however, the financial situation improved significantly, to which the $ 30 million donation from Jane Stanford in 1901 contributed significantly.
In the years that followed, university life flourished as many different faculties were established. In the 1920s, the Stanford graduate and later President of the USA, Herbert Hoover , laid the foundation for the later Hoover Institution. The Stanford University Alumni Association was founded in 1934 and still plays a key role in supporting and developing the university today.
During and after the Second World War , the university became one of the growth engines of Silicon Valley and sustainably accelerated the economic, cultural and scientific development of the region around San Francisco, in particular the emergence of the Internet industry and e-commerce . The university is a member of the Association of American Universities , an association of leading research-intensive North American universities that has existed since 1900.
The motto of the university, which adorns the seals and all souvenirs of the university, is written in German: “ The air of freedom blows. “The phrase goes back to the German humanist Ulrich von Hutten (1488–1523) and was introduced by David Starr Jordan , the first president of Stanford University.
From 1992 to 2000 the German legal scholar Gerhard Casper was president of the university.
- 1891–1913: David Starr Jordan
- 1913-1915: John Casper Branner
- 1916–1943: Ray Lyman Wilbur , while Wilbur was Secretary of the Interior of the United States under Herbert Hoover: Robert Eccles Swain 1929–1933
- 1943–1948: Donald Bertrand Tresidder , 1948 after the unexpected death of Tresidder: Alvin C. Eurich and 1949: Clarence H. Faust
- 1949–1968: JE Wallace Sterling , 1968: Robert J. Glaser
- 1968–1970: Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer
- 1970-1980: Richard Wall Lyman
- 1980-1992: Donald Kennedy
- 1992–2000: Gerhard Casper
- 2000-2016: John L. Hennessy , 2012: John Etchemendy
- 2016 -: Marc Tessier-Lavigne
The university is located on a 3310 hectare campus and is around 60 kilometers southeast of San Francisco and 32 kilometers northwest of San José . In the immediate vicinity is the city of Palo Alto , one of the centers of Silicon Valley .
The land was donated by Leland Stanford on November 11, 1885 to establish the university and is still inalienable as part of the foundation's assets. Leland Stanford attached great importance to the unsaleability of the property because, in his opinion, it should secure “a greater income than any other investment” for the university. Only a few peripheral areas, which Leland Stanford later added to the university, can theoretically be sold, but are in fact treated as inalienable.
The campus was initially planned in the summer of 1886 by Frederick Law Olmsted , a Boston landscape architect, who changed the originally planned location in the hills in favor of the location in the lowlands. Charles Allerton Coolidge later took over the planning and built the campus in the style of the European Beaux-Arts at the will of the Stanford couple . The architecture of the campus is characterized by cuboid sandstone buildings with red roofs, which are connected by arcades decorated with round arches . They are modeled on the style of the California mission stations . In contrast with the region's usually light blue sky, they give the campus a distinctive look, which the first President David Starr Jordan described as follows:
"The yellow sandstone arches and cloisters, the red-tiled roofs against the azure sky, make a picture that can never be forgotten, itself an integral part of a Stanford education."
The heart of the campus architecture is the “Main Quad” (roughly: main square, in the sense of “square square”) and the “Memorial Church”. The access to the campus is provided by the so-called Palm Drive, which leads to an oval square (The Oval). Other important points on campus are the Cantor Center for Visual Arts , the Hoover Tower , the Rodin Garden and the radio telescope ( The Dish ).
South of the main campus is an environmental reserve belonging to the university , the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve , which biologists use for research purposes, e.g. B. the night observation of bats, is used and has a size of 490 ha.
The campus is a popular tourist destination, so the Stanford Visitor Center offers one-hour student tours of the site twice a day.
60% of the area of the campus is still undeveloped today.
The university is organized as a so-called corporate trust and is exempt from tax payments. It is headed by a Board of Trustees made up of 35 people. They usually hold office for five years and can be a member of the committee a maximum of two consecutive years (a total of ten years). Members also oversee the operations of Stanford Research Park , Stanford Shopping Center , Cantor Center for Visual Art , Stanford University Medical Center, and many affiliated medical facilities.
The Board of Trustees appoints a President, defines the duties of the professors and the degree programs, and deals with all financial and economic issues of the university. In addition to the President, 9 Vice- Presidents are also appointed. Neuroscientist Marc Tessier-Lavigne is currently the 11th president of the university. He was appointed on September 1, 2016, succeeding the US professor of electrical engineering and computer science John LeRoy Hennessy in this position.
The university is divided into seven schools , comparable to German faculties. These are the School of Humanities and Sciences (includes the humanities, natural and social sciences), School of Engineering (engineering sciences), School of Earth Sciences (geological, energy and environmental sciences), School of Education (educational sciences and teacher training), Graduate School of Business (economics), Law School (law) and the School of Medicine (medicine).
The foundation's assets are managed by Stanford Management Company and currently (2019) amount to 27.7 billion US dollars. On the one hand, the income from the investment of the foundation's assets, which is limited to 5% in accordance with the statutes, covers the university's annual expenses, on the other hand, part of the income is returned to the foundation's assets. In the 2018–2019 fiscal year, 22% of the university's total spending ($ 6.8 billion) was accounted for by income from the foundation's assets. This is the second-largest item after funds for direct research funding (e.g. from the federal government), but only slightly ahead of funds from tuition fees .
Large amounts of grants for Stanford University students are also provided from the foundation's assets. In 2019, 23% of the foundation's income was spent on financial support for students. Faculties and teaching staff funded 20% of the proceeds. 28% of the income is used for research and teaching. The rest is spent on libraries and other uses. The foundation's assets make up by far the largest share of the university's assets (38.8 billion US dollars).
Stanford University has received a large amount of donation over the past decade. She is at the forefront of fundraising at US universities. She received donations of $ 640.1 million in 2009, $ 598.9 million in 2010, and $ 709.4 million in 2011. In fiscal 2019, the university received $ 1.1 billion from more than 55,000 donors
The Stanford Challenge project attracted particular attention . This five-year fundraising campaign raised funds to finance several major university projects in the field of research, teaching and infrastructure development on the campus. The fundraising goal of US $ 4.3 billion was met two years before the end of the campaign, but the campaign continued and raised a total of US $ 6.23 billion in donations by the end of 2011. This surpassed the previous donation record of US $ 3.88 billion set by Yale University . With the help of the donations, 139 new chairs were created and 38 buildings were renovated or built. About 10,000 volunteers helped to organize the campaign and were more than 166,000 donors 560,000 donations acquire .
Study and Research
The university offers a wide range of study opportunities and, as a so-called research university, is also broadly positioned in the field of basic research and doctoral training . The majority of the students are so-called graduate students . In other words, they already have a first university degree, for example a BA , and are studying for a Master’s or Ph.D. -Degree. The university is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Full-time undergraduate studies cost $ 74,570 annually in 2019, with 65% of students receiving some form of financial assistance. The university spent a total of approximately $ 191 million on these scholarship programs in 2018-2019. The cost of studying at graduate level is in a similar range but varies from faculty to faculty. Over 85% of the graduate students also receive financial support.
As usual in the USA, the courses on offer differ between undergraduate and graduate studies . The former serve the acquisition of a bachelor's degree, the latter the acquisition of a master's degree or doctorate. The objectives of the training were set out in writing by Jane and Leland Stanford in the university's founding document:
"... to qualify its students for personal success, and direct usefulness in life; And its purposes, to promote the public welfare by excercising an influence on behalf of humanity and civilization, teaching the blessings of liberty regulated by law, and inculcating love and reverence for the great principle of government as derived from the inalienable rights of man to life , liberty and the pursuit of happiness. "
The undergraduate studies can be completed at Stanford with a Bachelor of Arts (BA), Bachelor of Science (BS) or Bachelor of Arts and Science (BAS). The subjects of study include anthropology, biology, chemistry, history, music, philosophy, physics, political science, sociology, theater studies, economics and many other subjects. Of the large number of applicants, only a few are admitted to the course (2011: approx. 7%), which are determined in a standardized selection process. Around 60% of the students come from public schools, 30% from private schools and 10% from abroad.
The graduate course enables the acquisition of various master's and doctoral degrees with respective specializations. The offer is also broadly diversified and enables, for example, a Master of Arts (MA), Master of Science (M.Sc.), Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Laws (LL.M.), Master of Public Policy (MPP) or Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.).
Since 1982 the university has operated branch offices at ten universities worldwide under the name Bing Overseas Studies Program . This program enables Stanford students to study abroad or do an internship and was used by 44% of students to study abroad in 2011. The places for studying abroad are Australia , Barcelona , Berlin , Florence , Hong Kong , Istanbul , Cape Town , Kyoto , Madrid , Moscow , Oxford , Paris , Beijing and Santiago de Chile . In Berlin, the branch is now in the Cramer house , after the premises of the Free University of Berlin were used until 1975 .
Both application and basic research is carried out at the university. Not only the professors, but also the graduate students and, in some cases, advanced undergraduate students are involved in this work. The university follows the Humboldtian ideal of the unity of teaching and research. Particular emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary nature of research. Research is carried out e.g. B. in the development of a 3.2 gigapixel camera at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, as part of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy or in the project Cracking the Neural Code . The so-called Stanford Prison Experiment of 1971, which is considered a milestone in the psychological research of human behavior under the conditions of captivity, especially under the field conditions of real prison life, achieved fame . In addition, the Folding @ home project , which uses distributed computing to fold proteins, is operated at Stanford University . The university is home to many specialized research centers, including the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace and the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies . In 2011, Stanford raised more than $ 66 million in license fees for inventions developed at the university, including DSL transmission technology and recombinant DNA technology.
The university has many founders from well-known IT companies, e.g. B. Google , Yahoo , Hewlett-Packard , Cisco Systems , and promotes a strong culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in its students and faculty . The university is an important economic factor in the region. However, some researchers at the university complain that the university is sometimes too close to and dependent on companies.
The university enjoys an excellent reputation in research and teaching in all disciplines and is one of the world's leading universities. In this context, attention is often paid to the good personal support situation for students by professors, since there is one teacher for every eight students. In addition, 75% of the courses have fewer than 20 students. Of the undergraduate courses, 36% have class sizes of two to nine students. For this reason, Stanford is often referred to as a “dream college” by both students and parents, according to a survey by the Princeton Review 2010.
The university regularly occupies top positions in the well-known university rankings. In 2012, she took second place in the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Ranking . The university also ranks second in the Academic Ranking of World Universities , together with Harvard University . The US News and World Report magazine's ranking separates undergraduate and graduate courses for US universities . In 2013, Stanford University ranks fifth in the field of undergraduate education. The graduate courses are listed separately by faculty. The Stanford Graduate School of Business ranks first, along with Harvard Business School . The School of Education comes fourth, the School of Engineering second, and the School of Law also comes second. The Stanford Medical School ranked fourth in the research.
Nobel Prize Winner
Stanford currently has 21 Nobel Prize winners. Another nine Stanford professors received the Nobel Prize, but have since passed away. Stanford only counts those Nobel Prize winners who belong or belonged to one of the university's faculties, not those who are loosely connected to the university.
- Paul Berg (* 1926), Nobel Laureate in Chemistry in 1980
- Roger D. Kornberg (* 1947), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006
- Brian Kobilka (* 1955), Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 2012
- Michael Levitt (* 1947), Nobel Laureate in Chemistry in 2013
- Andrew Z. Fire (* 1959), Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
- Thomas Südhof (* 1955), Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
- Douglas Dean Osheroff (* 1945), Nobel Laureate in Physics 1996
- Steven Chu (* 1948), 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics, Minister of Energy under Barack Obama
- Robert Betts Laughlin (* 1950), Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
- William F. Sharpe (* 1934), 1990 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Myron S. Scholes (* 1941), 1997 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Michael Spence (* 1943), 2001 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Joseph E. Stiglitz (* 1943), 2001 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Thomas Sargent (* 1943), winner of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Alvin E. Roth (* 1951), Nobel Laureate in Economics 2012
- Felix Bloch (1905–1983), Nobel Laureate in Physics 1952
- Linus Pauling (1901–1994), Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1954 and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate 1963
- William Bradford Shockley (1910–1989), 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Arthur Kornberg (1918–2007), Nobel Prize in Medicine 1959
- Robert Hofstadter (1915–1990), 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Paul Flory (1910–1985), 1974 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Milton Friedman (1912–2006), 1976 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921–1999), 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Henry Taube (1915–2005), 1983 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Douglass North (1920–2015), 1993 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Martin Lewis Perl (1927–2014), 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Burton Richter (1931–2018), 1976 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Kenneth Arrow (1921–2017), 1972 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Richard Edward Taylor (1929–2018), 1990 Nobel Prize in Physics
Establishing technology companies
The culture of Stanford University includes the practical application of study and research in technology company start-ups . Both the inventors and funders of venture capital in Silicon Valley and the Bay Area have close ties with the university. In 2013 the Stanford Board of Trustees decided to get involved in promoting start-ups in the future. Via the StartX fund, which was originally set up by students, the university will invest in newly founded companies of its students and graduates. The project begins with medical technology and is expected to provide a volume of 50–100 million US dollars for all technical fields by 2018.
Stanford University's sports teams are called the Stanford Cardinal . The university is a member of the Pacific-12 Conference . Traditionally, interest in the Stanford football team is highest and peaks in rivalry against the University of California, Berkeley team . The football stadium was rebuilt in 2005-2006 and currently holds 50,000 spectators. The construction cost was 90 million US dollars and was carried out by the architectural firm Hoover and Associates . The old Stanford Stadium, which was built in 1921, also played host to the men's 1994 and women's 1999 World Cup.
On campus is the art museum founded by Leland Stanford and his wife Jane and now known as the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts . There is a well-known exhibition with sculptures by Auguste Rodin . The university sponsors over 100 music, dance and theater performances annually, which attract over 30,000 visitors. The Bing Concert Hall opened in January 2013, has a 360 ° concert hall with outstanding acoustics for live performances and offers space for 842 visitors. It is suitable for chamber music or small jazz combos as well as for large orchestras. The acoustic design was done by Nagata Acoustics ' Yasuhisa Toyota .
- Albert Bandura (* 1925), psychologist ( Bobo Doll experiment )
- Eugene C. Butcher (* 1950), physician, immunologist, Crafoord Prize 2004
- Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht (* 1948), holder of the chair of comparative literature
- Benjamin Harrison (1833–1901), 23rd President of the United States of America
- Donald Knuth (* 1938), founder of the formal analysis of computer algorithms, inventor of the TeX text typesetting system
- Maryam Mirzakhani (1977–2017), first female recipient of the Fields Medal
- Jack Norman Rakove , Pulitzer Prize winner
- Raj Reddy (* 1937), Turing Prize winner
- Condoleezza Rice (* 1954), former Secretary of State of the United States
- Leland Smith (1925–2013), developer of the notation program SCORE
- Lewis Madison Terman (1877–1956), developer of the Stanford-Binet IQ test
- Sebastian Thrun (* 1967), Vice President of Google , founder of Udacity
- Philip Zimbardo (* 1933), psychologist ( Stanford Prison Experiment )
- IT area
- Kurt Akeley , founder of Silicon Graphics
- Steve Ballmer (* 1956), former CEO of Microsoft
- Andy Bechtolsheim (* 1955), designer of the first Unix workstation, together with Vinod Khosla founder of Sun Microsystems . The name is derived from S Tanford U niversity N from etworks.
- Jeffrey Bewkes (* 1952), Time Warner President
- David Boggs (* 1950), inventor of the Ethernet
- Len Bosack & Sandy Lerner , founders of Cisco Systems
- Bud Colligan , founder of Macromedia
- David Filo (* 1966) and Jerry Yang (born 1968), inventor of the technology behind the (original) Internet directory Yahoo ! plugged
- Marcian Edward Hoff (* 1937), inventor of the microprocessor
- Jawed Karim (* 1979), founder of YouTube
- Marissa Mayer (* 1975), CEO of Yahoo
- David Packard (1912–1996) and William Hewlett (1913–2001), the founders of Hewlett-Packard
- Larry Page (* 1973) & Sergey Brin (* 1973), founders of Google
- Benjamin M. Rosen (* 1933), founder of Compaq
- Peter Thiel (* 1967), founder of PayPal
- Ehud Barak (* 1942), former Israeli Prime Minister
- Cory Booker (* 1969), current US Senator from New Jersey
- Yukio Hatoyama (* 1947), former Prime Minister of Japan
- Herbert Hoover (1874–1964), former President of the United States and founder of the Hoover Institution on campus.
- Condoleezza Rice (* 1954), former Secretary of State and prior to that, National Security Advisor to the USA
- James Woolsey (* 1941), former CIA director
- Randall Bal (born 1980), swimmer
- Benny Barnes (born 1951), American football player
- Bruno Banducci (1921–1985), American football player, teacher
- Mike Bruner (* 1956), swimmer
- Bob (* 1978) and Mike Bryan (* 1978), tennis players
- Maya DiRado (* 1993), swimmer
- John Elway (born 1960), American football player
- Zach Ertz (born 1990), American football player
- Janet Evans (born 1971), swimmer
- Landry Fields (born 1988), basketball player
- Julie Foudy (* 1971), soccer player
- John Hencken (* 1954), swimmer
- Eric Heiden (* 1958), speed skater
- Misty Hyman (* 1979), swimmer
- Katie Ledecky (born 1997), swimmer
- James Lofton (born 1956), American football player
- Brook Lopez (born 1988), basketball player
- Robin Lopez (* 1988), basketball player
- Andrew Luck (born 1989), American football player
- Simone Manuel (* 1996), swimmer
- Peter Marshall (* 1982), swimmer
- Christian McCaffrey (born 1996), American football player
- John McEnroe (born 1959), tennis player
- Pablo Morales (* 1964), swimmer
- Blaine Nye (born 1946) American football player and entrepreneur
- Nneka Ogwumike (* 1990), basketball player
- Jim Plunkett (born 1947), American football player
- Markus Rogan (* 1982), swimmer
- Jeff Rouse (born 1970), swimmer
- Summer Sanders (born 1972), swimmer
- Richard Sherman (born 1988), American football player
- Jenny Thompson (* 1973), swimmer
- Kerri Walsh Jennings (* 1978), beach volleyball player
- Tom Watson (born 1949), golfer
- Bob Whitfield (born 1971), American football player
- Tiger Woods (born 1975), golfer
- Eric A. Cornell (* 1961), 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics
- John C. Harsanyi (1920–2000), 1994 Nobel Prize in Economics
- Dudley R. Herschbach (* 1932), 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Willis E. Lamb Jr. (1913–2008), 1955 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Neal E. Miller (1909-2002), psychologist
- Peter Salovey (* 1958), President of Yale University
- K. Barry Sharpless (* 1941), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
- Karl A. Taube (* 1957), archaeologist
- Carl Wieman (* 1951), 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Chelsea Clinton (* 1980), daughter of the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton and his wife, former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
- K. Flay (* 1985), US musician and singer
- Marjorie McClelland (1913–1978), child psychologist and savior of the Jews
- Philip of Belgium (* 1960), Belgian king
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