University of California, Berkeley
|University of California, Berkeley|
("Let there be light!")
|founding||March 23, 1868|
Berkeley , California ,
|Foundation assets||4,045,000,000 USD (2015)|
|University sports||Pacific-12 Conference|
|Networks||Association of American Universities|
The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal or UC Berkeley , German University of California, Berkeley ) is a state university in Berkeley in the US state of California and has been one of the most renowned universities in the world for many years.
Founded in 1868, the University of California at Berkeley is the oldest campus of the University of California , a system of state universities in California spread over ten locations. It is located in Berkeley on the east bank of San Francisco Bay . The University is a founding member of the Association of American Universities , an association of leading research-intensive North American universities, and serves on the University network International Alliance of Research Universities in.
The Berkeley site has 107 Nobel Prize winners . Sixteen elements of the periodic table were discovered at Berkeley or by university graduates. Six elements are also linked by their names to the university or the researchers working there: Californium , Seaborgium , Berkelium , Einsteinium , Fermium and Lawrencium . With 117 Olympic gold medals (51 silver and 39 bronze), Berkeley also belongs to the top group of universities in the USA.
At the end of 2018, 42,519 students were studying here and more than 2,300 professors were employed (1,608 full-time and 732 part-time). UC Berkeley's foundation assets are US $ 4.045 billion (2015). The entire system of the University of California has one of the largest foundation assets worldwide with 14.26 billion US dollars.
In 1866 the land on which the campus is now located was purchased by the private College of California , founded in 1855 by Pastor Henry Durant . Due to lack of funds, however, it made sense to merge with the state Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College , which had sufficient financial resources but no land available, to form a full university and so on March 23, 1868, the University of California became Durant founded as the first president. In 1869, that was University in Oakland opened and used first of all the buildings of the College of California. In 1873, after part of the work on the campus site acquired in 1866 was completed, the company moved from Oakland to Berkeley.
The beginning was marked by financial difficulties and only with the 20-year presidency of Benjamin Ide Wheeler 1899-1919 did consolidation take place. During that time, many of the most famous buildings on the Berkeley Campus were built, for example the Hearst Greek Theater , the Doe Library or the Sather Tower , also known as the Campanile and the landmark of UC Berkeley.
In the 1930s, under the presidency of Robert Gordon Sproul, the Golden Age of Berkeley began. It succeeded in luring numerous well-known scientists to the university. Berkeley achieved world fame especially in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. One of the most important research achievements of that time was the development of the cyclotron by Ernest O. Lawrence , which led to the discovery of numerous chemical elements such as the Berkelium or the Californium .
During World War II , the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, now known as Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), under the direction of Ernest Lawrence, participated in the development of the atomic bomb . Robert Oppenheimer , professor at Berkeley since 1929, was entrusted with the management of the Manhattan Project in 1942 .
In 1949, during the McCarthy era, the university administration required all university employees to take an anti-communist oath of allegiance. Because some faculty members refused to sign the oath, they were suspended and not rehabilitated until ten years later. A pledge of allegiance to the US Constitution is still mandatory for all UC Berkeley employees today.
In the 1960s, Berkeley became the "spearhead" of the student movement in the United States. When the radical civil rights activist Malcolm X was banned from speaking on campus and all student groups were banned from collecting donations or taking political positions on campus, the students affected founded the Free Speech Movement , which campaigned for freedom of speech. In ever larger demonstrations one protested for free speech and against the war in Vietnam . Student leaders like Mario Savio , Jack Weinberg and Reginald Zelnik became nationwide icons of student protest. From Berkeley, the wave of protests finally reached Europe and culminated in May 68 . Since that time Berkeley has been considered the most progressive part of America, an intellectual and cultural stronghold, but scoffers call it the “ People's Republic of Berkeley ” or “ Berzerkeley ”.
Human rights groups see it differently. In her opinion, the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology does not consider the rights of the Native Americans as enshrined in the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). In addition, the university management was in dispute with the city council over a 21-month tree occupation to protect 42 redwood trees and the associated archaeological sites that stood in the way of the expansion of an athletics center.
Nature conservation associations are particularly critical of animal experiments .
Government funding fell sharply; In 2010 this was 11 percent.
Overlooking the San Francisco Bay, the campus with a total area of almost 5 km² is one of the most beautiful in the country. To this day, the rural charm of the early days has largely been retained. Much of the administrative and academic buildings are concentrated on 72 hectares to the west of the campus. A large part of the area has now been built up, so that the construction of new university buildings has been expanding to areas beyond the campus for some time. To the east of the main campus are numerous university-affiliated research facilities, such as the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute . The campus was designed by Émile Bénard, who won a global tender. However, a large part of Bénard's designs were modified only a short time later by John Galen Howard in order to better integrate the building into the geomorphological conditions of the campus area. Howard was responsible for the design of the Doe Library , the Hearst Greek Theater and the Memorial Stadium , among other things .
The more than 130 institutes and facilities of UC Berkeley are spread over 14 organizational units:
- Information management and systems
- Journalism ( Graduate School )
- Letters and Science
- Natural resources
- Public health
- Public Policy (Richard & Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy)
- Pedagogy (Graduate School)
- Law ( UC Berkeley School of Law , previously Boalt Hall )
- Environmental design
- Social affairs and welfare
- Economics ( Haas School of Business )
- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
- Lawrence Hall of Science
- Mathematical Sciences Research Institute
- Cory Hall - The building of the electrical engineering institute was the target of two attacks by former UCB assistant professor Ted Kaczynski, known as Unabomber
- Botanical Garden
- Doe Library
- International House
- Berkeley Art Museum & Pacific Film Archive
- KALX Radio - University radio station
- Hearst Greek Theater
- California Memorial Stadium - home to the home games of Cal Bears, the university's football club. Capacity: 73,347 seats
- Space Sciences Lab , here is astronomical research and u. a. also operated the SETI and SETI @ home project.
- University of California Museum of Paleontology
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology
The 32 libraries at the University of California, Berkeley, make up the fourth and fifth largest library systems in the United States , on par with the University of Illinois . The only major libraries in the USA are the Library of Congress and the library systems of Harvard University and Yale University .
Berkeley's library system contains more than 12 million volumes in 2018 and with a total space requirement of over 50,000 m² it is one of the largest library systems in the world.
The Doe Library was built in 1910 and now serves as the reference and administrative center for the entire system. The university's two largest reading rooms are also located here. In the underground area of the Doe Library are the Main (Gardner) Stacks, named after the 15th President of the University of California and Berkeley graduate, David P. Gardner. In order to be able to offer enough space to the library's growing holdings, there are around 84 km of bookshelves in the Gardner Stacks , spread over three floors, each larger than a football field, and thus space for around 2 million books. Natural sunlight can penetrate to the lowest floor through the ceiling windows.
In 2003, the Association of Research Libraries recognized the library system as the best public library system and the third best overall library system in North America.
Admission of students
- Applications / acceptance rates for freshmen (2015/2016)
- Number of applicants: 78,863
- Assumed: 13,332
- Percentage rate: 16.9%
- Approval requirements (2014/2015)
- SAT: 1840-2230
- GPA: 3.85
- Tuition fees undergraduate (per year for 2015/2016)
- Residents: $ 13,518
- Non-residents: $ 41,078
According to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UC Berkeley is one of the most valuable university brands of 2015. It has been a constant for years in the natural, social and engineering sciences, as well as in mathematics, physics, chemistry, IT and business Places in the TOP 1-5 worldwide.
According to the National Research Council , 35 of UC Berkeley's 36 graduate programs are in the top 10. UC Berkeley is the only university with all PhD programs within the national top 5 as selected by the US News & World Report . UC Berkeley achieved third place in the rankings of Jiao Tong University in Shanghai in 2013 - behind Harvard and Stanford .
In the ranking of the world's best universities by US News & World Report, Berkeley ranks fourth for 2017 - behind Harvard University , the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University . UC Berkeley has been selected as the best public university in the USA by the US News & World Report for several years in a row (2015).
- Academic Ranking of World Universities (Shanghai Jiao Tong University) 2015: # 4
- US News & World Report 2017 - Best Global University Rankings: # 4
- The Best Schools 2015 - The 100 Best Universities in the World: # 4
- QS World University Rankings 2015 - overall result: # 26
- Times Higher Education 2016 - Overall Score: # 10
- Washington Monthly 2015 - Overall result: # 4
- Clark Kerr (1952-1958)
- Glenn T. Seaborg (1958–1961)
- Edward W. Strong (1961-1965)
- Martin E. Meyerson (1965)
- Roger W. Heyns (1965–1971)
- Albert H. Bowker (1971–1980)
- Ira Michael Heyman (1980–1990)
- Chang-Lin Tien (1990-1997)
- Robert M. Berdahl (1997-2004)
- Robert J. Birgeneau (2004-2013)
- Nicholas B. Dirks (2013-2017)
- Carol T. Christ (since 2017)
The university offers nearly 350 courses and more than 7000 courses. Approximately 8,500 students graduate each year. Currently (2018) around 42,000 students are enrolled at the university.
Eight Nobel Prize winners , 3 Fields Prize winners , 4 Pulitzer Prize winners , 15 National Medal of Science winners , 31 MacArthur Fellows, 77 Fulbright Fellows, and 137 members of the National Academy of Sciences teach and research at UC Berkeley. The professor to student ratio is 1 to 18 (as of 2018).
Of the 42,589 students in the 2018/2019 academic year, 30,853 were at the undergraduate level and 11,666 were at the graduate level .
Undergraduate (Graduate) students by ethnicity / origin:
- 39.0% (17.3%) Asian Americans / Pacific Islands residents
- 26% (37.9%) whiteness
- 13.7% (6.7%) Latin American Americans (Chicano / Latino)
- 3.3% (3.6%) African American
- 0.7% (1.0%) Native Americans
- 1.6% others
- 3.8% (9.7%) no information
- 13.5% (23.8%) international students.
Among the almost 6000 international students in 2015/16 were 83 from Germany, 14 from Switzerland and 7 from Austria.
University physicists played a major role in the development of the atomic bomb during World War II and the hydrogen bomb a short time later. The university is also responsible for the two national nuclear research centers in Los Alamos and Livermore . Scientists at the university invented the cyclotron , discovered the antiproton , played an important role in the development of the laser , explained the process of photosynthesis , successfully isolated the polio virus (polio) for the first time , proved Bell's theorem with experiments and numerous chemical elements such as Americium , curium , berkelium , nobelium , lawrencium, and californium discovered. Computer scientists at the university are known for developing BSD , BIND and the SETI @ home project. The BEST project deals with questions of climate research . However, outside of the natural sciences, the Berkeley faculty held its own with 4 winners of the Fields Medal in mathematics and 9 recipients of the prestigious James S. McDonnell Foundation Award. A total of 61 Nobel Prize winners are associated with the university.
Developments in the field of computer science
Many technologies associated with the early development of the Internet or the open source movement originated in Berkeley. Berkeley Software Distribution, better known as BSD, was developed in 1977 by computer science student Bill Joy . BSD is one of the best-known Unix variants, from which well-known operating systems such as FreeBSD and Mac OS X have developed. Bill Joy also developed the Unix text editor vi , which is still very popular today . PostgreSQL , an object-relational database management system , was created through research by the Berkeley Faculty in the 1970s. Sendmail , formerly one of the most widely used mail transfer agents and standard MTA of most Unix systems, was developed at the university in 1981. Around the same time, BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain), version 9 of the most widely used DNS server on the Internet today , was invented by a group of students. The Tcl programming language and the Tk GUI Toolkit go back to Professor John Ousterhout and his research in 1988. The RAID and RISC technologies were designed by David A. Patterson .
The research on analysis and algorithms of floating point arithmetic , led by the professor and Turing Award winner William Kahan , has contributed significantly to the development of computer science and shaped the IEEE 754 standard.
The XCF , a research group of students, is responsible for a number of other notable software projects. These include the open source image editing program GIMP , GTK + , the GIMP toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces, and ViolaWWW , one of the first graphical web browsers. ViolaWWW later resulted in both Java applets and the Mosaic web browser, which was the first publicly available and widely used graphical web browser.
The university is responsible for the SETI @ home project, which allows users around the world to participate in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence at home by sacrificing computing power from their computers that would otherwise be wasted. The project has proven the effectiveness of distributed computing on home computers and all computers together have provided over 2 million years of computing time to date, which was honored with an entry in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest computer calculation in history.
Berkeley has partnerships with Google , Intel , Microsoft , Sun Microsystems and Yahoo! knotted. Intel Research , a small research center near the university, brings together Berkeley and Intel scientists to conduct research in various fields of computer science. In December 2005, Google, Sun Microsystems and Microsoft decided to invest 7.5 million dollars in the university to advance research in the areas of systems and network technology and for this purpose the RAD-Lab ( Reliable Adaptive Distributed Systems Laboratory ) to build.
Generation of artificial elements
Berkeley is an important center for nuclear research. In Berkeley, numerous chemical elements were first synthesized with the help of particle accelerators, such as americium , curium , berkelium (atomic number 97, named after Berkeley), nobelium , lawrencium and californium .
The Berkeley sports teams call themselves the California Golden Bears . The university is a member of the Pacific-12 Conference . Your mascot is "Oski the Bear". Traditionally, there is a strong rivalry between the Bears and the Stanford Cardinals . The annual duel in college football is known as the "big game". The winner receives the Stanford Ax as a trophy. The football team has so far won two national titles in 1920 and 1937. The most successful team in Berkeley, however, is the rugby team. It has won 24 of a total of 29 national championships since 1980. In 1928 , 1932 and 1948 , the Golden Bears placed eighth to win the gold medal in the Olympic rowing competitions.
Nobel Prize Winner
Currently working at the university:
- 2013 - Randy Schekman (* 1948), ( Biochemistry )
- 2011 - Saul Perlmutter (* 1959), ( physics )
- 2006 - George F. Smoot (* 1945), ( Physics )
- 2001 - George A. Akerlof (* 1940), ( economics )
- 2000 - Daniel L. McFadden (* 1937), ( economics )
- 1997 - Steven Chu (* 1948), ( Physics )
- 1986 - Yuan T. Lee (* 1936), ( chemistry )
No longer active at the university or deceased:
- 2011 - Adam Riess (* 1969), (Physics)
- 2009 - Oliver E. Williamson (1932-2020), ( Economics )
- 1994 - John Harsanyi (1920–2000), (Economics)
- 1983 - Gérard Debreu (1921-2004), (economics)
- 1980 - Czesław Miłosz (1911–2004), ( literature )
- 1968 - Luis W. Alvarez (1911–1988), (Physics)
- 1964 - Charles H. Townes (1915-2015), (Physics)
- 1961 - Melvin Calvin (1911–1997), (chemistry)
- 1960 - Donald A. Glaser (1926–2013) (physics)
- 1959 - Owen Chamberlain (1920-2006), (Physics)
- 1959 - Emilio Gino Segrè (1905–1989), (Physics)
- 1951 - Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907-1991), (chemistry)
- 1951 - Glenn T. Seaborg (1912–1999), (chemistry)
- 1949 - William Francis Giauque (1895–1982), (chemistry)
- 1946 - John Howard Northrop (1891–1987), (chemistry)
- 1946 - Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904–1971), (chemistry)
- 1939 - Ernest O. Lawrence (1901–1958), (Physics)
Other famous university graduates and staff
Professors / lecturers
- 1869–1878: the linguist Paolo Pioda (1818–1892)
- 1915–1954: the nutritionist Agnes Fay Morgan (1884–1968)
- 1941–1943: the anthropological linguist Robert H. Barlow (1918–1951), Lovecraft's estate administrator
- 1942–1952: the lawyer Hans Kelsen (1881–1973)
- 1942–1986: the linguist and Romance scholar Yakov Malkiel (1914–1998)
- 1952–1994: the molecular biologist Gunther S. Stent (1924–2008)
- 1954–1970: the political scientist Sheldon Wolin (1922–2015)
- 1959–2017: the systems theorist, computer scientist and "father of fuzzy logic" Lotfi Zadeh (1921–2017)
- since 1959: the philosopher John Searle (* 1932)
- 1960–1978: the literary scholar Heinz Politzer (1910–1978)
- 1962–1970: the wood researcher Helmuth Resch (* 1933)
- 1962–1977: Michael Mann (1919–1977), the youngest son of Nobel Prize winner Thomas Mann
- 1966–1995: the anthropological linguist Paul Kay (* 1934)
- 1967–1992: John David Jackson (1925–2016), physicist
- 1969: Volker ter Meulen (* 1933), German physician
- since 1970: the beat poet Ron Loewinsohn (1937–2014)
- since 1971: the linguist Charles "Chuck" J. Fillmore (1929–2014)
- since 1972: the political linguist George Lakoff (* 1941)
- since 1977: Pranab Bardhan (* 1939), economist
- since 1979: Irma Adelman (1930–2017), economist
- since 1980: Janet Yellen (* 1946), economist and from 2014 to 2018 president of the Federal Reserve Fed
- 1982: the economist Hazel Henderson (* 1933)
- 1987–2003: the moral philosopher Bernard Williams (1929–2003)
- 1988–1990: the mathematician Andreas Floer (1956–1991)
- since 1989: Maurice Obstfeld (* 1952), current chief economist at the IMF
- since 1990: Carl Shapiro (* 1955), economist and former member of the CEA under US President Obama
- since 1993: Christina Romer (* 1958), economist and former chairman of the CEA under US President Obama
- since 1993: the philosopher Judith Butler (* 1956)
- since 1995: the economist Hal Varian (* 1947)
- since 1999: the biochemist Carolyn Bertozzi (* 1966)
- since 2006: the political scientist and former US Secretary of Labor Robert B. Reich (* 1946)
- since 2008: the German behavioral economist Ulrike Malmendier (* 1973)
- the developmental psychologist Alison Gopnik (* 1955)
- the Turing Prize winner William Kahan (* 1933)
- the cognitive psychologist Eleanor Rosch (* 1938)
- the psycholinguist Dan Slobin (* 1939)
- the computer scientist Avideh Zakhor (* 1964)
- the computer scientist Eric Brewer (* 1967)
Dilbert inventor Scott Adams , Leonard Adleman , electrical engineer Allan Alcorn , anthropologist and Lovecraft estate administrator Robert H. Barlow , swimmer Matt Biondi , journalist Gwenda Blair , mathematician and Fields laureate Richard Borcherds , conductor and composer Thuring Bräm , evolutionary psychologist David Buss , philosopher Stanley Cavell , Kambam founder Kevin Chou , rapper Defari , SF author Philip K. Dick , ethnologist and folklorist Alan Dundes , Turing Prize winners Douglas C. Engelbart and Shafrira Goldwasser , football player Justin Forsett , football player Jared Goff , software developer John Hanke , football player Marvin Jones , software developer Bill Joy , actor Stacy Keach , basketball player and coach Jason Kidd , anthropologist Grover Krantz , Turing Prize winner Butler Lampson , philosopher and historian Arthur Oncken Lovejoy , writer Jack London , writer and translator Richard Lourie , volcanologist James Luhr , football player and Superb owl winner Marshawn Lynch , Crown Prince of Norway Haakon Magnus , city planner Peter Marcuse , Silvio Micali , American football player Brick Muller , Robert McNamara , Amiga inventor Jay Miner , Gordon Moore , football player Alex Morgan , American football player Craig Morton and Perry Schwartz , Olympic sailing champions Lowell North , physicist Robert Oppenheimer , actor Gregory Peck , file system developer Hans Reiser , quarterback and Super Bowl winner Aaron Rodgers , Gerhard Roth , Dean Rusk , television presenter Gert Scobel , writer Margaret Wilkerson Sexton , mathematician and fund manager James Simons , astronomer and hacker hunter Clifford Stoll , poetry theorist Warren Tallman , Minix inventor Andrew S. Tanenbaum , painter and activist Sunaura Taylor , physicist Edward Teller , Unix inventor Ken Thompson , Wikimedia GF Lila Tretikov , politician Earl Warren , industrial and business sociologist Hansjörg Weitbrecht , Pascal inventor Niklaus Wirth , Apple-Mitgrün the Steve Wozniak
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