FreeBSD with Message of the Day
|developer||The FreeBSD Project|
|License (s)||BSD license|
|First publ.||November 1, 1993|
12.1 of November 4, 2019
(295 days ago)
Before version 2.0:
or higher : 4.4BSD
|Architecture (s)||x86 and x64 completely, and various others partially|
|https://www.freebsd.org/de/ The FreeBSD Project|
FreeBSD is a free and complete Unix-like operating system that descends directly from the Berkeley Software Distribution . With a community of almost 390 permanent, official and thousands of contributing developers, FreeBSD is one of the largest open source projects. Although the developers focus on creating a stable software platform for servers and appliances , it is also used on desktop computers . FreeBSD is mainly used by Internet service providers such as Yahoo and Strato , for high-load applications such as Netflix , in Internet backbone systems such as high-performance routers and name services, and as a web hosting platform. There it regularly ranks at the top of the list of the most reliable systems.
Several standards in the field of computer networks , such as IPv6 , were first implemented by FreeBSD and from there, thanks to the permissive BSD license , spread to other systems, including OpenBSD and Linux . FreeBSD is also partially the foundation for Darwin , Apple's open source platform on which macOS is based.
Originally intended as an unofficial collection of patches to correct errors in 386BSD , Nate Williams, Rod Grimes and Jordan K. Hubbard founded a separate project in 1993 after maintaining the patch kit mechanism became too laborious. The project originally called 386BSD-Interim had to be discontinued when the author of 386BSD, Bill Jolitz , gave up his work on the project and 386BSD himself. When looking for a new name, FreeBSD was suggested by Bill Greenman, an employee of Walnut Creek CDROM , where the project's software was distributed on disk and via FTP .
Just as with NetBSD , which was founded shortly before by other authors of the patch kit, the decision was made right at the start of the project in July 1993 to develop the software centrally with the help of a CVS archive. The sources of 4.3BSD-Lite (Net / 2) and 386BSD, which the Berkeley Software Distribution ported to the Intel 80386 processor platform , were used for the first versions of FreeBSD . However, when Unix System Laboratories began suing BSD software vendors for license infringement, the FreeBSD base changed to 4.4BSD-Lite, which UC Berkeley released in 1994 after the litigation was closed. This version no longer contained any source code from Unix Laboratories. Since parts of the operating system that were necessary for booting were missing as a result, it took until November 1994 to produce a functional software distribution that could be released as FreeBSD 2.0. Older versions may no longer be distributed for legal reasons.
Since then, the operating system has been ported to various other platforms and has increased both in functions and in natively supported software from third-party providers. Due to its project size and distribution without appearing publicly, FreeBSD is also unofficially referred to as an unknown giant among the free operating systems. In addition to various derivatives , several organizations have emerged from the project with the aim of promoting FreeBSD and the BSD family. These include B. the FreeBSD Foundation and the BSD Certification Group .
The complete system includes the following components:
- Kernel : implements the APIs and data structures of the operating system , as well as the device drivers
- Userland : all important programs, from text editors to compilers or server applications (mail server etc.)
- Ports : after FreeBSD porting applications from other manufacturers
As a Unix-like system, FreeBSD is largely POSIX- compliant. It supports all the basic functions of the POSIX.1 standard, but not all extensions of the X / Open System Interface . For this reason, it must not have the legally protected name UNIX . However, work is underway to produce full support for the interfaces of C99 , POSIX and XSI. In addition to the x86 , AMD64 and PC-98 architecture, which was previously widespread in Japan , a number of other processor types are supported. These include SPARC and PowerPC as well as the ARM - and experimentally also the MIPS architectures for embedded systems . Since FreeBSD offers its own binary interface (ABI), it is easy to install proprietary software. Similarly, Windows -Netzwerkgerätetreiber whose manufacturers have not released the hardware specifications on the NDIS use interface, eg. B. Intel's Centrino .
FreeBSD has some special features related to data storage.
The UFS - file system that is commonly used by the BSD operating systems, has metadata journaling and Soft Updates that ensure the consistency of the file system in the event of a system crash. File system snapshots can be efficiently created in no time. Among other things, they enable reliable backups of running file systems. FreeBSD also has GEOM, a modular framework that provides RAID , encryption of entire hard drives, journaling, caching and access to network-based storage space. With the help of GEOM, complex storage solutions can be built that use several of these mechanisms at the same time.
Another frequently used file system in FreeBSD is that of Sun developed ZFS . This was first ported to FreeBSD from free sources published with OpenSolaris and has been considered stable since FreeBSD 8.0. In the meantime, improvements to the file system are being developed as part of OpenZFS , some of which will then be adopted for FreeBSD. ZFS is valued primarily for its ease of use, flexibility and stability. Since FreeBSD 10.0 it is possible to install a completely ZFS-based system exclusively via the system installer. Previously, this had to be done manually.
In addition to the programs from the basic system, over 26,000 software packages from third-party providers are available. They can be used to make a preselection during installation, depending on the intended use. Most packages are also available as binary files ( package ) and can thus be installed directly from the installation medium or a regional project repository .
More often, however, the so-called ports are used as package management . In addition to a larger selection, the advantages of the FreeBSD ports lie in the convenient dependency resolution , a possible processor-specific optimization and the use of compile time options. Most ports are loaded as source code, mostly from the network, and then compiled on your own system. Most of the open source programs for server and desktop can be found here, as well as some proprietary programs. The flexibility and ease of use of the FreeBSD ports have made this package management popular on other systems. In addition to NetBSD, DragonFly BSD (as DPorts ) and OpenBSD, the ports are also used on Darwin and Mac OS X / OS X / macOS under the name MacPorts . Due to the extensive source code compatibility of these systems, only minor changes to the port metadata are necessary.
Due to the nature of the project, the strengths of FreeBSD lie in the network area. Because of the KAME project, the BSDs were among the first operating systems with IPv6 and IPsec support. There are several redundant packet filter implementations available: the IPFilter , which is also available for proprietary Unices , the in-house development ipfw and pf from OpenBSD. There is also a powerful traffic shaper called dummynet .
FreeBSD masters network protocols on different levels, for example 802.1Q VLANs , PPP , L2TP . With netgraph there is also a graph-based kernel subsystem that supports the modular implementation of new protocols and flexible combinations of existing ones. FreeBSD also works with various network hardware, including: a. 10 Gigabit Ethernet , WLAN , ATM , ISDN , FDDI and UMTS .
Starting with version 4.x, FreeBSD provides the virtualization environment jails ( prisons ). The system and configuration files of the main system cannot be accessed from inside a jail - it uses its own files, processes and user accounts, so that the environment is almost indistinguishable from that of a full-fledged system. Compared to chroot , for example , this offers a number of advantages, especially with regard to security, administration and performance. Compared to packages such as Xen or VMware , the implementation is much easier and more transparent, but does not offer the possibility of running a foreign operating system. In other systems, variations of FreeBSD jails are known as sysjails or containers .
The open source edition of the virtualization software VirtualBox is contained in the ports and enables FreeBSD to be operated both as a guest operating system and as a virtualization host that houses virtual machines.
With FreeBSD 10.0, the type 2 hypervisor bhyve, specially developed for FreeBSD, found its way into the operating system. It currently supports various FreeBSD versions, Open / NetBSD, Linux and Windows as guest operating systems.
FreeBSD can be used as a Xen guest system including the paravirtualized PVH mode, and FreeBSD has meanwhile also been supported as a host system.
The FreeBSD developers are very careful to keep new versions of the operating system backwards compatible . This means that programs that could be executed under an older version of the operating system can still be executed under the newer version. This claim is made for all parts of the operating system (especially kernel modules). The user is notified of exceptions to this rule if necessary.
FreeBSD offers Linux binary compatibility. This means that programs written and compiled for GNU / Linux can run on FreeBSD. Above all, this offers the possibility of using programs that are only available in compiled form for Linux (such as Adobe Reader , Adobe Flash Player , Skype ) under FreeBSD. Linux binary compatibility is often called Linux emulator or linuxulator . From a technical point of view, however, this feature does not use emulation , but is based on the implementation of a binary interface (ABI).
With the aid of the Wine runtime environment , which is available in the Ports Collection and as a binary package, a number of Windows applications can be run under FreeBSD, e.g. B. Microsoft Office .
The development branches of the source code are made available through central Subversion / CVS archives. The system is very homogeneous as all system components are maintained by the same developer group. These archives are mirrored regionally in order to relieve the network of the main archive. For performance reasons and to avoid inconsistencies , the archives with direct write access are separated from those that can be read.
With FreeBSD, the availability of the source code also plays an important role in practical terms: many users keep a local source code tree and regularly synchronize it over the network with a central source code archive ( repository ). This makes it possible to adapt a local system exactly for its purpose by z. B. the kernel can be rebuilt with system-specific drivers or software of the base system or the ports can be adapted. In the repository you can research the old versions of the source texts and the developers' comments and thus gain a very good insight into the structure and functioning of the system.
The maintenance of the source code is carried out by three groups in the FreeBSD development community:
- src : This part of the source tree contains the kernel and the userland. Committers with access to the src tree therefore also drive the development of the system.
- ports : Named after the package manager of the same name, the software from third-party providers is entered here. The FreeBSD ports are independent of the kernel and userland.
- doc : Committers with access to this part of the source tree are responsible for maintaining the very extensive manual and man pages that ship with FreeBSD.
In addition to these three groups, there are also teams that are responsible for the release management , the administration of the project server, the maintenance of security updates, etc. There is a personal overlap between all these groups.
The development is coordinated by the core team , which is elected every two years by the active developers with CVS access.
Several conferences are held around the world every year, so-called BSDcons . Developers and interested users present BSD-related projects, discuss them and learn how to use them in workshops. As part of the conferences, separate developer meetings take place (so-called DevSummit s), at which future developments of the project are discussed and coordinated. The conferences often take place in a university environment. Most of them receive financial and logistical support from the FreeBSD Foundation. For example, the FreeBSD Foundation uses part of its budget to help developers attend conferences. Well-known companies (including Google , Netflix , iXsystems ) that are involved in the development of FreeBSD or that use FreeBSD on a larger scale also sponsor conferences. The conferences are valued as they offer the possibility of exchange between programmers, system administrators, students, professors and IT companies. More and more often parts of the conferences are streamed live or recordings of lectures or other conference materials (presentations, handouts) can be accessed online via the respective conference website.
The following conferences take place regularly:
- AsiaBSDCon (Asia, Japan)
- BSDCan (USA, Canada)
- EuroBSDcon (Europe)
- KyivBSD (Ukraine, Kiev)
- NYCBSDCon (USA, New York City)
- ruBSD (Russia)
In addition to the conferences, there are irregular meetings, so-called BSDDays . They serve the same purpose as the conferences, but are not as extensive due to lack of time or finance.
Furthermore, there are so-called user groups in many countries . These are groups made up of users of FreeBSD or those who wish to become one. They primarily serve the personal exchange of experiences. When, where and how members of such groups meet is group-specific and is often publicly announced on the websites of these groups.
Branches of development
The development of the FreeBSD kernel and userland takes place in parallel in several branches:
- CURRENT , in which new features are developed and tested and is only suitable for developers or advanced users. (CVS tag: CURRENT , HEAD, or . )
- STABLE , which emerged as sufficiently tested software from the CURRENT branch and of which new versions are released about every four to six months.
- RELEASE are snapshots of the respective RELEASE branch, which in turn come from a STABLE branch. With releases , no more changes are made, only security-relevant changes are entered.
For example, in order to be able to exchange security-relevant changes between the individual branches or to be able to incorporate improvements from the stable branch in Current, version management with Perforce is used in the background , since CVS cannot make cross-branch changes. The maintenance period is between 6 and 24 months, depending on the release and priority.
|version||publication||Support up||major change|
|Older version; no longer supported: 1.0||November 1, 1993||first version|
|Older version; no longer supported: 1.1||May 1994||Maintenance release with bug fixes for 386BSD import, ported programs ( XFree86 , nntp ) added|
|Older version; no longer supported: 1.1.5|
|Older version; no longer supported: 126.96.36.199||July 1994|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.0||November 22, 1994||The code base of 386BSD was replaced by BSD-Lite 4.4 because of the comparison between USL and BSDi, new installer and boot manager , support of other file systems ( FAT , unionfs, kernfs), dynamically loadable kernel modules imported from NetBSD|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.0.5||June 10, 1995||Complete support of NIS client and server, T / TCP, ISDN , FDDI and Fast Ethernet cards (100Mbit), translation of the documentation into various languages, ports included on the installation medium|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.1||November 19, 1995|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.1.5||July 1996|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.1.6||December 1996|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.1.7||February 1997|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.2||March 1997||NFSv 3, Linux emulation layer including ELF , introduction of man section 9 for kernel functions|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.2.1||April 1997|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.2.2||May 1997|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.2.5||October 22, 1997||Support of current Cyrix and AMD processors, new VGA library|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.2.6||March 25, 1998||Support for plug and play|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.2.7||July 22, 1998||Support for FAT32 , update to PC-98 architecture|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.2.8||November 29, 1998||Traffic shaping with dummynet , packet filtering with ipfw , support of IDE drives larger than 8 GiB|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.0||October 1998||Support of symmetrical multiprocessor systems (SMP), SCSI and VESA|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.1||February 15, 1999||Introduction of USB and PAM|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.2||May 17, 1999|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.3||September 17, 1999||Support of Advanced Power Management for power management|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.4||December 20, 1999|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.5||June 24, 2000|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.0||March 14, 2000||Import of IPv6 and IPsec from the KAME project , integration of OpenSSH into the basic system, emulation for SVR4 binary files, USB Ethernet , telnet encryption|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.1||July 27, 2000||Extension of the support for alpha processors|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.1.1||September 27, 2000||Virtual Ethernet device driver for bridge configurations, support for ATA100 controllers|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.2||November 21, 2000||Support of USB scanners, USB modems, restructuring of ports|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.3||April 20, 2001|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.4||September 20, 2001||Detection of new processors ( Transmeta Crusoe et al. ), Support of Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) and SMB file systems|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.5||January 29, 2002||December 31, 2002||TCP revised with regard to throughput, performance and robustness against DoS attacks , support of the bootloader for file systems with 16K blocks|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.6||June 15, 2002||May 2003|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.6.2||August 15, 2002||May 2003|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.7||October 10, 2002||December 2003|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.8||April 3, 2003||March 31, 2004||Support of FireWire and Hyper-Threading , framework imported from OpenBSD for encryption support of the kernel|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.9||October 28, 2003||October 31, 2004||Experimental support for physical address extensions|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.10||May 27, 2004||May 2006||USB 2.0 support|
|Older version; no longer supported: 4.11||January 25, 2005||January 31, 2007|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.0||January 14, 2003||June 30, 2003||Support of UltraSPARC and IA-64 processors, SMP support by converting the Giant lock into smaller locks, GEOM , Mandatory Access Control imported from TrustedBSD , fsck in the background, Bluetooth , ACPI , CardBus , devfs , UFS2 , Universal Disk Format , Drivers for the Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI), Pluggable Authentication Modules , support for 80386 processors, kernfs and UUCP removed, Perl moved from the base system to the ports, the rc.d framework imported from NetBSD|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.1||June 9, 2003||February 2004||Experimental support for AMD64 processors, 1: 1 and M: N thread libraries for multithreading , name service switch and the ULE scheduler, support for physical address extensions , mandatory use of GEOM and devfs, IPv6 support for the Linux emulator , Start of documentation translation into Danish|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.2||January 9, 2004||December 31, 2004||AMD64 supported as Tier1 architecture, Protocol Independent Multicast , ATA driver removed from the Giant lock, support of the NFSv4 client, start of documentation translation into Turkish , introduction of Cardbus and 802.11a / b / g drivers, experimental support for the Filtering and forwarding of IP data in multiple threads|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.2.1||February 25, 2004||December 31, 2004|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.3||November 6, 2004||October 31, 2006||ALTernate queuing, entry-invariant network and socket subsystems in multiple threads, introduction of the kernel debugger framework (KDB), dynamic and static linker support for thread-local storage , import of the pf firewall from OpenBSD, native execution support for NDIS drivers, replacement of XFree86 by X.org , basic system cryptography support|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.4||May 9, 2005||October 31, 2006||Import of the Common Address Redundancy Protocol from OpenBSD|
|Older version; no longer supported: 5.5||May 25, 2006||May 31, 2008||Both cores of dual-core processors can be used by default using the SMP kernel|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.0||November 4, 2005||January 31, 2007||Experimental support for PowerPC , WPA , drivers for additional wireless cards added, full support for 802.11g , 802.11i , 802.1x and WME / WMM , improved access to file systems and directly to data storage media, SMP-capable layer of the virtual file system VFS, import the bridge implementation with support of the 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol from NetBSD|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.1||May 8, 2006||May 31, 2008||Keyboard multiplexer , automatic configuration of many Bluetooth devices, drivers for Ethernet, SAS and SATA - RAID controllers|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.2||January 15, 2007||May 31, 2008||Support of the Xbox architecture, OpenBSM , ipfw tags for packages, introduction of freebsd-update for binary security updates and patches and OpenIPMI as an intelligent platform management interface|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.3||January 18, 2008||January 31, 2010||Reimplementation of UnionFS , adding an upgrade switch to freebsd-update|
|Older version; no longer supported: 6.4||November 28, 2008||November 30, 2010||Support of the Camellia algorithm for encryption, enabling the booting of USB data carriers and devices with GPT -BIOS, buffer corruption protection during memory allocation|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.0||February 27, 2008||April 30, 2009||Support for ZFS , XFS and GPT, reference implementation of SCTP , support for the ARM architecture and the High Definition Audio Interface (HDA) from Intel added, phkmalloc by jemalloc , support for DEC Alpha discontinued|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.1||January 4, 2009||February 28, 2011||DTrace taken over by OpenSolaris , ULE scheduler becomes the preset scheduler for i386 and AMD64 platforms|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.2||May 4, 2009||June 30, 2010||Support of UltraSPARC III processors, transparent use of superpages in the virtual memory subsystem, improvements to FreeBSD jails|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.3||March 23, 2010||March 31, 2012||New bootloader gptzfsboot with support for GPT and ZFS, support for VIA Nano processors|
|Older version; no longer supported: 7.4||February 24, 2011||February 28, 2013||Added support for UltraSPARC-IV, -IV + and SPARC64-V processors, IEEE 802.3 full duplex|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8.0||November 25, 2009||November 30, 2010||New USB stack, support for IEEE 802.11s , use of superpages , increase in the number of maximum slices and support for NFSv4|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8.1||July 23, 2010||July 31, 2012||High availability storage, SMP for PowerPC G5 systems, thread-safe MS-DOS file system, zfsloader, NFSv4- ACL for UFS and ZFS|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8.2||February 24, 2011||July 31, 2012||Import of V4L into the Linux emulator, support of USB 3.0 and the Extensible Host Controller Interface|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8.3||April 18, 2012||April 30, 2014||Support of the TRIM function for SSDs , GNOME version 2.32.1, KDE version 4.7.4|
|Older version; no longer supported: 8.4||June 9, 2013||August 1, 2015||The tmpfs file system can now be used productively, KDE version 4.10.1|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9.0||January 12, 2012||March 31, 2013||Userland DTrace , UFS SoftUpdates + Journal, SMP support for more than 32 processors, introduction of the non-uniform memory architecture|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9.1||December 31, 2012||December 31, 2014||New Intel graphics driver with GEM / KMS support|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9.2||September 30th, 2013||December 31, 2014||Support of TRIM and LZ4 compression under ZFS|
|Older version; no longer supported: 9.3||July 16, 2014||December 31, 2016||Support of ZFS bookmarks , introduction of
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.0||20th January 2014||February 28, 2015||Conversion to Clang / LLVM as the standard compiler; Linux inotify emulation|
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.1||November 14, 2014||December 31, 2016||Support for UEFI for amd64, UDP-Lite protocol and SMP for armv6 added, performance improvements for virtualization and ZFS|
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.2||August 13, 2015||December 31, 2016|
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.3||March 29, 2016||April 30, 2018||Support of ZFS boot for UEFI installations, 64-bit Linux emulation|
|Older version; no longer supported: 10.4||4th October 2017||October 31, 2018|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11.0||October 10, 2016||November 30, 2017||The WLAN driver supports 802.11n and other hardware, it also implements the regulatory domain to FCC rules by default , the RISC -V and arm64 architecture is supported, the hypervisor Bhyve now supports Windows Vista and up, libblacklist was made by NetBSD taken over, as well as bug fixes and package updates|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11.1||July 26, 2017||September 30, 2018||LLVM , LLDB, Clang have been updated, the NFS client now supports the Amazon Elastic File System and the second generation Hyper-V hypervisor receives support, the tools zfsbootcfg and efivar, further software updates and improvements as well as updates for better reproducible builds have been added to support|
|Older version; no longer supported: 11.2||June 27, 2018||October 31, 2019||LLVM , Clang , LLDB was updated as well as OpenSSH and OpenSSL , KDE 4.14.3, Gnome 3.18.0, driver updates|
|Current version: 11.3||5th July 2019||still open||KDE 4.15.3, Gnome 3.28.0|
|Current version: 12.0||December 11, 2018||still open|
|Current version: 12.1||4th November 2019||still open||OpenSSL version 1.1.1d; Clang / LLVM version 8.0.1; BearSSL in the basic system|
The following timeline shows the life cycle of different FreeBSD versions. By the end of life of a version, security gaps and software errors will be eliminated and some essential new features that will be available in future versions will be backported .
However, the symbol turned out to be difficult to reproduce and scalable, so in February 2005 the developers of the FreeBSD project called for a logo for FreeBSD to be designed. At the end of June 2005 the suggestions of various graphic designers were submitted and at the end of September 2005 the new logo was selected. In the end, seven entries were shortlisted - the winner was a design by Anton K. Gural.
As with NetBSD, there were various considerations not to continue using the traditional mascot as a logo. As a result, the Daemon Beastie remains the project's mascot. The new logo is a nod to the demon's head with its horns.
Distributions and derivatives
- m0n0wall : a firewall distribution;
- NomadBSD: a live system (no installation required) for USB sticks
- OPNsense : a (stateful) firewall / router distribution; supports LibreSSL and ASLR
- pfSense : a firewall / router distribution
- TrustedBSD : Extension with the main emphasis on security features
- HardenedBSD: an extension with an emphasis on security features; Cooperation with OPNsense
- CellOS and OrbisOS: Operating systems of the PlayStation 3 and 4 from Sony
- Darwin : common basic operating system for macOS , iOS etc .; XNU , hybrid kernel from OSF Mach and FreeBSD kernels; Most of the userland of the UNIX 03 certified macOS comes from FreeBSD, it is not part of Darwin
- Data ONTAP: the operating system of NetApp storage systems
- DesktopBSD : a workstation system with KDE as the graphic work environment
- DragonFly BSD : Spin-off from FreeBSD 4.x
- FuryBSD : After Project Trident (in future Void Trident) decided to use Void Linux instead of TrueOS / FreeBSD , part of the community founded FuryBSD with a focus on a fully graphical desktop OS
- FreeNAS : designed for Network Attached Storage (NAS)
- FreeSBIE: a live system with Xfce and Fluxbox ; was created during the Google Summer of Code 2005
- JunOS: the operating system of Juniper Networks routers
- Kylin : developed for Chinese authorities
- MidnightBSD : with a graphical work environment based on GNUstep ; originally derived from FreeBSD 6.1 Beta
- NAS4Free: designed for Network Attached Storage (NAS)
- Picobsd : a minimized version of FreeBSD on a single disk fits - that is, less than 1.44 MB includes
- TrueOS (formerly PC-BSD): a derivative that extends FreeBSD and optimizes the workstation system; on the one hand with the in-house development Lumina as the intended graphic work environment, on the other hand as a basic system for further distributions; Rolling release ; supports OpenZFS , LibreSSL
Ports to the FreeBSD kernel
- Arch BSD: an Arch Linux port on the FreeBSD kernel
- Gentoo / FreeBSD: a Gentoo port to the FreeBSD kernel
- Debian GNU / kFreeBSD : a port of the Debian GNU system to the FreeBSD kernel
The hardware requirements depend on the area of application. An embedded system, for example, has different requirements than a web server or a desktop.
The minimum requirements for FreeBSD 11.x are 96 MB RAM and 1.5 GB hard disk space. For desktop systems, the requirements start with 2-4 GB of RAM and at least 8 GB of free hard disk space.
- Marshall Kirk McKusick , George V. Neville-Neil: The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System . Addison-Wesley, 2004, ISBN 0-201-70245-2 (description of the operating system at an academic level)
- Marshall Kirk McKusick, George V. Neville-Neil, Robert NM Watson: The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System. 2nd Edition. Addison-Wesley, 2015, ISBN 978-0-321-96897-5 (describes the FreeBSD 11 kernel)
- Greg Lehey: The Complete FreeBSD . 4th edition. O'Reilly, 2003, ISBN 0-596-00516-4 (Installing, Configuring, and Using the FreeBSD System)
- Harald Zisler: FreeBSD . Franzis, Poing 2006, ISBN 3-7723-6538-8 .
- Michael Lucas: Absolute FreeBSD: The Ultimate Guide to FreeBSD. 2nd Edition. No Starch Press, San Francisco 2007, ISBN 978-1-59327-151-0 .
- Michael Urban, Brian Tiemann: FreeBSD 6 Unleashed . Sams, 2006, ISBN 0-672-32875-5 .
- Michael Lucas: FreeBSD de Luxe. Unix server administration . Mitp-Verlag, Bonn 2003, ISBN 3-8266-1343-0 .
- Benedikt Nießen: Your own server with FreeBSD 9 . dpunkt.verlag, Heidelberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-89864-814-1 .
- Official website of The FreeBSD Project
- Link catalog about FreeBSD at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Official manual
- Overview of mailing lists
- Official Forum (English)
- BSDForen.de - German-speaking forum, including wiki and chat channel
- BSD Magazine - free periodical (English)
- FreeBSD Journal - Periodical published by the FreeBSD Foundation
- BSD Now - weekly video / audio podcast with the latest, interviews and instructions on BSD
- BSDTalk - monthly audio podcast with interviews about BSD (English)
- FreeBSD - The free operating system for stable Internet servers in the podcast CRE
- FreeBSD, the unknown giant - informative article including a story from c't magazine
- Glen Barber: FreeBSD 12.1-RELEASE Now Available . November 4, 2019 (accessed June 16, 2020).
- Glen Barber: www.freebsd.org . November 4, 2019 (accessed June 16, 2020).
- FreeBSD supported platforms and their status
- The FreeBSD Developers. freebsd.org, accessed March 23, 2016 .
- How the FreeBSD Project works , talk by Robert NM Watson at Google TechTalks 2007 (English)
- netcraft .com: Nearly 2.5 Million Active Sites running FreeBSD , survey from 2004 (English)
- netcraft.com: Most Reliable Hosting Company Sites in May 2009 and June 2011 (English)
- freebsd.org: About the FreeBSD Project (English)
- bsdwiki.de: History of BSD ( Memento from January 29, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), entry by Axel S. Gruner
- FreeBSD Release Information , overview of all releases including supported hardware platforms (English)
- ibm.com: Why FreeBSD ( Memento from April 26, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) (English)
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