|founding||April 1, 1976|
Cupertino , California , United States
|Number of employees||137,000 ( FTE Sep. 2019)|
|sales||260 174 000 000 USD (2018/19)|
|Branch||Hardware and software development , online trading|
|As of September 28, 2019|
Apple Inc. [ ˈæpəlˌɪŋk ] is an American hardware and software developer and technology company that develops and markets computers , smartphones, and consumer electronics, as well as operating systems and application software . Apple also operates an Internet sales portal for music, films and software. The headquarters of Apple, the Apple Park , located in California's Cupertino .
Apple was founded in 1976 by Steve Wozniak , Steve Jobs and Ron Wayne as a garage company and was one of the first manufacturers of personal computers . The company contributed significantly to their development as a mass product. With the introduction of the graphical user interface and the mouse in the 1980s, Apple took the computers Lisa and Macintosh , a pioneering one. With the appearance of the iPod (2001), the iPhone (2007) and the iPad (2010), Apple gradually expanded its business to other product areas. It thus laid the foundation for the market boom for smartphones and tablet computers that has continued to this day . In recent years, the iPhone, with a sales share of more than 50% of the group's total sales, has become Apple's most important product.
The iTunes Store for music and film downloads , which opened in 2003, became the first commercially successful download portal and played a decisive role in shaping this market. Today, the iTunes Store and the App Store, which opened in 2008, are two of the world's largest distribution channels for digital goods .
The company Apple was on 1 April 1976 by Steve Jobs , Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne with a starting capital of 1,300 US dollars founded. The shares between Jobs, Wozniak and Wayne were divided according to the key 45%: 45%: 10%. All three knew each other from the Homebrew Computer Club , a club of enthusiasts and hackers that made many computer pioneers and entrepreneurs. This club is known as the “melting pot for an entire industry” when it comes to personal computers . In the trio, Wozniak was the creative tinkerer, a - as the journalist Steven Levy writes - a brilliant computer hacker who, however, lacked any sense of business; Steve Jobs was the visionary who drove the idea for the company and Ron Wayne was the one who brought the two together and mediated between them so that they could agree on a common concept. Wayne took care of the legal formalities of the company's formation and also drew the first logo of the new company, which Isaac Newton showed sitting under an apple tree with a single apple hanging from it. Co-founder Wayne left Apple just eleven days later due to concerns about the payment behavior of Byte Shop , which was the new company's first customer. He sold his shares in the company for a total of US $ 2,300.
The concept and designs for the Apple I , the world's first personal computer , were created under the leadership of Wozniak shortly before the company was founded in Los Altos in Silicon Valley . His PC provided the basis for the idea to found the company and was also Apple's first product. The sub-assemblies of the device, which were then assembled with the help of Steve Jobs, were sold to Apple by the computer chain Byte Shop from July 1976 under the slogan Byte into for a sales price of 666.66 US dollars in small numbers of around 200 copies. The successor model, the Apple II , released in 1977 , was the last industrially manufactured PC that - like the Apple I - was designed entirely by a single person, Steve Wozniak. For the development and marketing of this computer, further investments were necessary beyond the sales proceeds of the Apple I. This made the conversion of Apple into a corporation necessary in 1977 , with the first major investment being made by Mike Markkula . With his brought in US $ 250,000 he held 26 percent of the company shares. The command line-oriented Apple II, presented to the public in June 1977 , quickly became a best seller and is considered one of the most successful personal computers of its time.
1981-1984: Xerox PARC, Lisa and Macintosh
Spurred on by the great success of the Apple II, the company began work on a new, forward-looking project in the fall of 1979. Under the code name "Macintosh" the development of an intuitive computer for broad sections of the population was envisaged. Responsible Jef Raskin urged in particular to the inclusion of a short time before by Xerox introduced the graphical user interface (English, graphical user interface ). This already had the basic concept of today's GUIs with windows, clickable icons and menu guidance for operation via computer mouse and mouse pointer, the so-called WIMP paradigm . This was intended to replace the command line-oriented interface that was previously predominant in computers and required specialist knowledge. Raskin then had Steve Jobs visit the Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) research center in November 1979 in order to get an idea for himself. Jobs was impressed with the Xerox Alto's GUI and a few weeks later sent other Apple developers to review the technology. In return, Xerox was given the opportunity to purchase 100,000 shares prior to Apple's initial public offering, valued at $ 1 million at the time.
Just like the Xerox Star with its GUI introduced in 1981, Apple did not achieve commercial success with the US $ 10,000 Apple Lisa two years later, although the Apple GUI already made some improvements such as overlapping windows, dropout menus , drag and drop and the recycle bin had been added. It was not until 1984 that the significantly cheaper Macintosh , which was sold in large numbers , succeeded in establishing the graphical user interface on the emerging mass PC market.
1985-1996: Sculley era
As early as the fall of 1982, Apple had been looking for a boss because Mike Markkula wanted to leave the office. The choice fell in the spring of 1983 on John Sculley , who had previously been responsible for two successful advertising campaigns for PepsiCo and was considered a marketing genius. Sculley and Jobs were initially enthusiastic about each other: In May 1984, Jobs declared that Sculley's start at Apple was one of the best days of his career. Sculley then stated that Apple had "only one leader - Steve and me." A short time later, however, there were increasingly frequent conflicts between the two, which resulted in a coup attempt by Jobs in May 1985. After this failed, Jobs was relieved of his duties as head of the Macintosh department and left Apple in September 1985 to found the computer manufacturer NeXT .
After the initial euphoria subsided, the Macintosh only sold slowly because the hardware was too weak. This changed from around 1986 with the introduction of new models such as the Macintosh Plus . The Macintosh product line found widespread use in the desktop publishing market, which arose as a result of the WYSIWYG capabilities of the Macintosh and thanks to software from various third-party providers such as PageMaker and QuarkXPress .
In 1987, a group led by Steve Sakoman began working on wireless networking and handwriting recognition. The project with the code name "Newton" found the support of Sculley, who coined the designation Personal Digital Assistant for it and presented it in the spring of 1992 at the Consumer Electronics Show . However, the project was delayed several times. When the first device, the Newton MessagePad , finally appeared in the late summer of 1993, handwriting recognition was immature and led to ridicule and even a parody in the television series The Simpsons .
Since the Macintosh operating system was clearly ahead of the competition in the 1980s, the devices achieved profit margins of sometimes over 50%. With the appearance of Microsoft Windows 3.0 in May 1990, Apple came under pressure and in October 1990 presented two significantly cheaper Macintosh models, the Macintosh LC and the Macintosh Classic . This temporarily led to higher market shares, but at the same time Apple's profits fell significantly. Since the costs of various research projects rose significantly - the Newton project alone generated development costs of 100 million US dollars - Apple made a quarterly loss in 1993 for the first time in several years. In June 1993 Sculley finally had to vacate the position of CEO and was replaced by Michael Spindler .
Under Spindler, Apple began licensing its own Mac OS operating system to other hardware manufacturers in 1994 in order to compete more closely with Microsoft. Initially, only smaller companies such as Power Computing joined the licensing program , and it wasn't until 1996 that Motorola became a larger manufacturer. The hoped-for gains in market share did not materialize, however; instead, the competing operating system Microsoft Windows had largely prevailed. Apple only became more prominent in education, web and desktop publishing .
During Spindler's tenure, the successful switch from Motorola's 68k to PowerPC processors, but also a series of technical problems and management errors, led to his replacement by Gil Amelio in early 1996 and to a write-off of 740 million US dollars. At this point in time, Apple was on the verge of insolvency or a takeover by Oracle , Sun , IBM or Hewlett-Packard .
1997–2000: The way out of the crisis
A pressing problem was that Apple's operating system was considered obsolete and essential capabilities such as preemptive multitasking or protected memory were missing, so that problems in a single program could crash the entire operating system. After its own projects such as Taligent or Copland had failed, Apple was forced to look outside the company for a new operating system. Apple therefore negotiated the purchase of the company Be Incorporated in order to use their BeOS operating system. The takeover failed in November 1996 because of the excessive demands made by Be-Chef Jean-Louis Gassée . Instead, Apple surprisingly took over NeXT from Apple founder Steve Jobs in December 1996 for about 400 million US dollars.
With the acquisition of NeXT, a new corporate culture entered Apple . In the summer of 1997 Gil Amelio was fired and the board of directors was almost completely replaced. A new CEO was not initially appointed. Steve Jobs, who until then had held a purely informal advisory role, became a member of the board, but did not want to take on a leadership position at Apple. While the company was looking for a successor for Amelio, he initially became interim CEO and finally took over the position permanently two and a half years later. Numerous other key positions in the company were also filled with NeXT employees.
Jobs ended the licensing of the operating system to other manufacturers, cut many ongoing research and development projects and discontinued several product lines, including the Newton and many Macintosh models. The new strategy envisaged only four products: For home users, these were the iBook for mobile and the iMac for stationary use; The more powerful models PowerBook and Power Mac are aimed at professional users .
Another important element of the company's rescue was an agreement with arch-rival Microsoft that was presented at the Macworld Expo in August 1997 . Microsoft invested 150 million US dollars in Apple shares without voting rights. Both companies agreed to cross-license their patents and to work closely together on Java development. In addition, Apple made Internet Explorer the new standard web browser for the Macintosh operating system, and Microsoft committed to publishing as many new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh as for Windows for five years . A missing Microsoft Office on the Macintosh was seen as a great danger for Apple at the time.
Mac OS 8 appeared in the summer of 1997 . While part of the company was developing the classic Mac operating system, another group was working on its successor, Mac OS X , which combined elements of NeXT's NeXTStep operating system (such as the Mach kernel) with elements of the classic Mac OS (such as the Finder ). Mac OS X also had two programming interfaces (APIs): the Cocoa API, derived from NeXTStep, and the Carbon API , available from Mac OS 8 , which should make it easier for developers of software for Mac OS 8 and 9 to later port it to Mac OS X. Another new feature was the “ Aqua ” graphical user interface , which combined elements from NeXTStep (such as the dock ) and the classic Mac OS (such as the upper menu bar). Mac OS X appeared as a beta version in 2000, from 2001 it was preinstalled on new Macs alongside Mac OS 9, and from 2002 it was Apple's sole standard operating system.
2001–2006: iPod and Intel Macs
Apple was back in the black since 1998, and the turnaround was achieved. Soon after, Apple presented a new strategy: The Mac should become the center of digital life ( digital hub ). In October 1999, the iMovie program appeared , which was supposed to enable users to connect digital camcorders - which had just become a mass market - to the Mac and produce films from the recordings. In the following years, Apple introduced iTunes and iPhoto programs for music and photo management and combined them in the iLife program package . In October 2001 Apple introduced the iPod MP3 player , which was initially only available for Macs. Over the next several years, Apple introduced the iTunes Music Store for buying music. After this - like the iPod - was also made available for Windows computers, both established themselves as market leaders.
Also in 2001, the company began to set up its own retail presence. The stores developed by Ron Johnson also sold peripheral devices from other manufacturers, such as digital cameras or PDAs, in line with the digital hub strategy, and allow visitors to try out the devices on offer.
On June 6, 2005, the company announced that it would use Intel processors in the Macintosh product line instead of the PowerPC processors manufactured by IBM and Freescale . In January 2006, Apple introduced the MacBook Pro as the successor to the PowerBook and a new iMac. In the next few months, a new Mac mini and the iBook successor MacBook came onto the market. With the introduction of the Mac Pro as the successor to the Power Mac on August 7, 2006, the switch to Intel processors was completed.
Since 2007: iPhone and iPad
In January 2007, Apple presented the Apple TV and the iPhone at Macworld San Francisco . Steve Jobs explained that in addition to the iPod, Apple now has two other product categories apart from the traditional computer business. To reflect this, the company was renamed from Apple Computer, Inc. to Apple Inc. With the presentation of the iPad tablet computer in January 2010, Apple expanded its iOS product line again. Together with devices that use the competing operating system Android , Apple's iOS devices have dominated the rapidly growing markets for smartphones and tablets since then.
In August 2011, Steve Jobs stepped down as CEO for health reasons and was succeeded by Tim Cook . The last few years under Jobs and the first few years under Cook were mainly characterized by the great success of iOS devices, which accounted for more than three quarters of sales in fiscal year 2015 and made Apple one of the largest and most financially successful companies in the world. The Mac division, whose operating system was renamed OS X in 2012, grew steadily but comparatively slowly during that time, while the iPods quickly lost importance. In September 2014, a new product category was introduced with the Apple Watch .
For the first time since 2001, Apple closed the 2016 fiscal year with a decline in sales. Sales were $ 215.6 billion (minus eight percent) and profits were $ 45.7 billion. In China , too, the numbers are now declining, where sales fell by more than 12% in the first quarter of 2017. The 2018 fiscal year Apple closed with sales of $ 229.23 billion and grew again. Apple closed fiscal year 2019 with a profit of 55.26 billion US dollars.
Litigation with Qualcomm
Since the beginning of 2017, Apple has been in a worldwide legal dispute with the semiconductor manufacturer Qualcomm, which holds a monopoly-like position in baseband processors for smartphones . The lawsuit began in 2017 when Apple sued Qualcomm for payment of one billion euros. Apple accuses Qualcomm of excessive license fees and retained discounts. Qualcomm in turn accused Apple of infringing its patents and suing it worldwide. The background to the legal dispute is the following: Apple does not purchase microchips directly from Qualcomm, but through production partners in China. They pay license fees to Qualcomm, which they invoice Apple. But Apple itself pays license fees to Qualcomm in addition to its production partners. These relate to the end products. With regard to the license fees that Apple pays Qualcomm, Qualcomm in turn grants Apple discounts. Qualcomm justifies this with the fact that it sells to Apple's production partner. After the contractual relationship, the discounts may not apply in the event of legal disputes between Apple and Qualcomm.
Because Apple was cooperating with the South Korean antitrust authority that was investigating Qualcomm, Qualcomm withheld the discounts. Apple sued Qualcomm in January 2017. Apple demanded payment of discounts and repayment of excessive license fees. Apple also accuses Qualcomm of earning double sales and license fees. In March 2019, a California court ruled that Apple's claim against Qualcomm in the amount of one billion euros was still open.
Qualcomm then sued Apple worldwide. It claims that Apple has infringed various patent rights. Germany was among the first countries in which Qualcomm sued. On December 20, 2018, Qualcomm obtained a ban on the sale of the iPhone 7, iPhone 8 and iPhone X in Germany against Apple at the Munich Regional Court due to infringement of a European patent on power supply for electrical amplifiers. Qualcomm triggered this sales ban on January 3, 2019 by depositing a security deposit of 1.34 billion euros. Five more lawsuits Qualcomms against Apple for patent infringement, including four lawsuits on Spotlight & Search and Siri , were dismissed by the Munich Regional Court. The Mannheim Regional Court dismissed another lawsuit for patent infringement . On March 27, 2019, it was announced that Apple could face a ban on the sale of some iPhone models in the USA as part of another patent litigation.
The name Apple Computer was Steve Jobs' idea, Wozniak initially disagreed with it. Since neither of them could think of another name within a period they set themselves, Jobs registered the company as “Apple Computer”. Jobs himself explained:
“At the time, we were three months behind schedule with the registration of our company name, and I threatened to call the company 'Apple Computer' if no one could think of a more interesting name by five o'clock. I hoped this would fuel the creativity. But the name stayed. And that's why we're called 'Apple' today. "
“I practiced one of my fruit diets again. I had just returned from the apple orchard. The name sounded friendly, peppy, and not intimidating. Apple took the edge off the term computer. In addition, we would be in front of Atari in the phone book in future . "
This second statement is confirmed by Steve Wozniak in his autobiography iWoz .
In 1981 the company name first led to conflicts with the Beatles label " Apple Records ". Apple avoided litigation for the name by promising not to be in the music industry. Since the Apple computers had ever more extensive multimedia capabilities in the following years, a legal dispute finally broke out in 1989, which ended with an out-of-court settlement. Apple's sale of the iPod and the operation of the iTunes Store led to another lawsuit that was settled in February 2007. Since then, Apple has owned all trademark rights to the name "Apple" and licenses certain rights to the music label. Financial details were not given.
In September 2011 Apple contradicted the establishment of a trademark registration by the Bonn café apfelkind . They wanted to secure a logo with the pattern of a head inside an apple. Apple filed an objection to the registration of the logo at the German Patent and Trademark Office in Munich because of a “high risk of confusion” . A compromise proposal from Apple to limit the use of the logo to the café - and in particular not to use the logo for covers for digital devices, computer or video games - was rejected by the owner and responded with a counterclaim, which Apple did not respond to. On September 17, 2013, Apple withdrew the opposition to the patent office without giving a reason after a settlement with the café had failed.
The first logo was a drawing in the style of a baroque engraving that Isaac Newton was sitting under an apple tree - an allusion to the discovery of gravity using an apple. This design was from Ron Wayne. However, it quickly became apparent that this logo was difficult to reproduce because it was far too small, and so it was discarded again.
The bitten apple silhouette, striped in rainbow colors, was designed by Rob Janoff in 1977. Often allusions to Isaac Newton or Alan Turing , who is considered one of the fathers of the computer and who appear to have died of a poisoned apple, as well as a play on the English word bite ("bite"), which sounds exactly like byte , are seen which Janoff himself denies. While the Apple II was able to display the colors, a monochrome version of the logo was initially often used for other purposes.
The font Motter Tektura by Othmar Motter was used for the text part of the logo , published by Letraset Ltd. in the UK . In the first Macintosh models, only the colored apple was used as the logo. As of operating system version 7, the logo was displayed in the form of a word mark in Bitstream Garamond , with which the new TrueType capability came into its own.
Since 1998 the logo has mostly only been displayed in one color, but in changing colors and sometimes with surface structures, depending on the surrounding design. The appearance of the logos on today's products is mostly colorless. They only stand out from the ground through their surface structure. As part of an environmental protection campaign is temporarily, z. B. on Earth Day , the leaf of the logo is partially colored green, the display of the Apple Stores is also adjusted in these cases. There was an urban legend that the design of the logo was inspired by the British mathematician Alan Turing , who took his own life by biting into a poisonous apple. Steve Jobs rejected this after being questioned by Stephen Fry .
Jobs was Apple's CEO from 1997 to 2011 . After his resignation on August 24, 2011, Tim Cook, who was previously responsible for the operational business as COO , took over this position. Other senior managers include Eddy Cue (online services), Craig Federighi (software), John Giannandrea ( machine learning ), Phil Schiller (marketing) and Johny Srouji ( chip design ).
Chairman (Chairman) of the Board of Directors has since November 2011 Arthur D. Levinson (former chairman and CEO of Genentech ). Other members include James Bell (former President and CFO of Boeing ), Apple CEO Tim Cook, Al Gore (former Vice President of the USA), Robert Iger (CEO of Disney ) and Andrea Jung (formerly Chairwoman and CEO of Avon Products ). Eric Schmidt (formerly CEO of Google ) left the board of directors on August 3, 2009 because of concerns about conflicts of interest given the increasing competition between Google and Apple.
Important Apple employees in connection with the development of Lisa and Macintosh were Jef Raskin (usability specialist), Andy Hertzfeld , Bill Atkinson and Susan Kare , who u. a. designed numerous icons for the Macintosh system.
In September 2016, the company employed around 123,000 people (counted in full-time equivalents). Around half of the employees work in the retail sector. The internal training program for employees is called Apple University .
The Apple Stores embody an unusual concept in which great value is placed on the interaction of visitors with the products. In order to do this, customers can try out almost all of the products on display; There are no shelves and similar elements typical of other stores. This concept is seen as a key reason for the success of Apple retail stores. Each store contains a Genius Bar, where customers can get help with Apple products.
The company operates over 500 Apple retail stores worldwide . More than half of these are in the USA, with additional stores in around 20 other countries. There are a total of 15 stores in Germany: two each in Munich (city center and OEZ ), Hamburg ( Jungfernstieg and Alstertal shopping center ) and Cologne ( Rhein-Center and Schildergasse ), as well as one more each in Frankfurt am Main ( Freßgass ), in Oberhausen ( CentrO ), in Dresden ( Altmarkt-Galerie ), in Augsburg ( City-Galerie ), in Sulzbach ( Main-Taunus-Zentrum ), in Sindelfingen, in Berlin ( Kurfürstendamm ), in Düsseldorf ( Kö-Bogen ) and in Hanover ( Bahnhofstrasse ). There are four Apple retail stores in Switzerland; two in Zurich ( Rennweg and Glattzentrum ), one in Geneva and one in Basel. In Vienna ( Carinthian street ) is the first Apple retail store was on February 24, 2018 Austria opened.
The 2004 featured "mini" retail stores were from the Design Studio Eight Inc. designed. By 2013, all mini retail stores had been replaced with full-size stores.
Measured by various economic indicators , the company is one of the largest companies in the world. Measured by market capitalization , Apple has been the most valuable company in the world since September 2011 with brief interruptions according to the Financial Times Global 500 list . According to the Fortune Global 500 list , Apple was the 9th highest-grossing company in the world in 2015. In terms of profit, Apple was also number 1 among the companies listed in Forbes Global 2000 . On the lists of the most valuable brands compiled by the market research institutes Millward Brown and Interbrand , the Apple brand has been number 1 or 2 for several years.
The company has not paid dividends since 1995, which was increasingly criticized by some shareholders around 2010 in view of the high cash reserves. After the company's financial reserves had risen to around 100 billion US dollars, Apple announced in March 2012 that it would pay a dividend of initially 0.38 US dollars in the quarter from July of that year. At the same time, Apple announced it would buy back its own shares worth $ 10 billion. By April 2016, Apple increased the share buyback program in several steps to a total of finally 175 billion US dollars by March 2018. At the same time, the dividend was increased to finally 0.57 US dollars per quarter.
|Period (GJ)||Revenue (USD million)||Profit (MILLION USD)||Sales growth||Return on sales|
|FY 1981 (Oct. 80 - Sep. 81)||335||unknown||-||-|
|FY 1982 (Oct. 81 - Sep. 82)||583||61||74%||10%|
|FY 1983 (Oct. 82 - Sep. 83)||983||77||69%||8th %|
|FY 1984 (Oct. 83 - Sep. 84)||1,516||64||54%||4%|
|FY 1985 (Oct. 84 - Sep. 85)||1.918||61||27%||3%|
|FY 1986 (Oct. 85 - Sep. 86)||1,902||154||−1%||8th %|
|FY 1987 (Oct. 86 - Sep. 87)||2,661||218||40%||8th %|
|FY 1988 (Oct. 87 - Sep. 88)||4,071||400||53%||10%|
|FY 1989 (Oct. 88 - Sep. 89)||5,284||454||30%||9%|
|FY 1990 (Oct. 89 - Sep. 90)||5,558||475||5%||9%|
|FY 1991 (Oct. 90 - Sep. 91)||7,977||310||44%||4%|
|FY 1992 (Oct. 91 - Sep. 92)||7,087||530||−11%||7%|
|FY 1993 (Oct. 92 - Sep. 93)||6,309||87||−11%||1 %|
|FY 1994 (Oct. 93 - Sep. 94)||9,189||310||46%||3%|
|FY 1995 (Oct. 94 - Sep. 95)||11.602||424||20%||4%|
|FY 1996 (Oct. 95 - Sep. 96)||9,833||−816||−11%||−8%|
|FY 1997 (Oct. 96 - Sep. 97)||7,081||−1.045||−28%||−15%|
|FY 1998 (Oct. 97 - Sep. 98)||5,941||309||−16%||5%|
|FY 1999 (Oct. 98 - Sep. 99)||6.134||601||3%||10%|
|FY 2000 (Oct. 99 - Sep. 00)||7,983||786||30%||10%|
|FY 2001 (Oct. 00 - Sep. 01)||5,363||−25||−33%||−0%|
|FY 2002 (Oct. 01 - Sep. 02)||5,247||65||−2%||1 %|
|FY 2003 (Oct. 02 - Sep. 03)||6,207||57||18%||1 %|
|FY 2004 (Oct. 03 - Sep. 04)||8,279||266||33%||3%|
|FY 2005 (Oct. 04 - Sep. 05)||13,931||1,328||68%||10%|
|FY 2006 (Oct. 05 - Sep. 06)||19,315||1,989||39%||10%|
|FY 2007 (Oct. 06 - Sep. 07)||24,578||3,495||27%||14%|
|FY 2008 (Oct. 07 - Sep. 08)||37,491||6.119||53%||16%|
|FY 2009 (Oct. 08 - Sep. 09)||42,905||8,235||14%||19%|
|FY 2010 (Oct. 09 - Sep. 10)||65,225||14,013||52%||21%|
|FY 2011 (Oct. 10 - Sep. 11)||108,249||25,922||66%||24%|
|FY 2012 (Oct. 11 - Sep. 12)||156.508||41,733||45%||27%|
|FY 2013 (Oct. 12 - Sep. 13)||170.910||37,037||9%||22%|
|FY 2014 (Oct. 13 - Sep. 14)||182,795||39,510||7%||22%|
|FY 2015 (Oct. 14 - Sep. 15)||233,715||53,394||28%||23%|
|FY 2016 (Oct. 15 - Sep. 16)||215,639||45,687||−8%||21%|
|FY 2017 (Oct. 16 - Sep. 17)||229.234||48,351||6%||21%|
|FY 2018 (Oct. 17 - Sep. 18)||265,595||59,531||16%||22%|
|FY 2019 (Oct. 18 - Sep. 19)||260.174||55,256||−2%||21%|
The products are often seen as innovative and mostly have a functional design. The clear and unadorned lines are inspired by products from the German electrical appliance manufacturer Braun , which were designed by chief designer Dieter Rams and his team.
Apple's first operating systems were the Apple DOS , SOS and ProDOS systems used in the Apple II and Apple III series . These were command line oriented , as was common back then (late 1970s and early 1980s). In 1983 Apple introduced the Lisa OS, one of the first commercially available operating systems that was operated entirely via a graphical user interface. In 1984, the Macintosh was the first graphic operating system to be launched and sold on a large scale. Two years later, the Apple IIgs was introduced, whose operating system GS / OS took over many functions of the Macintosh operating system.
With the discontinuation of the Apple II product line in the early 1990s, Apple concentrated on the Macintosh series, whose operating system up to version 7 was simply called "System" and later " Mac OS ". Mac OS 9 appeared in 1999. Its successor, Mac OS X, took over parts of the interface, but is based on a completely different kernel. With version 10.8 Mac OS X was renamed to OS X, and in 2016 with version 10.12 to macOS . A server variant, macOS Server (formerly: OS X Server), is available, but from version 10.7 onwards it is no longer sold as an independent operating system distribution , but can be installed via the App Store .
The iOS operating system is used on the iPhone and the iPadOS system on the iPad, which shares the operating system core with macOS, but has a user interface adapted for touchscreens. The operating systems for Apple TV ( tvOS ) and Apple Watch ( watchOS ) are technically closely related to iOS and macOS, but each have their own user interface.
With the macOS and iOS operating systems, Apple supplies programs for many common fields of application, such as the Safari web browser , the photo management and editing program for photos , instant messenger messages or mail , contacts and calendars . In addition, the iMovie video editing program , the GarageBand music program , the Pages word processing program , the Keynote presentation program and the Numbers spreadsheet program can all be downloaded free of charge on any newly purchased Mac or iOS device .
The company also develops software for professional audio and video editing with Logic Pro (audio and sequencing) and Final Cut Pro (video editing). The development of Aperture (photo editing and management) was stopped in April 2015.
The company publishes the source code of Darwin , the common foundation of macOS and iOS, under the APSL . In addition, macOS and iOS as well as the developer tools use various open source projects that Apple is involved in developing. These include the browser engine WebKit , which is a leader in the mobile sector, the Swift programming language , the compiler backend infrastructure LLVM and in particular Clang (C / C ++ / Objective-C frontend) as well as parts of Grand Central Dispatch , a library, which should make it easier for software developers to better distribute the processor load among the processor cores.
The company currently makes four different desktop computers. The iMac , in which the computer and screen are combined in one housing, and the cheaper Mac mini are aimed at normal users, while the Mac Pro and iMac Pro are geared towards computationally intensive tasks such as professional video editing. The iMac Pro is an all-in-one PC , the Mac Pro only describes the computer without a monitor.
Apple II (1977)
Apple Lisa (1983)
iMac G3 (1998)
Power Mac G4 Quicksilver (2002)
Mac mini (2005)
Mac Pro (2013)
Apple's first portable computer in 1989 was the Macintosh Portable, which weighed more than 7 kg . Two years later, with the PowerBook, the company introduced the notebook design with recessed keyboard and palm rest that is still common today. Apple currently makes three different notebooks: the MacBook , MacBook Air, and MacBook Pro .
The company introduced the iPod on October 23, 2001, and several models have been added over the years. He established himself as the market leader among MP3 players. More than 350 million units had been sold by September 2012. Today Apple only offers one iPod model, the iPod touch (iOS-based). The iPod classic was discontinued in September 2014, the iPod shuffle and iPod nano variants were withdrawn from the market in 2017.
The company presented the iPhone on January 9, 2007, followed by the first iPod with a touchscreen, the iPod touch, in the fall of that year. Both use the same operating system, which was initially called the iPhone OS and was renamed to iOS in the summer of 2010 with version 4.0 .
In early 2010, the company introduced the iPad, a tablet that also ran iOS. In October 2012, the iPad mini was also presented, which has a smaller screen than the normal iPad. On September 9, 2015, the iPad Pro was introduced, which has a 70% larger screen.
The Apple TV presented in September 2006 first ran with a modified version of Mac OS X; Since the hardware was completely overhauled in September 2010, an iOS version with an adapted user interface has been running on the Apple TV. From the 4th generation of the Apple TV, which was introduced in 2015, the operating system is known as tvOS and has an app store.
In November 2017, Apple released the iPhone X , which was the first model without a home button. IPhone XS , iPhone XS Max and iPhone XR followed a year later . The iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max were introduced on September 10, 2019. Apple started selling the iPhone SE (2nd Gen.) on April 24, 2020 .
Measured by the number of devices sold, Apple was the third largest brand of mobile phones in mid-2018 and, as a manufacturer, the fourth largest manufacturer of mobile phones (after Samsung , Huawei with the brands Huawei and Honor and BBK Electronics with the brands Oppo, Vivo and OnePlus).
Apple TV (2011/2012)
iPad mini (2012)
iPad Air 2 (2014)
iPhone 6s (2015)
IPhone X (2017)
iPhone XR (Blue, 2018)
The Apple Watch is a smartwatch that was announced on September 9, 2014 and has been available since April 24, 2015. The latest Series 5 was presented on September 10, 2019.
- App Store - platform for offering and downloading programs for the iOS and OS X operating systems
- iTunes Store - online platform integrated in iTunes for purchasing music, films and other multimedia content
- iCloud - partly free of charge cloud computing service with which e-mails, appointments, contacts and photos can be synchronized between all of your own devices (iPod, iPhone, Mac and Windows computers)
- Apple Music - music streaming service launched in 100 countries with iOS 8.4 on June 30, 2015.
- Apple Arcade - Video Games Subscription Service.
- Apple TV + - video-on-demand service.
Peripherals and consumer electronics
The company manufactures various peripheral devices, including screens such as the Apple Thunderbolt Display (formerly Apple Cinema Displays ), input devices such as mice, keyboards (including Wireless Keyboard ) and the so-called Magic Trackpad, as well as WLAN devices ( AirPort and Time Capsule ). Apple also developed the FireWire interface for connecting devices such as video cameras or hard drives, which later became an industry standard under the name "IEEE 1394". Today this interface is increasingly being replaced by Thunderbolt, so that the FireWire interface is no longer present in most products of the new generations.
The company used to offer other peripheral devices such as printers (including StyleWriter and LaserWriter ) and scanners, digital cameras (including QuickTake and iSight ), the iPod Hi-Fi or a docking station and several adapters. Independent devices such as the PDA Newton , the Apple Pippin game console and the PowerCD CD player were also sold. Many of these devices were not developed in-house, but were produced by other manufacturers on behalf of Apple.
The company equips its products with the VoiceOver screen reader , which enables blind and visually impaired users to set up and use the devices independently after purchasing them without outside help. Furthermore, a so-called Braille display can be connected under OS X as well as under iOS , which displays the screen content in braille .
In addition to the output of the screen in spoken language and braille, the operating aids include optical adjustment options and a zoom function for people with sufficient visual space as well as other operating aids for the hearing impaired and those affected by other disabilities.
The company was the first computer manufacturer to make all devices on offer accessible from the software side. The US National Federation of the Blind (NFB) praised Apple's commitment to accessibility in mid-2014 and emphasized that Apple had done more than any other manufacturer.
Basic principles of product design
The principle of simplicity
Apple's product design is characterized by its simplicity and simplicity. For example, all iPhone models before the iPhone X have only one control element and the display on the front, all models after the iPhone X no longer have any control elements on the front. The iPod also shows a strong reduction, which can be recognized by the clear separation between input and output. The principle is also reflected in the limited number of cables, as Apple's keyboards and mice can be connected via Bluetooth .
Similar to the German company Braun , Apple also follows the motto “less is more” and when designing products is not limited to appearance, but also to technical properties. This is expressed, for example, in the graphical user interface, which has a comparatively small number of operating elements. The reduction was of functional importance, especially in Apple's early days, so that newcomers to computers had an understanding of how to operate the products. As a result, the design department is currently at the center of all business decisions.
The principle of integration
The principle of integration describes a collaboration between technical research, classic product design and development. "Some people think that design means how it looks. But of course, if you dig deeper, it's really how it works ”- Steve Jobs. According to Steve Jobs , the designers are not just the creators of a shell or surface, but also work on innovative solutions in terms of design and technology. Design-driven product development is therefore the driving force in a company and is of great importance in relation to corporate strategy.
The principle of obsolescence
The principle of obsolescence describes the planned replacement of products. Limiting the lifespan of a product thus shortens the replacement time and increases the resulting turnover. "Apple's product replacement strategy is not a functional one, but one that relies on design: aesthetic obsolescence." Apple does not produce end devices that stop working after a certain period of use. The company tries to convince customers to voluntarily replace them without technical reasons by encouraging the consumer to buy via the design. The strategy of aging is used, in which the customers feel that their previous product is out of date and the desire to purchase is generated due to the significantly changed design of the new product.
The new product has new technical properties and a new design, for example the first generation of the iPhone had very few technical features: no GPS, little storage space and no possibility of installing third-party software. The revenue generated financed the development and research of further technologies, which were added annually, and is currently generating the customer's desire for the next model. "This becomes clear with the iPod, which came with unusually white headphones in 2001."
The advertising psychology of reactance intensifies obsolescence: On the first day of sale, a limited number of new products are delivered and at the same time reported as sold out. This strategy creates a restriction in the freedom of choice for the potential customer and also enhances the new product.
The material of Apple design
In addition to economic, ecological and functional aspects, the choice of material is also decisive from the perspective of product design. “The handling of materials is one of the most important innovations of the design team at Apple.” In the last century, numerous new materials have been developed, which have increased the choice for designers.
Jonathan Ive , Apple's chief design officer, often experimented with traditional materials and used them in unusual ways in design. Due to the reduction in a new product design, Jonathan Ives' team came up with a manufacturing process in 2008 that led to a new design, the so-called " unibody design ". Jonathan Ive explained that instead of layering several sheets of metal, the new process is based on a thick block of metal. The term "unibody" is created, meaning that three-dimensional housings are milled from aluminum blocks. “One of the fantastic things about aluminum is that it is reusable. And in every single phase we are constantly collecting, cleaning and recycling the material. ”- Jonathan Ive. The advantage is that the technical inner workings are taken into account and thus fewer production steps are required. The housing is also more stable and has no seams as there are no additional parts.
As early as 1998, the Apple company celebrated great success with its choice of materials. That year the company introduced the first iMac computers. The special feature of these products was that the housings were made of colored, translucent plastic. At that time, plastics in the computer sector were mostly beige in color on the computer market. Jonathan Ive developed a design of the housing that was adapted to the interior, so that the consumer could choose from different colors at their own discretion. This possibility caused the customer to become more emotional, which reduced the inhibition threshold of computer novices to buy the new product.
In the course of time, the Apple group applied for numerous patents relating to the use of materials. As a result, it can be said that Apple is currently still trying to use innovative materials. The iPhone 4 introduced in 2010 is an example. The front and back of this iPhone are made of a glass, which is also used in the windshields of high-speed trains. At the time, Apple advertised an ultra-rugged and scratch-resistant display. The materials thus contribute to Apple's unique selling point in the electronics industry.
Working conditions at supplier companies
The company has its products mainly manufactured by contract manufacturers in Asia, whose working conditions do not meet Western standards. Labor law and the health of workers are often not given sufficient consideration.
In 2006, the British newspaper Mail on Sunday reported on forced overtime and falling below the legal minimum wage in two Foxconn plants. An investigation by Apple contradicted this, but found violations of Apple's own code of conduct for suppliers. As a result, Apple joined the industry association EICC, which defines uniform codes of conduct and testing tools, and began working with the non-governmental organization Verité. Since 2007, Apple has published an annual report that summarizes the results of all supplier reviews carried out in the previous year.
In the years that followed, there were repeated reports of poor working conditions at Foxconn and other suppliers. The Greenpeace- supported Public Eye Awards nominated Foxconn in 2011 for a negative award, as “dumping wages” and “unethical to illegal” working conditions led to at least 18 suicides by young Chinese migrant workers. In early 2012, Apple joined the Fair Labor Association , which published the results of an independent study of working conditions at Foxconn in March. In two other investigations since then, the FLA has found that all of the actions recommended in the first report have been implemented. In addition to reduced working hours and ergonomic measures, the degree of organization in trade unions has been greatly increased.
Since 2012, the company has been monitoring the weekly working hours of more than one million workers at supplier companies and has published this data on the Internet. According to the company, the frequency of violations of the maximum weekly working time of 60 hours decreased from 35% in 2006 to an average of 8% in 2014.
This is contradicted by a report by the BBC ( Apple's Broken Promises ) from the end of 2014, in which BBC reporters disguised as workers at Foxconn with a hidden camera demonstrated, among other things, 12-hour shifts for the iPhone 6 and the overcrowding of workers' homes and unprotected work with dangerous chemicals .
The company faced allegations from several environmental protection organizations, including Greenpeace . The Guide to Greener Electronics , first published in August 2006 , initially criticized the use of toxic chemicals common in the industry at the time, such as PVC or bromine-containing flame retardants, and the fact that Apple had not published any plans to dispense with these chemicals. It was also criticized that Apple does not accept old products for recycling in some countries. Critics, including the online magazine treehugger.com , pointed to methodological shortcomings. Among other things, Greenpeace placed too much emphasis on public declarations of intent by companies. In the latest Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics, however, Apple takes second place behind Fairphone .
Jobs replied to Greenpeace's allegations in May 2007 that he wanted to make Apple a leader in environmental protection. In his text A Greener Apple , Jobs listed successes already achieved and announced further measures for environmental protection. Apple's decision to leave the US Chamber of Commerce because of its fundamental opposition to a climate protection law met with approval from environmental groups.
In November 2012 the company was in an updated version of the Guide to Greener Electronics in 6th place out of 16 companies examined. While Greenpeace positively assessed the extensive elimination of harmful chemicals and a high recycling rate, the organization complained above all that Apple did not publish sufficient declarations of intent to switch to renewable energies and to avoid greenhouse gases and to use recycled plastic and paper.
In July 2012, the company withdrew from the Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool ( EPEAT ) program. That means the company's products will no longer be certified to EPEAT guidelines, as it has been since 2007. The decision has been publicly criticized because the EPEAT certificate is necessary for the procurement of end devices by federal and state authorities in the USA . In an official statement, the company pointed out that its own products do particularly well on points that EPEAT does not take into account. A few days after the statement, Apple said the exit from EPEAT was a mistake. Certification for all affected devices will continue. In the spring of 2013, the company hired Lisa Jackson, the long-time head of the US EPA , as coordinator for environmental protection activities. In a report released in April 2014, Greenpeace stated that Apple was the only company it investigated to switch all data centers to completely renewable energy. In March 2016, Apple announced that 93% of its own energy needs are met from renewable energy sources. In April 2018, Apple CEO Lisa Jackson announced that offices, data centers, and other proprietary facilities around the world would run entirely on renewable energy. In addition, products from 2018 onwards, provided they contain aluminum, are 100% recycled.
See also: Green IT
An ambitious goal is announced in the 2020 sustainability report. Every Apple product should be climate neutral by 2030. Apple wants to make production, contract manufacturing, device use and disposal climate-neutral. Around 75% of the emissions arise in production. In this part of the value chain, suppliers play a major role, where production has to be rebuilt. Jackson makes a clear demand here: "Anyone who does not produce climate-neutrally in 2030 will no longer produce for Apple.
Backdated stock options
The company backdated stock options of $ 84 million to employees including then CEO Steve Jobs between 1997 and 2006 . As a result of this affair, the chief legal advisor and the chief financial officer of Apple resigned. According to an internal investigation, Jobs himself knew about the back-dating of stock options, but believed that he would not benefit from this practice himself. The consequences for the balance sheets were therefore not clear to him.
Action against unauthorized reporting
In 2005, the company took legal action against Apple Insider , PowerPage and Think Secret blogs for reporting on unreleased products. Apple suspected that some of the reporters had their own employees who disclosed internal company information. In previous legal proceedings against the authors of the reports, however, Apple has not been successful: a California court ruled for the first time that bloggers and online journalists enjoy the same constitutional protection of press freedom as representatives of the traditional press. In addition, Apple had to pay litigation costs of the Electronic Frontier Foundation , which had supported the blogs in court, in the amount of 700,000 US dollars.
Spiegel Online criticizes the "extreme secrecy" and writes that the company is a "paranoid corporation, for whom secrets are not only protection from the competition, but also a marketing tool". This guarantees free advertising through the hype and the rumor mill before a new product is launched. How effective this strategy is, shows an estimate by Harvard professor David Yoffie, according to which reporting on the iPhone in early 2007 had about the same effect as a 400 million US dollar advertising campaign. According to an eyewitness, betrayal of secrets is pursued with methods similar to the secret service, regardless of the privacy of the employees. There is “a culture of fear”.
Software distribution through the App Store
The company reviews all programs submitted for the iOS app store for a number of technical - such as security and stability - but also content-related criteria before they are published. Since it is difficult for users to obtain native programs from sources other than the App Store, critics see censorship in the non-approval of programs.
Other authors, however, see the control of the app store as a possible advantage for users:
"As more consumers have fears about security on the Internet, viruses and malware, they may be happy to opt for Apple's gated community."
"As more and more consumers worry about online security, viruses and malware, they may be happy to opt for Apple's isolated system."
Data protection for customer-related user data and employees
Apple Retail Germany GmbH, which operates the Apple Stores in Germany, received another Big Brother Award for dealing with the privacy of the workforce. She is said to have monitored not only the sales rooms, but also the employees' storage and break rooms by video. Such comprehensive video surveillance of employees is not permitted under German data protection.
In order to be able to continue selling on the Chinese market, Apple will store the data of Chinese customers in China and give the authorities there full access to the user data if necessary.
EU allegations of targeted customer deception
In a letter to the consumer protection ministers of the member states, the former EU justice commissioner Viviane Reding accuses Apple of deceiving customers when buying mobile phones and computers about the 24-month statutory warranty they are entitled to within the EU and of selling an additional guarantee for an additional charge. "It appears that Apple sellers have failed to provide consumers with clear, truthful and complete information about the legal guarantees they are entitled to under EU law," it explains. In addition to the statutory warranty, Apple offers a free 1-year warranty, but does not state that the warranty (by law) exists in parallel and has twice the duration. Laypeople in particular cannot grasp the difference. In December 2011, the Italian authorities fined Apple € 900,000 for this practice.
- Apple posts EU revenue to an Irish Apple holding company ,
- Ireland hardly taxes profits because this company is overseas (USA) run,
- the US does not tax foreign profits that do not go to the US.
This practice is increasingly criticized.
United States Senate investigators released a report on Apple's actions on May 20, 2013. From 2009 to 2012, non-US taxed foreign profits of at least 74 billion US dollars flowed to Irish subsidiaries. Apple's Irish subsidiary's earnings were not taxed in any country, with another subsidiary taxing earnings at just 0.05%. Some subsidiaries had no employees. The next day there was a public hearing in the Senate, attended by Apple CEO Tim Cook. Cupertino's Mayor, Barry Chang, criticized Apple's tax avoidance as an "abuse". The small town in California cannot finance the increased costs of expanding and maintaining the infrastructure with tax revenues.
The European Commission rates Apple's tax-saving model as state aid that violates EU competition rules. On August 30, 2016, the European Commission announced that it considered the tax benefits granted to Apple by Ireland to be illegal: The EU Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager "stated that Apple paid 0.005 percent tax in Ireland" . Apple Sales International (ASI) in Cork, Ireland, formally buys goods from suppliers in Asia and sells them at a surcharge to Apple companies who sell them to end customers worldwide. The only virtual detour via Ireland saves the taxation of three-digit billion profits: ASI was founded in Ireland and is managed from the USA. Under US law, companies are taxable in the country of incorporation. Under Irish law, companies are taxable in the country in which they are run. Ireland should demand 13 billion euros in unpaid taxes from Apple from 2003 to 2014 plus interest. Tim Cook stated on August 31, 2016 that Apple and Ireland will challenge the retrospective change in tax rules. The ECJ annulled the decision of the EU Commission on July 15, 2020. This leaves a final dispute at the [ECJ]. On the same day, the EU Commission presented an action plan for fair and simple taxation - using Article 116 of the EU Treaty. This means that member states can be forced to change national tax laws - if necessary by court ruling.
In November 2017, Apple is listed in the publications of the Paradise Papers : Apple had law firms in the tax havens of the British Virgin Islands , Channel Islands and Isle of Man inquire about how to avoid the taxes there.
So far, Apple has accumulated almost $ 250 billion in tax-free cash abroad. After CEO Tim Cook, who calls Apple “the world's largest taxpayer,” recommended that the US government reform the taxation of foreign profits, it lowered the corporate tax rate from 35 to 21 percent. If companies like Apple bring home money hoarded abroad, old profits are only taxed at 15 percent.
More recent reports from 2018 criticize a decline in the quality of Apple products. This applies to both hardware and software:
"If you're an iPhone or iPad user, then you've no doubt noticed that - over the past few years - there's been a real and serious decline in the quality of iOS releases."
"If you are an iPhone or iPad user, you have no doubt noticed that there has been a real and serious decline in the quality of iOS publications over the past few years."
On May 11, 2018, a lawsuit was filed against Apple in the Northern District Court of California. Apple is accused of knowing that the keyboard on some MacBook laptop computers is prone to premature failure due to a design flaw and promoting and selling these devices despite this known flaw. In order to further reduce the thickness of the devices, the classic scissor key mechanism on the MacBook was replaced by a butterfly mechanism from 2015. This new keyboard mechanism tends to have defects, which manifest themselves in the fact that key entries are no longer correctly recognized or the keyboard forwards key presses to the operating system without user input. According to a report from Apple Insider, the incidence of keyboard defects on the 2016 MacBook Pro is twice as high as on older devices.
At the end of May 2018, it became known from legal proceedings that Apple was aware even before the iPhone 6 was launched that the housing material of the devices was insufficiently strong and could be bent too easily. The iPhone 6 is 3.3 times more likely to bend than the iPhone 5s. For the successor iPhone 6s, Apple has chosen a different material that cannot be bent so easily.
A video by the web video producer Quinn Nelson put the focus on the poor build quality of the iMac Pro's VESA mount . The quality of the supplied screws is so bad that they partially break off when you remove them for the first time. Nelson contacted this issue about Apple Support, who rejected it because the VESA holder is not an Apple product, even though it is sold by Apple and has an Apple logo on it. When the iMac Pro was subsequently repaired in an Apple store, it turned out that the staff was not sufficiently trained to repair the device.
Prevention of repairs by unauthorized third parties
The security processor T2 installed in newer devices can in future be used to prevent certain components from being replaced by unauthorized repairmen. As Apple announced in the IT blog The Verge , a proprietary diagnostic tool must be run after certain components have been replaced in order to restart the device. iFixit considers this repair nailing by T2 to be “a guillotine that hovers over the repair industry”.
Special way in the declaration of intent for universal chargers
In 2009, 10 cell phone manufacturers (including Nokia , Samsung and Apple) signed a letter of intent for a common standard for chargers. The standard should make it more convenient for cell phone users and ensure that fewer old charging devices become electronic waste. “[Apple] is introducing USB power supplies, but refuses to create a plug connector for micro-USB in its cell phones.” “Apple is formally adhering to the declaration of intent, but it gives the impression to parts of the public and some MPs' that Apple is ignoring its promises. "
Interception by Siri
The whistleblower Thomas le Binniec reported in a letter to the European data protection authorities that he was part of the so-called grading project and that his task was to improve the Siri language assistant by transcribing recorded conversations . He sharply criticized the fact that conversations were also recorded without the user being aware of this or that the user had actively consented to this recording, and that other people such as family or friends were also recorded. This also enabled him to tap into intimate and private conversations. This evaluation program has since been suspended.
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