|Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
华为 技術 公司
Bantian, Longgang ,
Shenzhen 518116, People's Republic of China
|management||Chairman of the
Board of Directors
|Number of employees||194,000|
|sales||110.5 billion euros (2019)|
|As of March 20, 2020|
Huawei ( Chinese 華為 / 华为 , Pinyin Huáwéi IPA [ xwǎˈwěɪ ] , officially 華為 技術 公司 / 华为 技术 公司 , Huáwéi Jìshù Gōngsī , English Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ) is a telecommunications equipment manufacturer and hardware manufacturer founded in 1987 by Ren Zhengfei based in Shenzhen , a special economic zone in China , in the direct vicinity of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . At the end of 2019, the group had around 194,000 employees worldwide.
The annual turnover in 2019 was approx. 109 billion euros , the net profit amounted to 7.9 billion euros. Since July 2020, Huawei has been the largest smartphone manufacturer in the world, ahead of Samsung and Apple .
The main focus of the company is the development and manufacture of communication technology devices . This includes mobile communications ( UMTS , GSM , GPRS , GSM-R , WiMAX ), but also xDSL , optical networks , network components such as WLAN access points, servers and switches. The European headquarters of the Huawei Group is located in Düsseldorf . Due to the tense political situation in Europe, which includes security concerns in the delivery of 5G components from Huawei, Huawei is planning a plant for 5G network technology in France to create greater acceptance and transparency.
In the 1980s, the Chinese government began attempts to modernize the country's previously underdeveloped telecommunications infrastructure. As part of these modernization efforts, Ren Zhengfei founded Huawei in 1987 in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone . His goal was to create a Chinese telecommunications company that could compete with foreign competitors.
The business model in the first few years consisted mainly of reselling telephone systems that were imported from Hong Kong . At the same time, Huawei made investments in research and development of its own technologies. In 1990 the company had around 500 employees from research and development.
The first breakthrough came in 1993 with the C&C08 switching system, which was then the most powerful of its kind in China. After the technology was first applied in small towns and rural areas, the market share grew over time. With the principle adopted by the Chinese government in 1996 to promote domestic telecommunications companies and restrict access for foreign competitors, Huawei was further strengthened.
Huawei signed its first international contract in 1997 with Hutchison Whampoa , a company from Hong Kong . There were also further contracts with international telecommunications companies and the opening of several research and development centers. Huawei first started operating in Europe in 2000 when a research center was opened in Stockholm . In 2002, international sales totaled $ 552 million .
Around 2002 the company was accused by the network component manufacturer Cisco that the hardware and software ( IOS ) devices were almost identical to Cisco products in every detail. In 2003 a US court found Cisco partially right, but only in the area of software. Finally, Cisco and Huawei reached an out-of-court settlement. After a third party confirmed Huawei's compliance with the settlement at the end of 2004, Cisco did not pursue the allegations against Huawei any further. A patent submitted by Huawei to the European Patent Office in December 2006 caused annoyance among experts, as Huawei allegedly exploited its cooperation with the IETF to claim patent protection for a previously known process.
In 2005, sales generated abroad exceeded domestic sales for the first time. In June 2007, the Chinese business magazine “Global Entrepreneur” named Huawei the best Chinese company in Europe.
In 2008, Huawei founded the joint venture Huawei Symantec with the American company Symantec, based in Chengdu , China. Huawei held 51% of the company and Symantec 49%. In November 2011, Huawei completely took over the joint venture, paying $ 530 million for Symantec's stake.
In March 2014, media reports revealed that the US secret service NSA had spied on the company.
At the end of February 2016, the start of a long-term strategic alliance between the Huawei Consumer Business Group and Leica Camera AG was announced. As part of the technology partnership, high-quality smartphone cameras are to be developed. At the beginning of April 2016, the Huawei P9 and Huawei P9 Plus, the first two products of this collaboration, were presented, which contain two coupled cameras to improve image quality.
The Covid-19 pandemic helped the group to slip into first place in the world market for smartphones. Annual sales amount to 55.8 million smartphones, according to Canalys' forecast. Previously, Samsung was # 1.
The dispute with the USA escalates
With a decree issued on May 15, 2019, US President Donald John Trump declared a "national emergency " for the US with regard to telecommunications. This allows the federal government to prevent transactions between US companies and those "opposing" states. The US government announced that the president was doing everything possible to maintain the national security of the US and to protect the country from "foreign enemies" who increasingly exploited weaknesses in communications technology. The US Department of Commerce will from now on prohibit all transactions which it believes pose unacceptable risks for the United States or for the "safety of Americans". As a result, Google ended part of its cooperation with Huawei on instructions from the US Department of Commerce from May 2019.
Among other things, Huawei uses the Android operating system , which is published by Alphabet Inc. under the open source license GPLv2 . In addition to the open source version, Alphabet provides original equipment manufacturers with a licensed version. This enables adjustments and support services from Alphabet and early access to updates in order to maintain compatibility and security. Without this license, Huawei cannot access OEM options and Google services such as Play Store , Gmail , Google Maps and other services. Security updates are only possible after the release of the open source version of Android (AOSP), so that this can lead to a delayed update at Huawei - compared to other manufacturers.
On May 21, 2019, the implementation of the sanctions was postponed because Huawei provided parts of the cellular network technology in the USA. The measures were suspended for 90 days with the possibility of further suspensions to give providers time to look for alternative solutions. Huawei announced the release of an operating system compatible with Android: Harmony OS , called Hongmeng OS in China .
In a phone call with China's head of state Xi Jinping , Donald Trump eased the sanctions somewhat on June 29, 2019. In September 2019, Huawei publicly accused the US federal government of harming the company: "All available options such as judicial and administrative powers as well as a variety of unscrupulous means - are intended to disrupt the normal business operations of Huawei and its partners." The company accused the US government For pressuring employees: "Current and former Huawei employees have been threatened to force, entice or motivate them to turn against Huawei and work for US authorities". The company spoke of a campaign by the US government to urge other states like Germany to keep Huawei technology off cellular networks, as the use of Huawei devices endangers data from citizens and the military.
The US Department of Justice disagreed with Huawei's presentation. All investigative methods used by the officials were in accordance with the law. The authority is investigating Huawei on suspicion that the Chinese company has violated Iran sanctions.
In mid-August 2020, 12 weeks before the 2020 US presidential election , the US government tightened sanctions against Huawei.
Huawei is led by a 16-member Board of Directors . It is headed by a president and four deputies, with the role of the president rotating every six months. The current chair is Liang Hua. Meng Wanzhou , the daughter of the founder Ren Zhengfei , is one of the deputies, Ren himself is a director on the board . As the only member of the executive board, founder Ren has the right to veto all important corporate management decisions.
In addition to mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet PCs , Huawei offers products and services for network infrastructures and cloud computing solutions. The offer is divided into the following three business areas: Consumer, Carrier Network and Enterprise.
Carrier Network (network infrastructure)
The Carrier Network division develops technologies for expanding the digital infrastructure . In Germany, Huawei supplies Deutsche Telekom , Vodafone and Telefónica, among others . The products include antennas for wireless broadband networks and optical transmission systems. Carrier Network is by far the financially strongest division of Huawei. In 2014, 31 billion US dollars were turned over here worldwide.
Enterprise (solutions for business customers)
In the enterprise area, Huawei offers solutions for business customers. These include products for network infrastructure, cloud computing and data center management for companies, institutions or public administration facilities. Customers are, for example, supply and energy groups as well as companies from the transport and logistics sectors. In July 2015, Huawei and Siemens took on an order from Deutsche Bahn to modernize their GSM-R cellular network .
The research facility CERN has also already been equipped with Huawei technology. Huawei concluded another cooperation partnership with SAP . With SAP HANA , large amounts of data are recorded and evaluated. Huawei is providing the infrastructure for this and other Smart City projects. This includes LTE systems, networks, servers, storage and hardware. Huawei develops solutions for cloud computing, contact centers, telepresence and micro data centers.
Consumer (end devices)
Huawei has been offering its own devices in Germany since 2011. This mainly includes smartphones , tablets and various wearables . In 2014, Huawei sold a total of 48.2 million mobile phones worldwide. Huawei is the world's third largest supplier of smartphones, ranked second in the Chinese market in the first half of 2015 and ousted Apple to third there.
Huawei also develops products for mobile Internet access, such as USB surf sticks and mobile WLAN routers , which are sold by Deutsche Telekom , Vodafone and O2 . The company also produces inverters for solar systems and numerous products for corporate networks .
In 2013, the Huawei Consumer Business Group founded its second brand, “ Honor ”, under which smartphones and various gadgets are sold . According to the company, “Honor” is the largest e-brand for smartphones in China.
Huawei has been active in Germany since 2001. The first branch was in Eschborn, Hesse . Huawei Technologies Deutschland GmbH now has more than 1,800 employees at 18 locations. According to its own information, Huawei is the largest Chinese company in Germany. In addition to the German headquarters, Huawei has also been located in Düsseldorf since 2007. Dennis Zuo has been the head of Huawei in Germany since February 2019.
Together with Deutsche Telekom , Vodafone and Telefónica , Huawei is working on converting the German cellular network to LTE . The supply of rural areas with Internet is also part of the core business. The Huawei Technologies Germany GmbH is since 2011 member of the Network European Movement Germany .
According to a publication in the Federal Gazette, Huawei Technologies Deutschland GmbH reported sales of 1.6 billion euros and a profit of 37.6 million euros for the 2017 financial year .
In 2011, Huawei became the first Chinese company to open an office in the capital in Berlin . Other locations of Huawei Germany are among others in Bonn , Dresden , Hamburg , Hanover , Cologne , Leipzig and Stuttgart . The headquarters of Huawei's European Research Center (ERC) is located in Munich . The company also operates two innovation and research centers in Nuremberg and Darmstadt .
Research and Development
In Germany, Huawei is focusing on research and development work. The European Research Center in Munich coordinates a total of 18 European research institutions and is involved in the development of 5G technology , among other things . Huawei has set up a 5G test environment in Munich, which is supported by the Free State of Bavaria , the City of Munich, the Technical University of Munich and M-net .
In addition, Huawei has entered into cooperations with several German universities and research institutions, including RWTH Aachen University , TU Berlin and TU Munich . Together with the Fraunhofer Institute for Embedded Systems and Communication Technology ESK , Huawei is working on solutions for the field of Industry 4.0 .
Huawei runs several projects aimed at promoting cultural exchange between Germany and China . In 2014, the company published the second edition of the study "Germany and China - Perception and Reality", which deals with common clichés about the other country. Huawei has been organizing the “Seeds for the Future” student program since 2013, in which students from German universities are invited on a trip to China. Huawei is a member of the German-Chinese Business Association (DCW) and the China Forum Bavaria.
The former maintenance and service employees of O2 are brought together in the subsidiary Huawei Technologies Services GmbH .
The Swiss subsidiary Huawei Technologies Switzerland AG has had its headquarters since 2008 in Liebefeld, municipality of Köniz , canton of Bern , with additional offices in Dübendorf , Zurich and other Swiss agglomerations. The branches employed 300 people (June 2015). Infoniqa SQL AG is the technology integrator for Huawei Switzerland. The company also works closely with local telecommunications providers such as Sunrise Communications AG .
The semiconductor manufacturer HiSilicon is a subsidiary of Huawei.
From 2006 to 2016, the Association for the Promotion of a German Research Network e. V. (DFN-Verein) uses optical DWDM multiplex technology from the manufacturer Huawei in its 10-gigabit network X-WiN .
In 2012, a US Congress of Inquiry accused Huawei of having been influenced by the Chinese government . The reason is the non-transparent structure of the company, which raised the question of who it belongs to. Since Huawei is not listed , American experts accuse the company of being " controlled by the Communist Party and having to spy on its customers abroad because of the authoritarian power structures in China for the government." Like ZTE , Huawei could endanger the national security of the USA and espionage, some MPs had argued. US companies have been advised not to do business with Huawei if they are interested in their intellectual property . Huawei always rejected the allegations and announced more transparency. In April 2019, Huawei announced that it belongs to the employees and is controlled by them. It is therefore independent of the Chinese state.
Huawei itself has been a spy target for the American secret service NSA in the past.
In Australia, Huawei was banned from the national broadband network in 2012. In the meantime, however, these differences have been overcome, explained Huawei. Allegations that Huawei routers are easy to hack were not confirmed. The German Telekom ruled out on demand vulnerabilities in the affected devices.
An Iranian partner of Huawei is suspected of having delivered embargoed goods to Iran. According to Huawei, this should have happened before the "Iran Human Rights Regulation" [Regulation (EU) No. 264/2012] came into force. According to Reuters, however, it cannot be ruled out that technology produced by Huawei, which is covered by the embargo, could have entered Iran via third parties. The US justifies the arrest of Huawei's chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou , a daughter of the founder, by means of a US arrest warrant on December 1, 2018 in Vancouver . The Canadian judiciary released her on December 11, subject to extensive conditions and after paying a bail of Kan $ 10 million (approx. EUR 6.6 million) until a decision on extradition to the USA was made. The Canadian prime minister said he knew about the plan to arrest Weng in advance; he trusts the independence of his judicial authorities. On January 28, 2019, the U.S. Department of Justice brought charges against Huawei, two subsidiaries, and Meng Wanzhou. The authority accuses them of 13 counts, including violations of US-Iran sanctions, bank fraud, money laundering and industrial espionage.
There have been reports in the past that Chinese suppliers may have employed workers under the age of 16. This contravenes labor laws in China. In the “Sustainability Report” published in 2014, Huawei points out that the employment of children is prohibited both in the Group's own and in supplier companies and is sanctioned by the company.
In July 2014, the Taiwanese company Hon Hai withdrew from its proposed purchase of 4G equipment from Huawei, as the Taiwanese government warned that it could facilitate espionage and pose a risk to Taiwan's national security.
The New Zealand news service Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) forbade the end of November 2018 the telecommunications provider Spark New Zealand for the construction of the new mobile standard 5G use equipment of the network company Huawei. The GCSB sees a significant network security risk with the possibility of espionage. Australia already banned Huawei from using it in the summer of 2018.
On the other hand, Robert Hannigan, once head of the British secret service GCHQ , emphasized that the British National Cyber Security Center (NCSC) had access to Huawei's program code and had never found backdoors in regular audits since 2010 .
Huawei has been the “Champion Partner” of the Bundesliga soccer club Borussia Dortmund since September 2013 . Together with Unitymedia , Huawei installed a publicly accessible WLAN for the more than 80,000 spectators in the Westfalenstadion . The WLAN was put into operation on April 18, 2015.
On July 15, 2014, FC Schalke 04 announced the support of Huawei as the club's “premium partner”. The contract initially comprised a term of two years as well as free use of the WLAN within the Veltins-Arena for all visitors .
Furthermore, Huawei has sponsorship agreements with the soccer clubs VfL Wolfsburg (Germany), Arsenal FC (England), AC Milan (Italy), Ajax Amsterdam (Netherlands), Atlético Madrid (Spain), Paris Saint-Germain (France), Benfica Lisbon (Portugal) , Wellington Phoenix (New Zealand), Santa Fe CD (Colombia), Club América (Mexico), Galatasaray Istanbul (Turkey) and Ajax Cape Town (South Africa) as well as RSC Anderlecht (Belgium).
A list of the products that are officially offered by Huawei and still produced (as of May 2020).
Huawei sold more than 200 million smartphones worldwide in 2018.
- Matebook D14
- Matebook D15
- MateBook E
- MateBook X
- MateBook X Pro
- MediaPad T1 7.0
- MediaPad T1 8.0
- MediaPad T1 10.0
- MediaPad T2 10.0 Pro
- MediaPad T3
- MediaPad T3 7
- MediaPad T3 10
- MediaPad T5 10
- MediaPad M2 10.0
- MediaPad M3
- MediaPad M3 Lite 10
- MediaPad M5 8.4
- MediaPad M5 10.8
- MediaPad M5 lite
- MediaPad M5 Pro
- Matepad Pro
- TalkBand B2
- TalkBand B3
- Watch 2
- Watch 2 Classic
- Watch GT
- Watch GT 2
- Watch GT 2e
- Volume 2 Pro
- Volume A2
- Volume 3e
- Volume 3 Pro
- Volume 4 Pro
- CloudEngine 12800
- CloudEngine 8800
- CloudEngine 7800
- CloudEngine 5800
- SUN2000 (2-60 kW)
- Astrid Freyeisen: How the Chinese IT group Huawei is gaining a foothold in Germany , in Deutschlandfunk - “ Background ” from February 16, 2014
- World power Huawei. High-tech giant under suspicion of espionage. By Romain Besnainou. ZDF Info, August 17, 2020, 45 minutes. Video available until September 16, 2020
- Official Huawei consumer website: Germany , Austria , Switzerland
- Official manufacturer website of Honor
- huawei.com ( Memento from February 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- https://www.huawei.com/en/about-huawei/corporate-governance/board-of-directors accessed on July 13, 2019
- Huawei employees receive bonus for resisting Trump. In: The Landbote. Retrieved November 16, 2019 .
- Huawei defies Trump in the trade war. Accessed March 31, 2020 .
- Huawei - Building a Fully Connected, Intelligent World. Retrieved August 20, 2020 .
- About us - Huawei in Germany ( Memento from April 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: www.huawei.com, accessed on March 20, 2019
- Huawei's 2019 revenue to jump 18%, forecasts 'difficult' 2020 . reuters.com. December 31, 2019. Accessed January 12, 2020.
- Attacks by the USA on Huawei are having an effect . golem.de. March 31, 2020. Accessed March 31, 2020.
- https://winfuture.de/news,116464.html Accessed July 31, 2020
- heise online: 5G technology: Huawei plans production in France. Retrieved March 3, 2020 .
- Peilei Fan: Catching Up through Developing Innovation Capacity: Evidence from China's Telecom Equipment Industry , In: Technovation No. 26, 2006, pp. 359-368.
- Nathaniel Ahrens: China's Competitiveness. Myth, Reality and Lessons for the United States and Japan. Case Study: Huawei , Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington 2013, pp. 2–4.
- Nathaniel Ahrens: China's Competitiveness. Myth, Reality and Lessons for the United States and Japan. Case Study: Huawei , Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington 2013, pp. 4–6.
- Huawei Milestones. ( Memento of December 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: www.huawei.com, accessed on March 20, 2019.
- heise online: Cisco ends copyright dispute with Huawei .
- heise online: Huawei claims patent on compression function at rsyslog .
- Arne Stuhr: Globalization: China's best attacker . June 28, 2007.
- Huawei releases Symantec from a joint venture. In: heise.de , November 17, 2011.
- US Secret Service: NSA spied on Chinese leadership. In: Handelsblatt. March 23, 2014, accessed March 23, 2014 .
- Huawei and Leica Camera agree long-term technology partnership in the field of smartphone photography , Leica press release of February 25, 2016, accessed on April 12, 2016
- Huawei P9 Debuts in London with Dual Camera Lens, Reinvents Smartphone Photography in Collaboration with Leica. In: huawei.com
- Market researcher: Huawei is the new number one in the smartphone market. Accessed July 30, 2020 .
- Trump takes action against China's telecom giant Huawei. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . May 16, 2019, accessed May 20, 2019 .
- The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) uses a few open source initiative approved open source licenses for our software. In: source.android.com . May 20, 2019, accessed May 20, 2019 .
- Huawei loses its Android license and access to the Play Store. In: The Standard . May 20, 2019, accessed May 20, 2019 .
- There is no Android update available for this smartphone. In: zeit.de . May 20, 2019, accessed May 20, 2019 .
- Trade: Google blocks Huawei from Android updates and services. In: t3n.de . May 20, 2019, accessed May 20, 2019 .
- USA granted 90 days postponement for part of the sanctions against Huawei. Retrieved May 21, 2019 .
- Report: Huawei's upcoming operating system is compatible with Android apps. In: Caschy's blog . May 21, 2019, accessed May 21, 2019 .
- Who Needs Google's Android? Huawei Trademarks Its Own Smartphone OS. In: The Wall Street Journal . May 24, 2019, accessed June 21, 2019 .
- Huawei is launching its own HarmonyOS, but not (yet) for smartphones. In: Techgarage. August 9, 2019, accessed on August 9, 2019 (Swiss Standard German).
- Edwin Chan: Huawei accuses US of harassing workers attacking its systems Bloomberg.com September 3, 2019
- Handelsblatt: Huawei accuses the USA of having recruited employees for espionage. September 4, 2019, accessed October 22, 2019 .
- faz.net: New sanctions could "inflict a fatal blow" on Huawei
- 2018 Annual Report. Retrieved November 18, 2019 .
- https://www.huawei.com/en/about-huawei/corporate-governance/board-of-directors accessed on July 13, 2019
- Handelsblatt: How dangerous is Huawei? Insights into the inner workings of the controversial tech group. March 15, 2019, accessed October 22, 2019 .
- Business areas. ( Memento of February 12, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) In: www.huawei.com, accessed on March 20, 2019
- Huawei Reports USD46.5 Billion Revenue for 2014. Telecom Review, March 31, 2015, archived from the original on December 8, 2015 ; accessed on March 20, 2019 .
- Deutsche Bahn awards order to modernize the GSM-R network. ( Memento of December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: www.deutschebahn.com, accessed on March 20, 2019
- Huawei cloud storage passes CERN's performance test. Funkschau.de, July 17, 2012, accessed November 30, 2015 .
- CeBIT: Huawei introduces new SAP HANA hardware FusionCube. In: silicon.de. March 12, 2014, accessed November 30, 2015 .
- Smartphones from China. Huawei continues to grow rapidly. In: Handelsblatt . July 22, 2015, accessed November 30, 2015 .
- Xiaomi and Huawei are pulling away. Apple is only number three in China. Handelsblatt , August 3, 2015, accessed on November 30, 2015 .
- Deutsche Telekom will offer IT from Huawei. golem.de , March 17, 2015, accessed November 30, 2015 .
- Photovoltaic inverters: Huawei gained the most market shares in 2014. Solarserver , December 12, 2014, archived from the original on December 27, 2014 ; accessed on March 20, 2019 .
- Via EHREN In: hihonor.com , accessed December 22, 2019
- Huawei Teams with UnionPay International to Roll out Huawei Pay Worldwide. In: huawei.com. January 27, 2018, accessed November 16, 2018 .
- Connected vehicles: Huawei and Audi cooperate. In: Markenartikel-magazin.de. May 28, 2015, accessed June 3, 2015 .
- Handelsblatt: An interview with Huawei Germany boss: "Hardly any other country in the world is so dependent on 5G as Germany". February 19, 2019, accessed May 31, 2019 .
- Four in, two out - EBD continues to grow. European Movement Germany , archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; Retrieved June 2, 2011 .
- Federal Gazette: Huawei Technologies Deutschland GmbH: Annual financial statements for the financial year from 01/01/2017 to 12/31/2017. February 19, 2019, accessed May 31, 2019 .
- Huawei opens capital city office - Rainer Brüderle: "Expression of an increasingly intensive partnership between the two countries" ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: www.huawei.com, September 9, 2011
- Huawei builds 5G test environment in Munich. In: Computerwoche . February 27, 2015, accessed September 21, 2015 .
- Huawei and Fraunhofer are working together on Industry 4.0. In: golem.de . March 16, 2015, accessed September 21, 2015 .
- Between fascination and uncertainty. In: Der Tagesspiegel . March 24, 2014, accessed September 21, 2015 .
- Ratinger student traveling in China. In: www.pressreader.com. March 20, 2019, accessed on March 20, 2019 (English, German).
- Huawei Student Program (2015) ( Memento from October 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) from October 6, 2015
- Huawei takes over Field Service from O2. In: telefonica.de , accessed on February 22, 2012.
- Huawei in the X-WiN of the DFN-Verein. ( Memento from April 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: www.computerwoche.de, accessed on March 20, 2019
- Hendrik Ankenbrand, Shanghai: Who owns the company ?: Huawei defends itself against accusations of state proximity to China . ISSN 0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed April 26, 2019]).
- Annika Demgen: Espionage allegation: US House of Representatives wants to ban Huawei and ZTE. In: netzwelt . October 8, 2012, accessed October 8, 2012 .
- tagesschau.de: Huawei: Group with a dubious image. Retrieved April 26, 2019 .
- NSA spied on Chinese government and Huawei. In: Golem.de. March 22, 2014, accessed March 22, 2014 .
- Huawei: Opaque company opens - a little. In: The world. October 13, 2013, accessed June 23, 2015 .
- Telekom: Statement on the security gaps in Huawei routers. In: teltarif.de. June 10, 2014, accessed June 23, 2015 .
- Huawei partner offered US tech to Iran. In: Reuters.com. October 25, 2012, accessed June 23, 2015 .
- Court orders the release of Huawei's chief financial officer. In: Rheinische Post . December 12, 2018, accessed December 12, 2018 .
- Trudeau knew about the arrest in advance , Der Spiegel , December 7, 2018
- ZEIT ONLINE: Justice: USA indict Huawei . 29 January 2019.
- Cash Investigation - "Les secrets inavouables de nos telephones portables". In: FranceTV Info. March 20, 2019, accessed March 20, 2019 (French).
- Huawei Sustainability Report 2014. ( Memento from June 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: www.huawei.com, accessed on March 20, 2019
- Agence France-Presse: Taiwan's Hon Hai pulls out of Huawei deal over 'security threat' .
- 5G: New Zealand's secret service bans technology from the Chinese provider Huawei. In: Deutsche Welle . November 28, 2018, accessed December 2, 2018 .
- Achim Sawall: British ex-chief of intelligence supports Huawei. In: Golem.de . February 14, 2019, accessed February 14, 2019 .
- HUAWEI becomes Borussia Dortmund's Champion Partner. In: bvb.de. August 15, 2013, accessed December 17, 2015 .
- BVB will be offering WiFi in Signal Iduna Park from Saturday. In: derwesten.de. April 17, 2015, accessed December 17, 2015 .
- S04 relies on HUAWEI as a new technology partner. In: schalke04.de. July 15, 2014, accessed July 15, 2014 .
- Global Sponsorships. In: huawei.com , accessed December 17, 2015.
- heise online: Huawei sold more than 200 million smartphones in 2018 .