Clockwise from top:
Anshun Bridge, Jinli Street, Chengdu Panda Research Center , Bell Tower of the West China Medical Center of the University of Sichuan
Location of Chengdu (yellow) in Sichuan
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|structure||11 city districts, 4 districts, 5 independent cities|
|density||1,272.5 Ew. / km²|
|Telephone code||(+86) 28|
|Time zone||China Standard Time (CST)
|License Plate||川 A|
Chengdu ( Chinese 成都 , Pinyin , W.-G. Ch'eng-tu ) is the capital of the Chinese province of Sichuan and one of the country's 15 sub-provincial cities . The Chinese short name is Róng (蓉). The city has around 14 million inhabitants, around 5 million of them in the nine boroughs and 9 million in the surrounding area. Alongside Chongqing, Chengdu has developed into the economic center of western China. In 2006, the city was ranked fourth among the most liveable cities in China according to China Daily .
Chengdu is located in the east of the Sichuan Province, in the plain of the Red Basin and is traversed by the Fǔ Hé ( 府 河 ), a derivative of the Mín Jiāng ( 岷江 ). The sub-provincial city of Chengdu has reached its current size by merging smaller administrative units several times. The east-west extension of the city region is 192 km, the north-south extension 166 km. The closer city (city districts without rural districts) has a population of 4.52 million.
The climate is subtropical and mild, with an average annual temperature of 17.0 ° C (15 ° C in the west, up to 18 ° C in the east). The average rainfall is 900–1300 mm / year. The winters are mild and the summers long and hot. The normal case is overcast and humid weather.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Chengdu
Chengdu was one of the cultural centers in west and southwest China for over 2,000 years. As the most important city in the red basin, separated from the rest of China by mountain ranges such as the Qinlingshan in the north, Chengdu has repeatedly been the capital of independent Sichuan empires throughout history.
In the early 4th century BC The ruler of Shu ( 蜀 ) moved his residence to the current location of the city. Based on the story of the relocation of the capital of a king from Zhou , he called it Chengdu ( dt . : become capital).
316 BC The kingdom of Shu was conquered by the Qin dynasty and Chengdu became part of the Chinese empire. The taming of the Min Jiang by the establishment of the Dujiangyan irrigation system by 251 BC. BC became the basis of the Chengdu area's rich agricultural crops.
During the early Han period , Chengdu was connected to the capital, Chang'an , by a road that crossed the Zhongnan Shan and Baoxie Valley and was established in 130 BC. Towards the southeast with Guangdong . The Chengdu area was known for trades like iron foundry, the dismantling of salt wells, lacquer work and especially the manufacture of brocade fabrics at that time . The latter was so important that Chengdu was also nicknamed "Jinguancheng" ( 锦 官 城 - "Brocade Official City "). At the time of the later Han, Chengdu had 76,000 inhabitants, which made it one of the six Chinese metropolises (the others were Chang'an, Luoyang , Handan, Lintao and Wan) of the time. At that time, the poets Sima Xiangru († 117 BC) and Yang Xiong († 18 AD) were well-known authors of court literature in Chengdu.
During the Tang Dynasty , the famous poets Li Bai ( 李白 ) and Du Fu ( 杜甫 ) spent part of their lives in Chengdu. Du Fu was in great financial difficulties during his stay from 760 to 765 and lived in a simple thatch hut. During the An Lushan Revolution in 755, which heralded the end of Tang, Emperor Tang Xuanzong also fled to Chengdu.
In the 9th century, the Nanzhao ( 南诏 ) Empire regularly invaded Sichuan and occupied Chengdu for a period around 868.
During the Five Dynasties that followed the collapse of the Tang Empire , Chengdu was the capital of the separatist Late Shu Empire ( 后蜀 , Hòu Shǔ ) until the reconquest in 965 . At that time, under their king Mengchang, so large numbers of hibiscus were planted on the city walls that the city was given another name: "Róngchéng" ( 蓉城 ), the "hibiscus city". From 993 to 995 brocade workers rebelled against the newly established Song rule , led by Wang Xiaobo and Li Shun.
In the tea and salt trade , bills of exchange were increasingly used as a means of payment from the 9th century . The first state paper money appeared in Chengdu in 1024. Chengdu is one of the early centers of the art of printing anyway. In addition to early editions of the “Four Books” and the “Five Classics”, the Buddhist canon was printed between 972 and 983 with a total of 1,076 works.
At the time of the Song and Yuan , Chengdu was a thriving center of silk and brocade weaving, papermaking and printing, and an administrative center.
In the crumbling Ming Empire , rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong conquered Chengdu. In September 1644 he announced the founding of the Great Western Empire ( Daxi ), which existed until 1646 as a brutal reign of terror. At the end of 1646 he had Chengdu destroyed and on January 2, 1647 he faced Manchurian troops with his army, who won the battle and killed him.
The population consists mostly of Han . In a relatively small scale, there are Uyghur , Tibetans and members of minorities such as the southwestern Yi ( 彝族 ). The Sichuanese dialect ( 四川 话 ; Pinyin : sìchuānhuà) of Chinese is spoken.
In 2017, just under 8.7 million people lived in the actual urban agglomeration of the city. The rest of the population lives in the rural area. Due to advancing urbanization, the agglomeration is expected to have 11.2 million inhabitants by 2035.
Population development of the agglomeration according to the UN
The city of Chengdu is made up of eleven districts, four districts and five independent cities:
The inner city of Chengdu consists of the districts of Jinjiang in the southeast, Qingyang in the west, Chenghua in the northeast, Jinniu in the northwest and Wuhou in the southwest.
Culture and sights
Chengdu sees itself as the "panda capital" of the world. In Chengdu, in the north of the city, there is the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding , a breeding station for the giant panda . The panda bear is one of the national symbols of China.
Chengdu has regular performances of the Sichuan Opera ( 川剧 , chuānjù ), a theater closely related to the Peking Opera that offers folk tales in the local dialect. The specialty of the Sichuan Opera are masks that express certain emotional states in a single color and that the actors can change in a fraction of a second.
Historic and historicized streets / districts
In the course of modern building development, the old quarters of Chengdu, of which there were still extensive areas until the early 1990s, have largely fallen victim to the excavator. A few, but quite important, streets have been restored as streets with side streets, and some have also been "historicized" rebuilt. They serve as excursion destinations for city residents as well as tourists and therefore have a decidedly business-like character - with numerous shops, boutiques, antique shops, bars and cafes - and overflow - as everywhere in Chengdu - with restaurants and snack bars. Nevertheless, they offer a nice insight into the old street culture of the most important city of southwest China with sometimes quiet, idyllic perspectives. The best known are:
- Jinli - 锦 里 , at Wuhou Temple
- Kuānzhǎi Xiàngzi - 宽窄 巷子 , approx. 1–1.5 km northeast of Qingyang Gong
- Qintai Lu - 琴台 路 , on the east side of the Qingyang Gong
- Wenshu Monastery - 文殊院 , Wénshū Yuán : Buddhist monastery with several temple buildings, over 400 statues, embroidery, which traces its history back to the Tang period. There is a vegetarian restaurant that serves normal Chinese dishes with the usual taste but with potatoes or tofu as a meat substitute, and a tea house, which is very popular with the city's population.
- Qingyang Gong - 青羊宫 : The "Palace of the Green Goat (s)" is a famous Taoist temple complex in the city.
- Daci Si - 大慈寺 : A small Buddhist temple and monastery that is located next to the modern pedestrian zone. It is considered to be the oldest Buddhist temple in the city.
- In the city center there is a mosque that was built in 1742.
- In the western outskirts of Chengdu is the grave of Wang Jian - 王建 墓 , Wáng Jiàn Mù or 前蜀 王建 墓 , Qián Sh dem Wáng Jiàn Mù - the ruler of the early Shu Empire , which was excavated in 1943 .
- Almost 60 km northwest of Chengdu is the Dujiangyan irrigation system , which has tamed the Min for over 2300 years and ensures the fertility of Sichuan. Since 2000 Dujiangyan has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
- Qingcheng Shan - 青城 山 is located in the southwest of the administrative area of the urban district Dujiangyan . The mountain, which is sacred to Daoists, has a front and a rear summit and, in addition to several temples, also offers many stairs, an amusement park and a Taoist monastery at the foot of the mountain.
- The West Pearl Tower in Chengdu is the fourth tallest television tower in the country.
- The New Century Global Center , the largest building in the world according to Chinese figures.
- Du Fu's straw hut - 杜甫 草堂 , Dù Fǔ Căotáng ;
His thatched hut used to stand on the site of this magnificent park dedicated to Du Fu. The current facility was laid out in 1078 in his memory. The buildings date from the Ming and Qing times.
Temple of the Prince of Wu - 武侯祠 , Wŭhòu Cí ;
The complex is dedicated to the memory of Zhuge Liang (181–234). The brilliant strategist and henchman of Liu Bei has become immortal through the novel The Story of the Three Kingdoms and its military moves. The first temple was built in 302, the current structure dates from the 17th century. At that time, the neighboring memorial temple for Liu Bei was also integrated into the facility.
- River View Park - 望江 楼 , Wàngjiăng Lóu ;
Quieter, mostly bamboo-planted park at Fu He with a four-story tower. He is the Tang poet Xue Tao - 薛涛 , Xuē Tāo ; 768–831 - dedicated. This park is located near the east gate of the university campus.
- Cultural Park - 文化 公园 , Wénhuà Gōngyuán ;
On weekends, this park also serves as an antique market.
In the south of the city, at the subway station of the same name, there is the largest building in the world (500 × 400 × 100 meters), the "Global Center". It houses supermarkets, many modern shops, cinemas, an ice skating station, restaurants and a leisure facility as well as a hotel.
More distant sights
- 130 km south of Chengdu is the Leshan Buddha , which was carved out of the rock above the Min in the 8th century. With a height of 71 m, it is the largest Buddha sculpture in the world.
- Emei Shan is 160 km south of Chengdu . The 3099 m high mountain is one of the four sacred Buddhist mountains in China and a popular pilgrimage destination.
The Chengdu Wuniu football club (also known as Chengdu Blades since 2006 ) plays in the 42,000-seat Chengdu Sports Center Stadium . The stadium was also the venue for 6 preliminary round matches during the 2007 Women's World Cup .
Chengdu Wuniu were embroiled in the 2001 second division bribery scandal (they won 2-2 against Sichuan Mianyang on the final matchday) and were denied promotion.
In Chengdu in western China is the Sichuan style ( 川菜 , Chuāncài ) of Chinese cuisine , which is particularly noticeable for its spicy heat , which is based on seasoning with spicy bean paste, chilli and Szechuan pepper . The latter has a special taste called numbing ( 麻 , má ). Because of the inland location, seafood hardly plays a role, while freshwater fish definitely play a role. Popular in all of China are pork, chicken and beef; to a lesser extent also sheep and duck meat. In addition to other vegetables, zhàcài ( 榨菜 ), a pickled tuber, is a specialty from the province. Mushrooms such as dōnggū ( 冬菇 ; Japanese shiitake ) or judas ears ( 木耳 , mù'ěr ) are also popular. Well-known dishes are Gōngbǎo Jīdīng ( 宫保鸡丁 - "Chicken cubes with peanuts and chilli peppers"), Mápó Dòufǔ ( 麻 婆 豆腐 - "Tofu with minced meat"), Làzi Jīdīng ( 辣子 鸡丁 - "Chicken cubes with red chili"), spicy foods Beef ( 水煮 牛肉 , shuǐ zhǔ niúròu ), Huíguōròu ( 回锅肉 - " Double -boiled pork - first boiled, then fried") or Yú Xiāng Qiézi ( 鱼香 茄子 - "Eggplant with a fish scented spice").
A specialty is certainly the fire pot , which actually comes from Chongqing and is a kind of fondue in which meat and vegetables are cooked in a spicy broth. A local version is Chuanchuan ( 串串 ), wherein the ingredients on wooden skewers ( Chuan means spit ) in a cold room for self-service for inspection and is paid at the end on the number eaten skewers. Clear schnapps is popular with this , of which Maotai is certainly the best known.
Small cookshops also offer cheap snacks such as jiaozi (a kind of dumpling), noodle and rice dishes. The well-known “noodle soup with beef” ( 牛肉 面 , niúròu miàn ) comes from Sichuan, Dàndàn Miàn ( 担 担 面 - “noodles with a spicy sauce, Sichuan style”) and filled flatbreads ( guokui ) are also local specialties.
There are restaurants in all price ranges; the cheaper ones are generally quite good and also very lively, but often stand out for the generous use of oil. Most restaurants offer one of two brands of beer: Wuxing or Lanjian.
Other cooking styles are also represented, specializing in Peking duck, for example, offering Uighur cuisine or European food and of course fast food.
Chengdu is also known for the large number of its teahouses, which are said to be more numerous than the inns in Beijing. The whole range of green tea , jasmine tea ( 茉莉花 茶 , mòlìhuā chá ) and “eight-precious” tea ( 八寶 茶 / 八宝 茶 , bābǎo chá ) is offered there. In the teahouses it is relaxed to lively. In addition to the opportunity to chat, the teahouses also offer the opportunity to play cards, mah-jong and go .
Economy and Infrastructure
According to a study from 2014, Chengdu has a gross domestic product of 233.52 billion US dollars in purchasing power parity . In the ranking of the economically strongest metropolitan regions worldwide, the city took 50th place. The GDP per capita is $ 16,423 (PPP). The level of prosperity is thus lower than in the country's coastal cities, but is rising rapidly.
Chengdu is now the most important transportation hub in western China. Although Chengdu focuses on industrialization (mechanical engineering, chemicals, foodstuffs, aircraft construction, pharmaceuticals), the city is proud to have received a “green heart”. Over 200 of the Forbes 500 companies are represented in Chengdu. The electronics industry plays a major role , for example 50% of all Apple iPads are manufactured in Chengdu. In addition to the manufacturing industry, the city is developing into a center for finance and science in western China.
Motorized traffic is strong and standing still is not uncommon. Local public transport takes place with buses. The heavy bicycle traffic has its own lanes along the major roads. The cycle rickshaw is widely used as a means of transport and transportation . In addition, the increasing popularity of battery-operated electric scooters in Chengdu, which are almost silent. There are shops selling replacement batteries for sale at almost every major intersection in the city.
Chengdu Railway Station is located in the north of the city and connects the city to the north with Xi'an and Baoji , to the east to Chongqing and to the south via Xichang to Kunming . The only way to get to the mountainous west of Sichuan and further to Tibet is by bus.
There has been a weekly container train connection to and from Nuremberg since October 2015 ; since 2018 twice a week
In 2005, construction of a subway station began on Tianfu Square . The first line was opened in 2010 (trial operation started on March 1st, public trial operation on September 10th and the official opening was on September 27th, 2010). In the summer of 2016, the fourth subway line went into operation.
The higher educational institutions include the Sichuan University (Sichuan Daxue), the University of Electrical Engineering (Dianzi Keji Daxue), the University of Finance and Economics of Southwest China (Xinan Caijing Daxue), the Southwest Jiaotong University (Xinan Jiaotong Daxue) and the Southwest Minority College (Xinan Minzu Daxue), and Xihua University (Xihua Daxue).
Since 2006 the “West China Business Fair” WCM (English: WCIETF “Western China International Economy & Trade Fair”) has been taking place in Chengdu in May. The “German Pavilion” offers German companies a forum to meet potential partners in the Chinese market. The economic potential of German companies in western China is growing so rapidly that the partner countries NRW and Sichuan are massively politically promoting the brokering of business relationships. The Ministry of Economics of the Sichuan Province arranges high-ranking contacts and offers various activities to initiate business. The Ministry of Economics of North Rhine-Westphalia financially supports the participation of small and medium-sized companies. In 2006 around 3200 exhibitors from all over the world presented themselves to over 200,000 visitors, and contracts worth 2.7 billion RMB were recorded.
At the beginning of November 2006, Chengdu was the venue for one of the largest business cooperation exchanges in the world. The “EU-China Partenariat 2006” was organized by the CCPIT Chengdu (“China Council for the Promotion of International Trade”) on the initiative of the State Council of the People's Republic of China and the European Union. The city of Chengdu, as the capital of the Sichuan Province, is thus underlining the region's growing economic importance, also for companies from abroad. After the decades-long boom in the eastern coastal regions, economic development in the inner-Chinese regions is to be accelerated.
The World Cyber Games (WCG) were held in Chengdu in 2009.
In autumn 2011, the 5th Chengdu Biennale with the motto Changing Vistas was held in a factory in the east of the city in Chengdu .
Sichuan and Chongqing were selected to promote high-tech in the Chinese government's “Go West” policy. It is hoped that this will result in more western companies settling there.
The Lufthansa offers no direct flights from Germany; Since May 19, 2013 Air China has been connecting Chengdu with Frankfurt am Main three times a week with a non-stop flight . KLM Royal Dutch Airlines offers further European connections with flights to and from Amsterdam Schiphol , Sichuan Airlines to and from Václav Havel Airport Prague , Air China to and from Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle Airport , and Beijing Capital Airlines to and from the airport Madrid-Barajas . The weekly flight from British Airways from London Heathrow Airport was set at 17 January 2017th
The following countries have consulates general in Chengdu:
- South Korea
- USA (closure ordered by Chinese government)
- New Zealand
Chengdu lists the following 31 twin cities :
- Wu Yu (1872-1949), scholar
- Ba Jin (1904–2005), writer, novelist, essayist, publicist, translator and anarchist
- John Stewart Service (1909–1999), American diplomat
- Jerome Chen (1919-2019), historian
- Li Peng (1928–2019), politician
- Derek Parfit (1942-2017), British philosopher
- Li Jinyuan (born 1945), artist
- Dai Sijie (* 1954), writer, screenwriter and director
- Tan Zuoren (* 1954), author, environmental activist, civil rights activist and dissident
- Huajian Gao (* 1963), American engineering scientist
- Hu Na (* 1963), tennis player
- Donghua Li (* 1967), Swiss gymnast
- Bai Ling (born 1970), actress
- Qiu Anxiong (born 1972), artist
- Tang Dan (* 1975), film director
- Chen Jing (* 1975), volleyball player
- Feng Fei (born 1983), baseball player
- Zheng Jie (born 1983), tennis player
- Li Jie (* 1984), Dutch table tennis player
- Zhang Liangying (* 1984), singer
- Official Website - Chengdu City (Chinese)
- Official Website - Chengdu City
- Chengdu - Tourist Attractions (English)
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