|Country||People's Republic of China|
|density||313.3 Ew. / km²|
|mayor||Zhang, Zulin (张祖林)|
|Structure at district level:||7 city districts
3 autonomous districts
1 urban district
|Time zone :||China Standard Time ( UTC + 8 )|
Kunming city center
Kunming ( Chinese 昆明 , Pinyin Kūnmíng , W.-G. K'un-ming ) is the capital of Yunnan Province in the People's Republic of China . In China it is also known under the poetic name "City of Spring" ( 春城 - "Chūnchéng"). As the provincial capital of Yunnan, it used to be called “Yunnan Fu” ( 雲南 府 / 云南 府 , Yúnnán fǔ - “ Official seat of Yunnan Prefecture”). The current urban area (in the narrower sense) is located on the northern edge of Lake Dian and has an area of approximately 300 km², the entire district-free city an area of 21,501 km². At the end of 2002, Kunming had a population of about 4.95 million. In 2016 the population was 6,728,000. There are also around 1 million migrant workers. 3.3 million people live in the actual urban settlement area of Kunming (2010 census). A modern new business district has emerged in the center of the city.
The city is currently being expanded to the east and south of Lake Dian. The east city was built on an area of 160 km² in the new city district (since May 20, 2011) Chenggong, where 900,000 people live. Two further city extensions are planned in the south of Dian Lake (Südstadt).
Kunming is located on the East Yunnan Plateau, which is almost 2,000 m high. This location results in relatively mild temperatures all year round, so that Kunming is also known as the “city of eternal spring”. The city is currently growing from the north along the eastern side of the 39 km long Dian Lake.
Population development of the agglomeration according to the UN
In 2017, just under 4.1 million people lived in the actual urban settlement area of the city. The rest of the population lives in the rural area. Due to advancing urbanization, the agglomeration is expected to have 5.6 million inhabitants by 2035.
- Panlong district (盘龙区), 339.79 km², approx. 600,000 inhabitants (2004)
- Wuhua district (五华区), 397.86 km², approx. 810,000 inhabitants (2004)
- District of Guandu (官渡 区), 552.2 km², approx. 750,000 inhabitants (2004)
- Xishan District (西山区), 791.14 km², approx. 850,000 inhabitants (2004)
- Dongchuan District (东川 区), 1,858.79 km², approx. 300,000 inhabitants (2002)
- Chenggong district (呈贡 区), 541 km², approx. 160,000 inhabitants (2002)
- Jinning district (晋宁 区), 1,391 km², approx. 270,000 inhabitants (2002)
- District of Fumin (富民县), 1,030 km², approx. 140,000 inhabitants (2002), main town: street district Yongding (永定 街道)
- Circle Yiliang (宜良县), km² 1880, about 400,000 inhabitants (2002), the main town: Street district Kuangyuan (匡远街道)
- Kreis Songming (嵩明县), 1,442 km², about 340,000 inhabitants (2002), the main town: Street Quarter Song Yang (嵩阳街道)
- Shilin Autonomous County of the Yi (石林彝 族 自治县), 1,777 km², approx. 230,000 inhabitants (2003), capital: street district Lufu (鹿 阜 街道)
- Luquan Autonomous County of the Yi and Miao (禄劝 彝族 苗族 自治县), 4,378 km², approx. 450,000 inhabitants (2002), main town: Pingshan street district (屏山 街道)
- Autonomous County Xundian der Hui and Yi (寻甸 回族 彝族 自治县), 3,966 km², approx. 500,000 inhabitants (2002), main town: street district Rende (仁德 街道)
- City of Anning (安宁 市), 1,313 km², approx. 260,000 inhabitants (2002)
- 279 BC An early settlement existed on the site of today's Kunming .
- In 765 Tuadong was founded, which was renamed Kunming under Mongol rule in 1276 .
- In the 13th century, the city was (probably) visited by Marco Polo .
- In the 14th century it was taken over by the Ming dynasty and surrounded by a city wall.
- In the 19th century it was in the hands of the Sultan of Dali .
- In 1999 the last international garden show of the past millennium took place here.
- In 2014 there was a massacre in Kunming train station with 34 dead.
The industrial city of Kunming generates a third of the economic output of the entire Yunnan Province. According to a study from 2014, Kunming generated a gross domestic product of 88.6 billion US dollars in purchasing power parity . In the ranking of the economically strongest metropolitan regions worldwide, the city took 152nd place. The GDP per capita is $ 13,418 (PPP). The city employed 2.5 million people. At 11% annually from 2009 to 2014, GDP per capita grew rapidly. The main industries are mechanical engineering, electrical engineering / electronics / optics, metallurgy (copper ( Yunnan Copper ), aluminum, steel), chemistry (phosphorus) and pharmaceuticals. Agriculture is also of great importance. Kunming is the largest flower producer in China. Kunming also ranks first with tobacco production. A significant part of Kunming's companies are concentrated in the two state industrial development zones:
- Economic and technology development zone, including an export-oriented production zone and an innovation center
- High-tech development zone
What is noticeable in Kunming are the numerous solar thermal systems on the roofs of the residential buildings, which cover 60–70% of the hot water requirement. Costs of RMB 2000 per system are offset by savings in energy costs of RMB 10,000 per year.
In addition, photovoltaics is increasingly being promoted. At the end of 2008, Yunnan Tianda Photovoltaic Co, Ltd., based in Kunming's economic development zone, was established in Shilin. started construction of the largest photovoltaic power plant in Asia. A power plant with a capacity of 166 MW is to be built on an area of 173 ha. Once the first phase has been completed, 10 MW of electricity will be fed into the grid by the end of 2009.
In the context of infrastructure development, the modernization and expansion of the transport links are assigned a high priority. In 2009 around 1 million cars were registered in Kunming, 70% of which are privately owned. The second traffic light-free city ring was inaugurated on September 28, 2009, and a third ring road has already begun. Five central bus terminals are under construction.
Train connections exist to many cities in China. Express train routes are currently being built, particularly to Chengdu , Chongqing and Changsha . The express train route to Shanghai was opened at the end of 2016, reducing travel time from 35 hours to ten and a half hours. A logistics center and the largest container terminal in China with connections to Singapore, Vietnam, India, Thailand and Myanmar are also in preparation. A high-speed line from Kunming to Singapore via Vientiane and Bangkok is to be completed by 2020 . The city is the starting and ending point of the meter-gauge Yunnan Railway leading to Vietnam .
A combined S-Bahn and U-Bahn is under construction and will mainly connect the north and east of the city. A total of six lines are planned. Line 6 between the airport and East Bus Station has been in operation since 2012 and lines 1 and 2 have been in regular operation since April 2014.
The Kunming-Changshui International Airport opened in 2012 and replaced the old Kunming Airport . This is one of the oldest in China, but could not be expanded. Kunming-Changshui Airport is 25 km from Kunming and is accessible by airport bus and metro. It is the fourth largest airport in China and is one of the five most important flight connections with Beijing , Shanghai , Guangzhou and Urumqi . With investments amounting to RMB 28 billion, four runways were built, which should enable capacities of 27 million passengers per year in a first stage and ultimately 65 million. The airline Air Travel (Hongtu Airlines) is based in Kunming.
Kunming has more than 20 universities and colleges with over 100,000 students. The best known include Yunnan University (> 20,000 students), Kunming Technical University (38,000 students), Yunnan Nationalities University, and universities in the fields of medicine, agriculture, art and finance. The most important universities are currently being relocated to the new eastern city. Another location for the high-tech park is also being built there, with which business start-ups in the vicinity of the universities are promoted in a special way.
Kunming has developed into a city that is also attractive for tourism in recent years. In 2008, 16 million domestic and foreign tourists visited the city. A special tourist economic zone on Lake Dian is under construction. In addition to the provincial museum in Kunming, the pagoda of the west temple and the pagoda of the east temple are particularly worth seeing. In the vicinity of the city, the Dian Lake and the West Mountains (Xishan) as well as the "Stone Forest" ( Shilin ) are popular attractions. In the center of the city is the "Green Lake". In addition, the Daguan Tower in the middle of Daguan Park attracts a large number of tourists every year. Other destinations worth seeing around and in Kunming are the Qiongzhu and Yuantong monasteries, the Jindian (golden temple). The Jiuxiang karst height groups are among the most beautiful natural landscapes in the world.
- Fujisawa , Japan
- Zurich , Switzerland
- Nairobi , Kenya
- Chefchaouen , Morocco
- Denver , USA
- Wagga Wagga , Australia
- Cochabamba , Bolivia
- Chiang Mai , Thailand
- Mandalay , Myanmar
- New Plymouth District , New Zealand
- Chittagong , Bangladesh
- Jyväskylä , Finland
- Yangon , Myanmar
- Phnom Penh , Cambodia
- Pokhara , Nepal
- Calcutta , India
- Dietzenbach , Germany
sons and daughters of the town
- Never He (1912–1935), composer
- Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435), admiral of the Imperial Fleet in the 15th century
- Benedict Anderson (1936–2015), American political scientist
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Kunming
- www.kunming.cn - Official city website
- Kunming Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Kunming National High & New Tech Industry Development Zone
- World Urbanization Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
- Alan Berube, Jesus Leal Trujillo, Tao Ran, and Joseph Parilla: Global Metro Monitor . In: Brookings . January 22, 2015 ( brookings.edu [accessed July 30, 2018]).
- Asia's largest PV power station to be built in Shilin, Yunnan ( English ) People's Daily Online. August 27, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- ssu / dpa: China is putting 480 billion euros into the train network ( German ) SPON. December 28, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Kunming opens more metro lines . Railway Gazette. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
- Dietzenbach.de: City friendship knows no borders