|OS National Grid||SK355875|
|Residents||582,506 (as of: 2018 (estimate))|
|surface||367.94 km² (142.06 mi² )|
|Population density:||1583 inhabitants per km²|
|ZIP code section||S1 - S17|
|Part of the country||England|
|region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Metropolitan county||South Yorkshire|
Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough
Sheffield South East
Penistone and Stocksbridge
Sheffield [ ʃɛfiːld ] is an English town in South Yorkshire , in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber in the United Kingdom . Its name is derived from the River Sheaf , which is formed by the confluence of the Totley Brook and the Old Hay Brook . With 582,506 inhabitants (2018) it is one of the largest cities in England . Sheffield has City status and is a Metropolitan Borough in Metropolitan County South Yorkshire. The metropolitan area of Sheffield has around 1.2 million inhabitants. Sheffield was one of the origins of the Industrial Revolution and a world-renowned center of the steel industry for more than a century . The city was hit hard by the structural change following the decline of heavy industry in the 1970s and 1980s, but has been experiencing a renewed upswing since the turn of the 21st century. Sheffield is also important in the field of music.
The metropolitan area of Sheffield includes the neighboring cities of Rotherham , Doncaster and Barnsley . A hilly mountainous area stretches across the urban area, the highest point of which is 548 m and the lowest point . Five rivers cross the urban area, the Don , Sheaf , Rivelin, Loxley, and Porter. To the west of the city is the Peak District National Park and the southern foothills of the Pennines Mountains . With over 170 forests and 88 public gardens and parks, it is the greenest city in Europe in relation to the number of inhabitants.
The Sheffield area was populated very early. Traces of Stone Age cave dwellers have been found in nearby Creswell Crags ; tools made of stone, quartz, bone and mammoth ivory. In July 2004 the so-called Church Cave was discovered in the same place , a cave with wall paintings , which is also called the “Sistine Chapel of the Ice Age”. Although comparable, older caves in Spain and France are even more artistically painted, the Church Cave is very remarkable due to its location in the north.
A 150,000 year old hand ax was found 22 km south of Sheffield in 1955 , and a stone circle in the northern suburb of Deepcar . A grave with two urns from the Early Bronze Age was discovered in the suburb of Crookes, and further graves in the suburb of Lodge Moor.
Ancient and Middle Ages
In the 1st century BC A fortress was built near Wincobank (in the northeast of the city). It was built by the Celtic tribe of the brigands , who tried in vain to prevent the expansion of the Romans . A smaller Roman road ran through the northern part of the city, but Sheffield did not develop into a full-fledged settlement, at least not until the time of the Anglo-Saxons .
They founded a settlement on the Sheaf River, which they called Scafield or Escafield . In the south-western suburb of Dore, King Eanred of Northumbria submitted to the West Saxon King Egbert in 829 , whereby Egbert was able to secure the supremacy of Wessex over the areas north of the Humber . Wessex was the only significant kingdom on the island that was not conquered by the Vikings . In the 9th and 10th centuries, however, Sheffield was part of the Scandinavian Danelaw . Many expressions of Scandinavian origin have survived in the local dialect from this period.
In the early 12th century, under the rule of liege William de Lovetot, a church was built that would later become Sheffield Cathedral . He also had a wooden castle built, which was replaced by a stone structure around 1270. This castle was where Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned from 1570 to 1584 . During the English Civil War , Sheffield was conquered several times by both parties to the conflict and finally fell into the hands of the Republicans under Oliver Cromwell , who destroyed the castle in 1648 .
Knives had been made in Sheffield since the 13th century, as one knows from a line in Geoffrey Chaucer's " Canterbury Tales ". From the late 18th century, Sheffield developed into a major industrial city and center of steel processing . Many medieval buildings have been replaced by more modern ones. On March 11, 1864, large parts of the city were flooded after the Dale-Dyke Dam broke ; 800 houses were destroyed and 270 people were killed.
The steel industry was characterized by particularly bad working conditions; It is therefore no coincidence that the country's first trade unions were founded here. Around 1860 there were the so-called Sheffield Outrages , clashes between factory owners and militant trade unionists, which culminated in bomb explosions and assassinations.
The Sheffield steel mills were at the forefront of the advancement of steel, with Harry Brearley inventing stainless steel in 1913 . Sheffield was best known for steel knives. Other important industries were coal mining and quarries. So was z. For example, the Westminster Palace in London was built from limestone from the nearby Sheffield village of Anston. Due to the important war productions in Sheffield, the city was repeatedly a victim of German air raids, as a result of which the old and inner city as well as some industrial plants were badly devastated. Today the stock of old buildings is nowhere near as rich as it was before the Second World War .
In the 1970s many steel mills closed and mass unemployment resulted. Today Sheffield has developed into a service-oriented city. In 2003, a study by Barclays Bank found that Sheffield-Hallam constituency is the wealthiest district in the country outside of south east England.
Sheffield is a major center for pop and rock music . The most famous representatives include The Human League , Pulp , Def Leppard , Joe Cocker , Arctic Monkeys , Malevolence and Bring Me the Horizon . In 1989 the record label Warp Records was founded in the city , which had a great influence on the development of electronica music with its releases . The label's early releases were also referred to as Sheffield Sound by music journalists . The work of the designer collective The Designers Republic, which is still based in Sheffield today, in contrast to Warp Records, can be seen in connection with the work of the label .
The National Center for Pop Music has been in Sheffield since 1999. The museum housed there was not as successful as hoped, so the building was sold to Sheffield Hallam University . Today the University's Students' Union is located in the building. It also serves as a venue for concerts and student events.
Sheffield has two theaters, four art galleries and several museums.
The historic Church of St. Peter and Paul, Anglican since the Reformation , has been the cathedral of the newly founded diocese of Sheffield since 1914 . The Roman Catholic St. Mary's Church , built in 1846 for the congregation that had grown through immigration of Catholic Irish and through conversions , became the episcopal church of the Diocese of Hallam in 1980 .
Sheffield maintains city partnerships with the following cities:
- Bochum , Germany
- Anshan , China
- Donetsk , Ukraine
- Estelí , Nicaragua
- Kawasaki (Kanagawa) , Japan
- Pittsburgh , USA
Sheffield has a long sports tradition. Sheffield FC was founded in 1857 , the world's first football club . Five years later there were 16 clubs. Well-known clubs today are Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday (which plays in Hillsborough Stadium ).
The annual World Snooker Championship has traditionally been held in Sheffield at the Crucible Theater since 1977 , with the final always taking place on the first Monday in May, which is a public holiday in England.
In 1991 the Summer Universiade "World Student Games" took place in Sheffield.
The Sheffield Steelers ice hockey club plays in the UK's Elite Ice Hockey League . Home stadiums are the Sheffield Arena and Ice Sheffield. In the latter, the final tournaments of the British women's ice hockey league, Women's Premier Ice Hockey League, take place every year.
Sheffield has one of the best long-distance indoor swimming pools (50 m) in the world. The “Ponds Forge international sports center” has often hosted international, national and regional competitions. In addition to the swimming pool, it is also home to Europe's deepest high diving pool (5.85 m). Many international events have also been held here. Several swimming world records have already been set in Sheffield, among others by Mark Warnecke and Sandra Völker .
Twice (2000 and 2011) World Championships in the short track took place in Sheffield .
The Sheffield Tigers are a well-known team in the British professional speedway league.
Sheffield once had two train stations. Sheffield Victoria station on the Manchester – Sheffield – Lincolnshire railway line was demolished. The other station, Sheffield Midland , was retained and is still used extensively today.
A curious thing of operating since 1997 and the airport is Sheffield City Airport. This was closed in May 2008 and gave way to a commercial area with Heliport . In 2005, Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, which was previously used by the military, was opened for civil aviation near Sheffield in parallel .
- Attercliffe Chapel - Gothic chapel in the suburb of Attercliffe , built in 1629
- Beauchief Abbey - built in 1178 by the Premonstratensian Order, abolished in 1537 after the Reformation, since then privately owned, only partially preserved
- Bishops' House - the oldest well-preserved half-timbered house, built around 1500, interior from the 17th century - open to visitors on weekends
- Crucible Theater - built in 1971 with two halls (980 and 400 seats respectively), since 1977 the venue for the Snooker World Cup
- Don Valley Stadium - Stadium for athletics and rugby
- Intake Cemetery
- Meadowhall Center - large shopping center with 20 million visitors a year
- Millennium Galleries with Winter Garden - opened in 2001, the modern gallery building, together with the adjoining Winter Garden, forms a new attraction. The buildings are part of the "Heart of the City" project, which aims to make Sheffield more attractive.
- National Center for Popular Music
- Sheffield Castle - ruins of the castle that burned down in 1648
- Sheffield Cathedral - Saint Peter and Saint Paul Church was promoted to cathedral in 1913, a listed building
- Town Hall - the town hall built in 1897 including the Peace Gardens park in front of it
- Sheffield Industrial Hamlet - Museum and open air museum from the early days of industrialization
- Weston Park Museum - New museum dedicated to the history and culture of the city, opened in October 2006.
→ Main article: List of famous people from the City of Sheffield
- Mid 2018 Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
- See "A Sheffield whittle bare he in his hose ..." , "Canterbury Tales", Tale 1
- Higher Education Student Statistics: UK, 2016/17 - Where students come from and go to study ( English ) HESA. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
- Sheffield City Council ( Memento of the original from May 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.