|Coordinates||53 ° 48 ′ N , 1 ° 33 ′ W|
|Residents||474,632 (as of 2011)|
|surface||487.8 km² (188.34 mi² )|
|Population density:||973 inhabitants per km²|
|ZIP code section||LS|
|Part of the country||England|
|region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Shire county||West Yorkshire|
Leeds is a city in the English metropolitan county of West Yorkshire and the eponymous core and administrative seat of the metropolitan borough of Leeds in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . According to the 2011 census, the inner "built-up area subdivision" of Leeds, which essentially corresponds to the County Borough of Leeds which existed until 1974 , had 474,632 inhabitants. The Metropolitan Borough of Leeds, which includes the core city of Leeds including its suburbs incorporated in 1974, has 757,655 inhabitants (as of 2012).
Leeds is the cultural, financial, commercial and sporting center of West Yorkshire, a metropolitan area of over 2.2 million people, and the Leeds City Region , a metropolitan area of 3 million people.
Leeds is about 310 km north-northwest of London. The city lies on the River Aire in a rather narrow part of the Aire Valley at the eastern foot of the Pennines . The highest point of the city is at 340 m ASL and the lowest point at 30 m; the city center is about 63 m ASL . The core city of Leeds is surrounded by a ring of 1974 incorporated suburbs, including Morley , Otley , Pudsey and Wetherby . The Metropolitan Borough of Leeds is bordered by Harrogate in the north, Selby in the east, Wakefield in the south, Kirklees in the southwest and Bradford in the west.
The inner city of Leeds is surrounded by an inner ring road, which results from parts of the A58, A61, A64, A643 and the M621 .
Leeds is located in a temperate zone with four distinct seasons. As in most areas on the east side of the Pennines, rainfall is comparatively moderate. Every year, an average of 747 mm of precipitation is measured, which is less than e.g. B. in New York , Sydney or Rome . In winter there is rarely snowfall or even longer winter periods. However, the winter of 2009/10 was the coldest and snowiest in decades.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Leeds
A landscape called Loidis was first mentioned around 730 in the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum by the theologian and historian Beda Venerabilis . The name carried over to the village, which was formed around a parish church and was named as Ledes in the Domesday Book in 1086 . In 1207 a new establishment took place. Leedes established itself as the spelling at this time . The most important branch of industry was the processing of wool.
An economic boom began at the end of the 17th century, with a flourishing cloth trade, Leeds developed into one of the wealthiest cities in northern England. The population rose from 10,000 in the late 17th century to around 30,000 at the end of the following century. The ascent was favored by its location on the Aire River , which was made navigable in 1699 and thus established the connection to the Ouse , Humber and the North Sea .
In the course of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century, Leeds grew rapidly, and by 1840 the population rose to over 150,000. The city became a center of the textile industry and mechanical engineering. The Middleton Railway , which had operated as a horse-drawn railway since 1758 , was replaced by steam locomotives in 1812. In 1816 a canal to Liverpool was opened.
Leeds was bombed several times during the Second World War, and in 1941 the largest attack by the German Air Force took place. After 1945, Leeds' industrial decline began. Between 1971 and 1981 every third job was lost in the manufacturing sector, in 2003 only around 10% of employees were employed in industry. With the collapse of traditional industry, there was a boom in the service sector and education. The founding of the University of Leeds in 1904 was followed by the founding of other universities, thus laying the foundations for the rise of the University of Leeds to become an important university city.
In 1207 a Borough of Leeds was founded for the first time , which included what is now the city center. In 1626, the surrounding townships were declared incorporated into Leeds by King Charles I. In 1866, however, these again became so-called Civil Parishes , i.e. independent municipal districts. In 1889, the borough was declared a county borough , which from now on was administered independently of the Council des West Ridings . In 1893 Leeds was given city status.
In 1904 the previously independent towns of Beeston , Chapel Allerton , Farnley , Headingley cum Burley and Potternewton were incorporated into Leeds. From 1911 to 1961 the urban area grew from 87 km² to a total of 164 km². In 1912 Roundhay and Seacroft were incorporated, and in 1925 the Leeds metropolitan area was expanded to include the entire borough.
On April 1, 1974, the county borough was dissolved and parts of it ( Tadcaster , Wetherby and Wharfedale ) spun off. As independent parishes from now on, together with Leeds, they formed the new Metropolitan Borough City of Leeds . Until 1986 the Leeds City Council existed , which jointly administered the borough. However, this was then dissolved and its functions transferred to the individual communities.
The majority of the population in Leeds consider themselves Christian. The Anglican parishes with the main parish church of St. Peter belong to the Diocese of Ripon and Leeds of the Church of England . The Roman Catholic Diocese of Leeds with St. Anne's Cathedral was built in 1878.
There are still numerous Christian church communities in Leeds such as the Baptists , Assembly of God , Christian Science , The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the Communion of Christ , the Greek Orthodox Churches, the Evangelical Lutheran Churches , the Methodist Church of Great Britain , Jehovah's Witnesses , Nazarene Church , Pentecostal Movement , Salvation Army , Seventh-day Adventists , Quakers , United Reformed Church , Vineyard Movement, and several other free churches.
The proportion of Muslims in Leeds is the UK average. Muslim communities exist in the neighborhoods of Chapeltown , Harehills , Hyde Park and Beeston . The largest mosque is in Hyde Park. The largest Sikh prayer temple in Leeds (called Gurdwara ) is in Chapeltown. Around 3,000 Sikhs from Leeds take part in the New Year and Birth Festival ( Vaisakhi ) of their religion on the 13th and 14th of each year . April part.
Leeds has the third largest Jewish community in the United Kingdom after London and Manchester . Most of the Jews live in the suburbs of Alwoodley and Moortown . There are a total of eight synagogues in Leeds.
In Leeds there is also a Hindu community, a Buddhist community and a Baha'i community .
St. Peter's Anglican Parish Church
Roman Catholic St Anne's Cathedral
Temple of the Sikhs
Culture and sights
Museums, theaters, music and festivals
The Royal Armories Museum opened in 1996 and features an exhibition of historical weapons and armor that were originally kept in the Tower of London . The Armley Mills Industrial Museum is located in a former cotton factory and looks at the city's industrial past. The world's first moving images are also shown here, taken by Louis Le Prince in Leeds in 1888 . He shot a short sequence of the gardens and downtown Leeds. After a general renovation, the Leeds Art Gallery reopened in 2007. It is home to a collection of historical and contemporary British art. Entry to most of the city's museums is free.
The largest theater building in the city is the Grand Theater , it is the parent house of the opera company Opera North . The City Varieties Music Hall has been around since 1865, Charlie Chaplin , Marie Lloyd and Houdini among the artists who appeared in the house. The West Yorkshire Playhouse theater complex is also worth mentioning . Leeds is home to two dance companies, one for classical ballet and one for modern dance.
The Leeds Music Festival takes place annually in Bramham Park, where well-known British rock and indie rock musicians play . The city is also home to the Leeds International Pianoforte Competition , where well-known pianists have given concerts since 1963.
The Leeds International Film Festival is the largest British film festival outside London with an international competition program. Around 200 films will be shown at the festival.
Well-known music groups from Leeds are I Like Trains , Chumbawamba , Gang of Four , Mekons , the Kaiser Chiefs , The Music , The Pigeon Detectives , The Sisters of Mercy , The Sunshine Underground and Alt-J .
Buildings and parks
To the west of the city are the ruins of Kirkstall Abbey , a Cistercian abbey from the 12th century. Extensive gardens along the Aire River were laid out around the monastery. Temple Newsam's Tudor mansion dates back to the 16th century . Another palace is Harewood House , which was completed in 1771 and is still owned by the Earl of Harewood today.
During the industrial heyday of the city in the 19th century, a number of representative buildings arose in the city center, mostly in the architecture of the Baroque , Classical or Victorian styles . These include the Anglican parish church of St. Peter , built in 1841 instead of a previous Gothic building, the Leeds Town Hall (built between 1853 and 1858), the largest covered market house in Europe, Leeds Kirkgate Market , the rotunda of the Corn Exchange , which is now known as Department store is used, and the Catholic St. Anne's Cathedral (1902–1904). The 21st century is the tallest building in Leeds, Bridgewater Place , a 32-story high-rise.
The largest park is the 280 hectare Roundhay Park in the north of the city center, with a tropical house with various biotopes, a butterfly house and aquariums. Concerts are held regularly in the park.
The most important sports club in Leeds is the Leeds United football club . The club, founded in 1919, plays its home games in the 40,000-seat Elland Road stadium in Beeston . In 2010 he was promoted to the second division Football League Championship . The rugby teams Leeds Rhinos ( Rugby League ) and Yorkshire Carnegie (formerly Leeds Carnegie , Rugby Union ) also come from Leeds .
The Leeds Rhinos are the most successful rugby league club in Leeds. He won the Super League championship six times and the Challenge Cup 12 times . Their home stadium is the Headingley Stadium in the Headingley district . Other rugby league clubs are the Hunslet Hawks, the Bramley Buffaloes and the Leeds Akkies. The most successful rugby union team is Yorkshire Carnegie, which also plays its home games in Headingley and formerly plays in the highest, now in the second highest division in England, the championship. The women's football club Leeds Carnegie LFC also plays in the top division, the Women's Premier League .
Economy and Infrastructure
Leeds has a diverse economic structure, with the service sector having outstripped the manufacturing industries for some time. A total of 401,000 workers were registered in the entire Metropolitan District in 2002. Of these, 24.7% worked in the public sector, 23.9% in the finance and insurance sector and 21.4% in sales and in the hotel and catering industry. The financial sector distinguishes Leeds from the rest of the region and has the greatest importance in the United Kingdom after London. Leeds is home to the Bank of England's only branch in the country. The city's gross value added in 2006 was £ 16.3 billion and that of the entire Leeds City region was £ 46 billion. The trade catchment area in Leeds is 3.2 million people in and around Leeds. Leeds has a large number of shopping centers with around 1,000 stores or 210,000 m² of retail space. Around 40,000 people are employed in retail in Leeds.
There is around 1,000,000 m² of office space in the city center. Between 1999 and 2008, around £ 2.5 billion was invested in an infrastructure program, of which £ 711 million went to office buildings, £ 265 million to retail, £ 389 million to sports and leisure and £ 794 million to housing. The importance of tourism is growing: in 2009 Leeds was the eighth most visited city in England by visitors from the UK. For foreign visitors, Leeds was in 13th place in this ranking.
Leeds is optimally connected to the UK motorway network via the M621 urban motorway with connection to the M1 and M62 . The A1 (M) , which has been upgraded to motorway standard, passes Leeds a good ten kilometers east. The town is served by the A-roads A58 and A61 crosses and starting point of the A62 , A63 , A64 , A65 and A660 . Leeds has an inner city ring and an outer ring.
The public transport in Leeds is from the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive coordinated. The main means of local transport in Leeds is the bus. In the city center a city bus ( CityBus ) runs as a ring line at a fast frequency , it could be used free of charge until 2011 and has cost 50p since then. It connects the main train station, the bus stations, the office and shopping center, the inner-city hospital, the universities and Park Lane College. First Leeds and Arriva Yorkshire serve bus routes south of the city. The central bus station is on Dyer Street , with express services to destinations across Yorkshire and England. Harrogate & District has bus services to Harrogate and Ripon and Keighley & District has buses on the route to Shipley , Bingley and Keighley . Yorkshire Coastliner has services to Bridlington , Filey , Scarborough and Whitby via York and Malton , and Stagecoach operates the route via Goole to Kingston upon Hull .
Tram traffic ceased in 1959. Long-term plans for a light rail failed in 2005 after a cost doubling due to a veto by the British government.
The Leeds train station is one of the busiest railway stations in England outside London. It is frequented by over 900 trains and 50,000 passengers every day. From here both long-distance trains to destinations all over the island and regional trains to the surrounding area leave. With 17 tracks, Leeds station is the largest outside of London.
The Leeds / Bradford Airport is located in Yeadon , about 16 km north-west of the city center. From here there are charter and scheduled connections to destinations all over Europe as well as to Egypt , Pakistan and Turkey . Feeder flights to Charles de Gaulle (Paris) and Schiphol (Amsterdam) offer connections to destinations around the world. The Doncaster / Sheffield airport is located about 60 km southeast of Leeds. The smaller Leeds East Airport is about twenty kilometers east of Leeds.
From Kingston upon Hull there are ferry connections from P&O Ferries to Hoek van Holland and Zeebrugge .
The daily newspapers Yorkshire Post and Yorkshire Evening Post appear in Leeds . The Wetherby News and the Wharfedale & Airedale Observer appear weekly in the northeast and northwest of the district, respectively. The Leeds Guide has been a biweekly advertising market since 1997.
The BBC and ITV both own studios and regional broadcasting centers in Leeds. BBC Radio Leeds , Radio Aire , Magic 828 , Capital Yorkshire (formerly Galaxy Yorkshire ), Real Radio and Yorkshire Radio broadcast their radio programs from Leeds. There are also numerous other local radio stations in the city.
Leeds has two major universities, the University of Leeds (founded in 1904) with over 35,000 full-time students (2019) and Leeds Beckett University (founded in 1970 under the name Leeds Polytechnic , renamed in 1992 and 2014) with 23,570 students (2017/2018). Since 2012, Leeds Trinity University (formerly Trinity and All Saints College ) has also had full university status. It has around 3,500 students (2018).
There are also six other state universities ( colleges ); the College of Art and Design for Art and Design, the College of Building for Architecture and Construction with 6,500 students (2019), the College of Music , the Northern School of Contemporary Dance for professional dance, the Catholic Notre Dame Sixth Form College , the Leeds City College and the Northern Film School . At Joseph Priestley College courses are given vocational training. The nationwide Open University , the UK's largest part-time study facility, is also based in Leeds.
Sister cities of Leeds are
- Steven Burt, Kevin Grady: The Illustrated History of Leeds . Breedon Books, 1994, ISBN 1-873626-35-5 .
- Derek Fraser: A History of Modern Leeds . Manchester University Press, 1982, ISBN 0-7190-0781-X .
- Rachael Unsworth, John CH Stillwell: Twenty-First Century Leeds: Geographies of a Regional City . Leeds University Press, Leeds 2004, ISBN 0-85316-242-5 .
- Official website of the City of Leeds
- 'Leeds City Guide' website
- Private homepage with information and pictures about Leeds and the surrounding area
- Alternative cultural center in Leeds
- ↑ a b 2011 Census Key Statistics for built-up areas in England (Office for National Statistics)
- ↑ Population of England and Wales on June 30, 2012 ( ZIP ; 832 kB)
- ^ Leeds City Region . leedscityregion.gov.uk. Archived from the original on June 28, 2013. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- ↑ Archived copy ( memento of the original dated February 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Derek Fraser: A History of Modern Leeds. 1982, p. 459.
- ^ Universities chaplaincy in Leeds: Student Guide to Churches in Leeds . Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- ^ Yahoo: Churches in Leeds . Retrieved December 7, 2007.
- ^ JCR-UK - Leeds Jewish Community and Synagogues . Jewishgen.org. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- ^ Buddhist organizations in: Leeds / Bradford areas P2 . Communigate.co.uk. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- ↑ Leeds . In: Bahai Community of the UK . Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
- ↑ St Helens 10-18 Leeds Rhinos . In: BBC News , October 10, 2009. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- ↑ Unsworth, Stillwell: Twenty-First Century Leeds: Geographies of a Regional City. 2004, p. 169.
- ↑ Leeds leading the way . Yorkshire Evening Post . Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- ^ Leeds Financial Facts and Figures . http://www.leedsfinancialservices.org.uk/ . Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- ↑ Northern Star . FDI Magazine . Archived from the original on January 1st, 2009. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- ^ Leeds Services . Financial Times . Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- ^ Leeds Legal Review . Law Gazette . Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- ^ Live the Leeds Lifestyle . Legal Week Magazine . Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- ↑  (PDF)
- ↑ Archived copy ( Memento of the original from August 28, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b The City Center . In: Leeds Economy Handbook . Leeds City Council. Archived from the original on November 28, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
- ↑ Unsworth, Stillwell: Twenty-First Century Leeds: Geographies of a Regional City. 2004, p. 245.
- ↑ What is Metro . Wymetro.com. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
- ^ Station usage -: Office of Rail Regulation . Rail-reg.gov.uk. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- ^ A guide to Leeds. Leeds facilities, schools, general information, West Yorkshire . Information-britain.co.uk. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- ^ Tanya O'Rourke: Facts and figures. In: About Us> Facts and Figures. University of Leeds, Leeds, September 23, 2019, accessed October 30, 2019 .
- ↑ Who's studying in HE? | HESA. In: Open Data> Statistics. Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA, accessed October 30, 2019 .
- ^ A b Leeds Trinity University courses and application information. Retrieved October 30, 2019 .
- ^ The College. Leeds College of Building LCB, Leeds, accessed October 30, 2019 .
- ^ Website Leeds - International Relations