|Residents||137,505 (as of April 29, 2001
Unity Authority: 200,018 as of 2012)
|area||271.94 km² (105 mi² )|
|Population density:||506 inhabitants per km²|
|ZIP code section||YO8|
|Part of the country||England|
|region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Shire county||North Yorkshire|
|British Parliament||York Central
York is a city in northern England on the River Ouse near the mouth of the River Foss . York was already an important center in Roman times and later the royal seat of the county of Yorkshire . Today the City of York is an independent administrative unit ( Unitary Authority ) that only belongs to the county of North Yorkshire on ceremonial occasions .
York lies in a flat valley, the Vale of York . It consists of fertile arable land and borders the Pennines to the west, the North York Moors to the north and the Yorkshire Wolds to the east . The city is located at the confluence of the Foss and the Ouse on the terminal moraine of an Ice Age glacier.
At the time of the Romans, the area around the two rivers was very swampy, making the city easy to defend. York used to be at high risk from flooding, but it now has an extensive flood protection system. The city experienced the worst flood in 375 years in November 2000 when over 300 houses were flooded.
York has a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. The climate of the city and the Vale of York is warmer and drier than that of the surrounding regions. Because of its lowland location, York often experiences night frosts, fog and cold winds in winter and spring. The average maximum daily temperature in summer is 22 ° C, sometimes it can get up to 30 ° C. At night the minimum is 15 ° C, but sometimes it can get below 10 ° C. In winter, it is on average 7 ° C mild during the day, at night the temperature often drops into the frost range. Snow can fall from December to April, but it usually melts relatively quickly. The wettest months are November, December and January with an average of 17 days of rainfall over 0.25 mm. From May to July the sun shines the longest in the area with around six hours a day. Between 1998 and 2006 extreme values were measured several times at the weather station of the University of York. Among other things, the highest temperature at 33 ° C and the lowest temperature ever measured at −12.3 ° C occurred. Most of the rain fell in just one day at 62.4 mm.
York is also called the "Eternal City" and is famous for its historic buildings. Already in Roman times it played an important role as the capital of North Great Britain under the name Eboracum , from 237 AD as Colonia Eboracensium and was even an imperial residence for a time.
Origin and history of the name "York"
The place where the city is today was named by the Romans Eboracum after the Celtic * Eborāko- , which probably means "place of the yew trees ". In the Celtic languages, the city is still referred to as: Welsh Efrog , Scottish Gaelic Eabhraig and Irish Eabhrac . There are no sources or archaeological finds that indicate a pre-Roman settlement at this point, but Celtic pre-settlement is likely. After the Anglo-Saxons conquered the area around AD 400, the city was renamed Eoforwic . The elements of the name stand for boar ( eofor ) and settlement ( wic ). The subsequent settlement of the area by the Vikings led to the town being renamed Jórvík again . After the Norman invasion in 1066, this name was changed to York .
The city and state of New York in the USA were named after the English York. This happened in 1664 after the conquest of the previously Dutch settlement of Nieuw Amsterdam by British troops in honor of the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy , the then Duke of York and later King James II.
Eboracum was founded during the reign of the Roman Emperor Vespasian in 71 AD. At first it was a military fort of the Legio VIIII Hispana under the command of Petilius Cerialis. The original wooden warehouse was renewed by Agricola in AD 81 before it was finally built in stone in 107/108. For the Romans, York was the most important military base in the north of Britain and after the division of the country in the early third century AD, it was the capital of North Britain ( Britannia inferior ).
In the 3rd / 4th In the 19th century, Roman rulers repeatedly resided in York. In 211 AD, Emperor Septimius Severus died in the city. When Britain was further divided up by the Emperor Diocletian in AD 296 , York remained the administrative center of Britannia secunda , after having been elevated to Colonia a few years earlier under the name Colonia Eboracensium .
Archaeological excavations below York Minster uncovered the foundations of the headquarters of the Roman legionary fortress. These excavations are open to the public. A Roman column was rebuilt on Deangate Street and a modern statue of Constantine was erected. Further excavations in the city discovered a large Roman bath, now located under the Roman Bath Pub in St. Sampson's Square. A Roman temple and the remains of a Roman bridge over the Ouse were discovered next to the Lendal Bridge .
Remnants of the late Roman city walls and a wall tower can be seen between Monk Bar and Merchant Taylor's Hall and between Museums Garden and the Central Library. There are several Roman cemeteries outside the city walls. A good overview of the finds can be found in the Yorkshire Museum .
Post-Roman times, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings
After the Roman troops withdrew from Britain at the beginning of the 5th century AD, the city became the capital of the Romano-British Kingdom of Ebrauc (around 470 AD). Later, under the Anglo-Saxons , the city became the capital of the Kingdom of Deira and finally the county of Northumbria. Christianity was brought to the area in the 7th century by Paulinus of York , favored by the conversion of King Edwin (616–633). Paulinus became the first bishop of York . However, the location of the first church has not yet been secured. In the following years York became a center of Christian teaching. His most famous teacher was Alcuin .
In AD 866, York was conquered by the Great Pagan Army . In 876 the Scandinavians settled in the area continuously. Scandinavian kings ruled what they called the Kingdom of Jórvík for about a century until 954. That year, the last Scandinavian king, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven out and his kingdom merged with the Anglo-Saxon Empire. A well-known scholar of this time was Bishop Wulfstan I of York .
Excavations at the Coppergate in the 1980s provided information about the Viking Age Jórvík . Four pieces of land stretching from the street frontage to the bank of the Foss were excavated. From the early 9th to the 11th centuries, rows of rectangular wooden buildings, the gables facing the street, lined the Coppergate. The clay floors and stoves were covered with leftover trash and finished products. Leather processors, antler comb manufacturers, turners and metal smiths had worked here. Garbage pits, latrines, ditches and small fenced enclosures lay in the courtyards of the shops. The remains of a mint were found in one of the buildings. The entire excavation site has been reconstructed and left as the Jórvík Viking Center in its original position in the basement of today's shops.
After the invasion of the Normans in 1066, the north was completely devastated by William the Conqueror after several regional revolts. Within the city, a castle was built on each bank of the Ouse. York rose to the center of the county of Yorkshire, became the seat of an archbishop and later in the 13th and 14th centuries even an alternate seat of royal administration. At that time it was a major trading center. Several ecclesiastical buildings were erected such as St. Mary's Abbey and the Holy Trinity Monastery.
Since York was royal property, there was also a strong Jewish community under the sheriff's protection . During a pogrom on March 16, 1190 against the city's Jewish population, the Jews fled to Clifford's Tower , the sheriff's seat. The castle was besieged by the mob and the Jews were trapped in the tower for three days. Anyone who wanted to leave the castle should have converted to Christianity immediately. Many Jews saw the only way out to kill one another.
Apparently, several influential local debtors of the Jewish moneylenders had initiated the riot, or at least they did nothing to prevent it. In the period that followed, there were further riots and attacks on the Jewish population in Britain.
In the course of the Middle Ages, the city flourished more and more, which was also reflected in the urban construction activity. Of the former 45, 20 medieval parish churches have been more or less preserved, with only eight of these churches also holding a service. The medieval city wall with the city gates, the so-called bars , can be seen almost in its entirety today, but mostly it is reconstructions from the 1970s. The Whip-Ma-Whop-Ma-Gate has also been preserved. At that time, the city district had a county-like status.
The late 14th and early 15th centuries were marked by urban wealth. One of the most famous people of this era was Nicholas Blackburn Sr. who was mayor of the city in 1412 and one of the richest merchants. However, during the 15th century, the city's wealth and importance declined. Construction activity stagnated. After the completion of the minster in 1472, only the King's Manor was built on more important buildings , in which the Council of the North (a kind of parliament for northern England) met from 1537 to 1641 and the church of St. Michael de Belfrey was rebuilt. Guy Fawkes , who was involved in the so-called Gunpowder Plot , an attempted bomb attack on the London Parliament building in 1605, was baptized in this church .
In 1547 fifteen churches had to be closed, an indication of the loss of population in the city at that time.
After the outbreak of the English Civil War between Parliament and the English King Charles I , he held court in York for six months in 1642. In 1644, Lord Fairfax besieged the city with parliamentary troops, but was unable to conquer it. When Prince Rupert advanced with an army of 15,000 men, the parliamentarians first retreated six miles, only to turn around and finally defeat Prince Rupert at the Battle of Marston Moor . The city, which was then again besieged by the parliamentarians, finally surrendered on July 16, 1644. After the war, York could only slowly regain its importance for the north of England. Nevertheless, by 1660 it was again the third largest city in England after London and Norwich .
On March 22, 1739, the mugger Richard "Dick" Turpin was convicted of horse robbery at the York Grand Jury House and executed on April 7 by hanging. He was buried in the cemetery in front of St George's Church .
Thanks in large part to the efforts of Railway King George Hudson , York became a major railway hub in the 19th century and maintained that status well into the 20th century.
On April 29, 1942, York was bombed as part of the German Air Force's retaliatory attack on Baedeker Blitz during World War II. 92 people died and hundreds were injured. The train station, the Rowntree’s factory and the St Martin-le-Grand church were damaged . The Bar Convent and the town hall were completely destroyed and not rebuilt until 1960.
In October and November 2000, York experienced the worst flooding in 375 years; over 300 houses were affected.
|UK 2001 census||York||Yorkshire||England|
In 2001, the vast majority of York's residents, 74.4 percent, professed Christianity . There are 32 active Anglican churches in the city, all subordinate to the Archbishop of York or the Diocese of York. The main church in York is York Minster . The eight Roman Catholic churches in York belong to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough. Other Christian denominations are Quakerism , Methodists and Unitarianism . There is also a mosque with an associated Islamic center. Even Buddhist traditions are represented in York.
|Source: Office for National Statistics|
In 2001 the core city of York had 137,505 inhabitants, of which 66,142 were men and 71,363 women. At the same time, the entire urban area had 181,094 inhabitants (93,957 women and 87,137 men). 36 percent of all 76,920 households in York were owned by married couples, 31.3 percent were owned by individuals, 8.7 percent were owned by unmarried couples, and 8 percent of households were owned by separated parents. The percentage of the latter households was below the national average (9.5 percent), that of married couples was just below it (36.5 percent) and the percentage of all single households in York was higher than the national average (30.1 percent).
The population density of the urban area at that time was 4,863 inhabitants per square kilometer. 24.6 percent of York's 16 to 74 year old population had no college degree, below the national average of 28.9 percent. 5.1 percent of all York residents were born outside of the UK (national average: 9.2 percent). At 1.9 percent, Asians were registered as the largest minority in York.
The following table shows the population development of York (Unity Authority) since 1801:
|year||1801||1811||1821||1831||1841||1851||1861||1871||1881||1891||1901||1911||1921||1931||1941 1||1951||1961||1971||1981||1991||2001 2|
|Source: Vision of Britain|
Most of York is covered by the City of York constituency of the British Parliament , only outer areas of the city partially belong to the constituencies of Selby, Vale of York and Ryedale. The constituencies are represented by Hugh Bayley , John Grogan, Anne McIntosh and John Greenway . In 2002, a proposal was made to add two new seats to the City of York constituency for the 2010 general election.
The currently existing constituencies of the City of York and Vale of York will be dissolved and replaced by the new constituencies of York Central and York Outer. The constituencies of Selby and Ryedale will no longer have a share in the urban area of York. York is in the Yorkshire and the Humber constituency of the European Parliament .
York is the capital of Yorkshire, yet it has never been part of any of the county's three historic districts. York is an old borough and was one of the boroughs reformed to a municipal borough by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 . In 1889, the city was granted county borough status through the Local Government Act 1888 , which continued until 1974. The Local Government Act 1972 made it a non-metropolitan district within the county of North Yorkshire .
As a result of another profound administrative reform in the 1990s, York got its unitary status back and expanded its administrative district at the same time. Parts of the districts of Selby and Harrogate and half of the district of Ryedale were incorporated into York.
York City Council consists of 47 MPs. No party has had an absolute majority since the 2007 local elections. The Liberal Democrats have 20 MPs and form a minority government . The opposition consists of 18 MPs from the Labor Party , seven MPs from the Conservative Party and two MPs from the Greens .
John Galvin has been Lord Mayor of York and Jill Burnett Sheriff of the city since May 2009 . Both terms of office last one year; the offices are renegotiated each May. Although York's sheriff's office is the oldest in England, it is now used for ceremonial purposes only. The Lord Mayor also performs ceremonial duties as a supplement to his chairmanship of the city council.
York has partnerships with
Like York, these cities look back on a long tradition and have a historic cityscape.
Culture and sights
The York Minster in the city center is the second largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe. The city is surrounded by medieval walls; they are now a well-known attraction. The entire perimeter of the city is about five kilometers long, including a section that never had a wall. There was once a moat belonging to York Castle, which created an insurmountable barrier for enemies due to the damming of the Foss. The lake was later called King's Fishpond (= " King's Fish Pond"), as the right to fish in the lake was exclusively with the Crown.
The preserved Clifford's Tower was the keep of York Castle built on a motte . A massacre took place in the Tower in 1190 when the small Jewish community of York took shelter from an angry mob on Passover day . Many Jews committed suicide even before the enemy entered. What happened is seen as the most notorious example of anti-Semitism in medieval England.
Another attraction is the Holgate windmill from 1770, which was restored from 2003 to 2012 and is the last windmill in the city and one of the two remaining in Yorkshire. As a tower windmill , it is similar to the windmills in Lincolnshire , with a slim, but "waisted" (unique), conical tower with black bitumen paint, white onion cap with a large compass rose and five-fold winged cross.
A specialty of York are the Snickelways : narrow streets dating from the late Middle Ages, most of which emanate from the city's former marketplaces. One of them, the so-called Shambles , is a street with small shops that has preserved its medieval appearance. Some of the houses have overhanging first floors and attics. This is also the reason why some postcards also speak of “Dark Streets of York”, because the superstructures almost never allow a ray of sunshine to hit the street. These superstructures were built because the house's tax was calculated based on the built-up area. Originally it was the street where the butchers had their shops. Nowadays the Shambles are a tourist area with cafes, restaurants and shops.
The Theater Royal , founded in 1744, stages an amateur play every year, which is mostly attended by local audiences in the region. The Grand Opera House and the Joseph Rowntree Theater offer a number of other productions. The theater companies Riding Lights Theater Company and The Strolling Theatricals come from York. The Department of Theater, Film and Television and student groups at York University perform drama in the theater.
The city center is home to many museums, including the Castle Museum, the Yorkshire Museum with the museum gardens, the Jórvík Viking Center , an art gallery, a museum about Richard III. , Merchant Adventurers' Hall , Barley Hall , part of York's Archaeological Ring , Fairfax House , part of the Homeland Society, and National Trust- owned Treasurer's House .
The National Railway Museum is right next to the station and sheds light on the history of the railroad in Great Britain. It houses the largest collection of locomotives in the world. This includes, among others. the locomotive Mallard of LNER Class A4 , which established the record as the fastest steam locomotive in the world, as well as the locomotive Flying Scotsman of LNER Class A3 , the first the 100 mph limit (161 km / h) overcame.
York has a long musical tradition, and modern York hosts musical events all year round. The many music groups performing in York include the Academy of St Olave’s , a chamber orchestra that gives concerts in St Olave's Church . In a church building previously used for church services, the National Center for Early Music is located , where concerts, competitions and other events are held, especially during the York Early Music Festival . The York Waits are a York University orchestral group that often gives music in the university's chapel during lunch breaks. The Christmas concert is a special feature.
The city's football club is York City . He plays in League Two . In its history, he has been promoted to the Football League Second Division , the second highest division at the time. His fame, however, largely results from the tradition of his team as a cup scare. Among other things, she reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup in 1955 and threw Manchester United 3-0 out of the League Cup in the 1995/1996 season . The team plays their home games in the KitKat Crescent .
York also has a remarkable history in rugby league . The rugby club York FC , later called York Wasps , was founded in 1901. It was one of the oldest clubs in the country, but went bankrupt in 2002 due to the effects of a stadium move to Huntington Stadium , poor game results and declining attendance. The supporters then founded a new club with the York City Knights , which now plays in the same stadium in the National League Two . There are also three amateur clubs, the New Earswick All Blacks , York Acorn and Heworth . Between the clubs, a tournament called Rugby league nines is held annually in York , a special variant of Rugby League with nine players per team and a playing time of 15 minutes. The rowing club York City Rowing Club is located on the Lendal Bridge.
In 1731 a racecourse, York Racecourse , was opened. As one of the largest venues in horse racing, it attracts thousands of people to its events every year. In 2005 it was the venue for the Ascot . Every year in August the three-day Ebor Festival takes place here.
Motorcycle races were once held on the Burnholme Estate racetrack, which was completed in 1930 .
From 2001 to 2006 and again since 2011 the UK Championship Snooker Tournament takes place annually - on 13 days in November / December - in the Barbican Center in York.
Since 1997, a festival of food and drink has been held annually in September in York. The food culture in York and North Yorkshire is presented and the region's food production is promoted. The festival is visited by around 150,000 visitors for ten days each year. One of the products is York Ham, a cooked, mildly spicy ham with tender pink meat. It is traditionally served in Madeira sauce. The smoked ham is salty, but has a milder taste than other smoked hams in Europe. Robert Burrow Atkinson's butcher's shop on Blossom Street is known for being the birthplace of York Ham.
In downtown York on St Helen's Square is a branch of the well-known tea trading house Taylors of Harrogate . Its founder Frederick Belmont took part in the maiden voyage of the Queen Mary in 1936 . He was so impressed by the magnificent construction of the ship that he commissioned its designers and craftsmen to transform an old furniture store in St Helen's Square into an elegant café. A few years after the café opened, World War II began and the basement of Betty's Bar was a popular hangout for pilots stationed in the York area. A mirror on which many of them have left their signature is exhibited to this day as a tribute to their work in the restaurant.
Economy and Infrastructure
York's industry is built on the service sector, which in 2000 accounted for 88.7 percent of employment in the city. The service sector includes local public transport, health, education, finance, IT and tourism. The latter has the largest share in the sector with employment of 10.7 percent. The unemployment rate is 4.2 percent, lower than the UK's 5.3 percent. The largest employer is the City of York itself with over 7,500 employees. Aviva , the Selby and York primary Care Trust , the Shepherd Building Group and the University of York employ more than 3,000 people. Other major employers are the BT Group , CPP Group Ltd, Nestlé and various railway companies.
The current economic situation differs enormously from that of the 1950s, when the city's prosperity still depended on chocolate production and the railroad. This continued into the early 1980s, when a full 30 percent of the population was employed by five employers and 75 percent of all manufacturing jobs were spread across four companies. Most of the rail industry has now disappeared. Freight company Asea Brown Boveri employed 5,500 people in its prime in the 1880s, but it was disbanded in the mid-1990s. York is the seat of the confectionery manufacturer Nestlé York (formerly Nestlé Rowntrees) and home to KitKat and other chocolate bar brands. Terry’s chocolate company was once also based in the city, but production was relocated to Poland by its owner Kraft Foods and the York site closed on September 30, 2005. However, the historic company building can still be visited.
After jobs at Aviva, British Sugar and Terry's had already been cut, it was announced on September 20, 2006 that Nestlé would cut 645 jobs in York. However, the employment situation remained relaxed before the effects of the economic crisis of the late 2000s began to take hold.
After York's freight works were abandoned, the site was reactivated for residential projects and the new CPP and Virgin Galactic sites . Over the years the city has developed enormously in the areas of science, technology and cultural industries. With the opening of a science park by the university, the city became an important science city. Between 1998 and 2008 York gained 80 new companies in the technology sector with a total of 2,800 new jobs.
The following are York's gross value added figures as of 2005 in pounds sterling:
Like most of the Roman-founded cities, York was, as it is now, well served by trunk roads. The city is on the A19 between Doncaster and Middlesbrough , the A59 to Harrogate , the A64 between Leeds and Scarborough , the A166 to Driffield and the A1079 to Hull. Connection to the motorway network (to the A1, which is around 20 km away ) to the north is via the A59 and to the south via the A64 (towards Leeds).
The city has an outer ring road at a distance of about five kilometers from the built-up urban area, which relieves it of interregional transit traffic. At the same time, many streets within the city wall were designated as pedestrian zones and five Park & Ride parking spaces were set up. They are located near the city ring, which makes it easy to switch between bus and car.
The railway age began for the city with the construction of the first railway line through York in 1839. It has since been a major rail hub and at the same time the seat of the North Eastern Railway .
The York Railway Station is located on the East Coast Main Line from London to Newcastle and Edinburgh and is an important stop on this route. King's Cross station in London can be reached in less than two hours with a non-stop express train; in total there are at least 25 connections daily between the two cities. Long-distance trains, which run from Newcastle and Edinburgh and connect destinations in the south and west of England via Birmingham , also stop in York . First TransPennine Express has regular connections to Newcastle, Scarborough, Leeds, Manchester, Manchester Airport and Liverpool . In addition, Northern Rail operates regional trains to Bridlington , Harrogate, Hull, Leeds and Sheffield .
Overland bus routes to nearby towns and villages are operated by various companies. There are also bus connections to more distant cities: Arriva Yorkshire offers trips to Selby , East Yorkshire Motor Services has lines to Hull, Beverley and Pocklington , Harrogate & District offers trips to Knaresborough and Harrogate , and Yorkshire Coastliner connects Leeds via York with Scarborough, Filey , Bridlington and Whitby .
Due to York's location on the Ouse and in the center of the Vale of York, the city has always been an important transport hub. It originated from a trading port at the confluence of the Foss and the Ouse. Until the opening of a lock at Naburn , the Ouse was a tidal river, which restricted shipping. Today both of these rivers are navigable without the influence of the tide, although the Foss is only a short distance above its mouth.
Until the end of the 20th century, the Ouse was used by cargo ships to transport goods between the ports of Hull and York. The last notable commercial traffic was the transport of newsprint to the municipal printing works on the banks of the Foss, which was discontinued in 1997. Today's shipping traffic in York is almost exclusively for leisure. YorkBoat offers boat tours on the Ouse.
Near Elvington, eleven kilometers south-east, there is an airfield that was formerly used by the Royal Air Force and is now used for private aviation . There are plans to develop the airfield into a commercial airport.
The nearest international airports are Manchester and Leeds / Bradford . From Manchester there are flight connections to Europe, North America, Africa and Asia. The airport is served hourly by First TransPennine Express from York. With Leeds / Bradford there is a second airport, which is even closer to York. However, the operation of a bus route between the city and First York airport was canceled in April 2009. The airport has flights to continental Europe, North Africa, Pakistan and New York .
Local public transport
Local public transport is mainly provided by buses. The operating bus company is First York , which is part of the FirstGroup . First York operates most of the bus routes, as well as the city's park and ride stations. York is the first city to introduce the ftr bus concept, an experiment to optimize urban bus traffic. Also Transdev York operates a number of bus routes in York. This company also uses open, double-decker City Sightseeing buses for city tours.
York's local newspaper is called The Press (until April 2006: The Evening Press ). There are two radio stations in the city, Minster FM and BBC Radio York . With York @ 54 there is also a local television program.
St John University , specializing in film and television, works with a wide variety of industry partners. Every year it organizes a film festival for student film productions and other films from the region.
York University has its own television station called York Student Television (YSTV) and the two student newspapers Nouse and York Vision . The university radio station is the UK's longest running independent broadcaster and has been voted Student Radio Station of the Year 2005 .
According to the rules of the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, York City Council had to set up a watch committee, which established a police station and appointed its chief. On June 1, 1968, the police stations of York, East Riding of Yorkshire and North Riding of Yorkshire were merged to form the York and North East Yorkshire Police . The police headquarters are now in Fulford, a district of York. The fire service is provided by the North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service , whose control center is in Northallerton .
The city hospital was opened in 1976 and has 524 beds for inpatient treatment and a further 127 beds for outpatient treatment. It is known as the York District Hospital (YDH).
The Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust was established on July 1, 2006 through the merger of the South Yorkshire Ambulance Service with the West Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance Service , the North and East Yorkshire parts of Tees and the East and North Yorkshire Ambulance Service . On-site medical care is also provided by other small clinics and medical practices.
Since 1998, garbage collection has been coordinated by the York and North Yorkshire Waste Partnership . The distribution system operator York is CE Electric UK ; there are no power plants in the urban area. The water company Yorkshire Water gets the drinking water for the city from the Derwent through a tapping point near Elvington. The city has its own Magistrates' Court as well as a Crown Court and County Court . The Crown Court building, which was right next to the prison, was designed by the English architect John Carr. Today the Castle Museum is located in the former prison building .
York University's main campus is on the southern outskirts near Heslington, while the Department of Archeology and Medieval Studies is in the city center. Until 2006, the facility was the only one in York with university status. Then, however, St John University , which until then had been an autonomous college of the University of Leeds , opened. The city also has a branch of the private college The College of Law . York University also has a medical school, Hull York Medical School .
The city has two large secondary school facilities. The York College was created from the merger of York Technical College with the York Sixth Form College . There is a wide range of academic and professional courses here, which are attended by people with a wide variety of educational goals. The Askham Bryan College offers continuing education courses in vocational subjects such as gardening, agriculture, animal husbandry and even the golf course Manegement.
There are a total of 70 schools with more than 24,000 students in the city of York. Most of the city's elementary and secondary schools are run by the local authority. Most primary schools are attended by children aged five to eleven, and in some cases by three-year-olds. 11 to 16 year olds attend secondary schools; four of them offer further training up to the age of 18. In 2007, Oaklands Sports College merged with Lowfield Comprehensive School to form York High School .
The city's 17 boarding schools are represented by the York Boarding Schools Group . There are also various private schools. The St Peter's School was founded in 627; the scholar Alcuin , a servant of Charlemagne , already taught her . The school was attended by Guy Fawkes, among others. Two schools have Quaker origins: the Bootham School is co-educational and the Mount School is an all-girls school. Queen Margaret's School is on the outskirts . The students of the Minster School sing in the Münster choir.
sons and daughters of the town
- Alkuin (735-804), Scholar
- Guy Fawkes (1570-1606), officer
- John Hingeston (1606–1683), composer, gambist and organist
- Benjamin Wilson (1721–1788), painter and scientist
- William Tuke (1732–1822), founder of the lunatic asylum Retreat in York
- Thomas Fowler (physician) (1736–1801), pharmacist and doctor, namesake for Fowler's solution and chief physician at the Quaker Hospital in York
- Robert Nares (1753–1829), clergyman and philologist
- John Flaxman (1755-1826), sculptor
- William Etty (1787–1849), painter
- William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse (1800–1867), astronomer
- Joseph Hansom (1803–1882), architect, namesake for the Hansom Cab
- Thomas Bevill Peacock (1812–1882), surgeon and cardiologist
- John Snow (1813-1858), physician
- Wilfred Hudleston Hudleston (1828-1909), geologist
- Henry Moore (1831–1895), painter
- Joseph Rowntree (1836–1925), chocolate maker and philanthropist
- Albert Joseph Moore (1841-1893), painter
- Silvanus Phillips Thompson (1851-1916), physicist
- Henry Scott Tuke (1858–1929), painter
- Harold Arthur Stuart (1860–1923), civil servant in India
- RO Morris (1886–1948), composer and music teacher
- WH Auden (1907–1973), writer
- Christopher Hill (1912-2003), historian
- Frankie Howerd (1917–1992), actor and comedian
- Faith Brook (1922–2012), actress
- Francis Matthews (1927–2014), theater, film and television actor
- Peter Woodthorpe (1931-2004), actor
- John Barry (1933–2011), British film composer
- Judi Dench (* 1934), film, theater and television actress
- Wally Herbert (1934–2007), polar explorer, author and painter
- Alan Borwell (* 1937), chess official
- Trevor Watts (* 1939), jazz musician
- Frank Dobson (1940-2019), politician (Labor Party)
- Martin Rees (* 1942), astronomer
- Vince Cable (born 1943), politician
- Ian Harrower (born 1947), racing car driver
- David Davis (born 1948), politician
- Kate Atkinson (born 1951), writer
- Lynne Dawson (* 1956), soprano
- Christopher Fox (* 1955), composer
- Steve McClaren (* 1961), soccer player and coach
- Emma Dench (* 1963), ancient historian
- Bobby Mimms (* 1963), soccer goalkeeper
- Mark Addy (* 1964), film and television actor
- Ian Bousfield (born 1964), trombonist
- Mark Simpson (* 1965), journalist and writer
- Daniel Newman (* 1976), film actor and film producer
- Simon Dyson (* 1977), professional golfer
- Paweł Abbott (* 1982), football player
- Philip Graves (* 1989), triathlete
- Lucy Staniforth (* 1992), national soccer player
- Paul Jubb (* 1999), tennis player
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