|Residents||140,545 (as of June 30, 2018)|
|surface||53.88 km² (20.8 mi² )|
|Population density:||2608 inhabitants per km²|
|ZIP code section||TS1 - TS9|
|Part of the country||England|
|region||North East England|
|Shire county||North Yorkshire|
Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland
Middlesbrough [ˈmɪdəlzbɹə] is a city and since 1996 an independent Unitary Authority in the north-east of England , which is part of the Ceremonial County of North Yorkshire . The city had 140,545 inhabitants in 2018.
Middlesbrough is in the region of North East England on the southern shore of tea , just before it flows into the North Sea . It is the center of the industrialized Teesside conurbation , in which 365,323 people lived in 2001 according to the census. The distance to London is about 380 kilometers.
The climate in Middlesbrough is relatively continental by British standards . Due to its location east of the Pennines and the Lake District , the city is only slightly influenced by the low pressure areas of the Atlantic. With around 625mm of annual rainfall, Middlesbrough is one of the driest regions in Great Britain. Temperatures are lower in winter and higher in summer than the national average.
In 686 a monastery was founded on the site of the present city by Cuthbert of Lindisfarne at the request of Hilda of Whitby . Until the dissolution of the English monasteries by Henry VIII in 1537, this monastery was continuously inhabited by eight Benedictine monks.
In 1801 Middlesbrough was still a small settlement with only 25 residents. In the period that followed, however, the place developed rapidly. In the early 19th century, the Quaker businessmen acquired the site, who saw here, at the mouth of the River Tees, a favorable location for a transhipment point for coal from the north of England. Four streets were laid out, all of which met at a new market square. The extension of the Stockton and Darlington Railway , the first railway line in the world, to Middlesbrough promoted the development of the place. The harbor was built from 1840 to 1842 according to plans by civil engineer George Turnbull , which was eventually acquired by the Stockton and Darlington Railway Company .
The mining engineer John Marley discovered iron in 1850 in the Eston Hills, a range of hills south of the city. Then Henry William Ferdinand Bolckow from Mecklenburg founded the iron industry (B&V) in Middlesbrough together with his business partner John Vaughan . He became the city's first mayor in 1853 and entered parliament in 1868. Towards the end of the century, one third of England's iron production came from Middlesbrough, and the town's population had grown to 90,000 by 1901. Due to its great importance in the iron industry, the city was nicknamed Ironopolis . One of the city's football clubs even called itself Middlesbrough Ironopolis FC
In 1853 the Bell brothers built the first steel mill on the north bank of the Tees near the village of Port Clarence . In 1889 the merger with Dorman Long took place . After rock salt deposits were located underground, the first salt mine was founded in Teesside. The Bell Brothers group now employed around 6,000 people. For his entrepreneurial spirit, Isaac Lowthian Bell was the first person to be awarded the Bessemer Gold Medal in 1874 , which was donated by the engineer Henry Bessemer . For a long period of the 19th century, the Teesside steel industry determined the global price of iron and steel.
In 1907 a parliamentary decision was made to build the Middlesbrough transporter bridge, which was to connect Middlesbrough to Port Clarence. In 1911 the 260 m long and 69 m high bridge was officially opened.
Middlesbrough was also home to several large shipyards such as Sir Raylton Dixon & Company , where hundreds of steamers were launched. Among other things, the Mont-Blanc was built here, which triggered the Halifax explosion on the Canadian coast in 1917 .
During World War II , Middlesbrough was the first industrial site to be bombed by the German Air Force on May 25, 1940 . The most famous attack was that of a single bomber ( Dornier Do 217 ), which overcame the blocking balloons in 1942 and bombed the city's train station.
In the late 1960s, the city reached its largest population with just under 165,000. After that, increasingly since the 1980s. it steadily decreased in parallel with the industrial decline. From 2001 to 2005 an increase from 134,000 to 147,000 inhabitants was recorded. The current calculation from 2010 estimates the population at 139,000.
Middlesbrough is a deanery of the Archdeaconate of Cleveland, a subunit of the Diocese of York in the Church of England . It extends to Thirsk in the west, Whitby in the east and Pickering in the south.
Middlesbrough was declared a county borough by the Local Government Act 1888 . In the same year the administrative function of the historically grown Yorkshire was transferred to the newly established North Riding of Yorkshire . In 1894 a rural district ( Middlesbrough Rural District ) was established, which also included areas south of Middlesbrough. However, it was dissolved again in 1932. Parts of the district were incorporated into the County Borough. In 1974 the North Riding was dissolved and replaced by the Administrative County of Cleveland . Since 1996, when Cleveland was dissolved, Middlesbrough has been an independent city district ( Unitary Authority ).
Middlesbrough is represented by two MEPs in the UK Parliament . Due to its industrial past, the city is considered a Labor stronghold. The constituency of Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland includes, in addition to Middlesbrough, the cities of Saltburn and Guisborough .
2002 was the first time a mayor was elected directly by the citizens of Middlesbroughs with the non-party Ray Mallon. In 2007 he was confirmed in office. In 2015, Dave Budd was elected as the new Lord Mayor.
Middlesbrough is twinned with
Culture and sights
In the district and formerly independent village of Acklam is the Acklam Hall , built between 1680 and 1683 , the oldest preserved building in the city , which is also the only one that has been awarded a Grade I Listed Building . The manor house , built during the Stuart Restoration , has been architecturally altered several times over the centuries and is therefore an example of the changing architectural styles of English architecture.
The Ormesby Hall was built in 1740, an older wing even dates back to around the year 1599. The the National Trust managed mansion is already in the Borough of Redcar and Cleveland , but is one of the seven natural reserves of Middlesbrough.
Important buildings in the city center are the Middlesbrough Institute of Modern Art and the Center North East office building , which opened in 1971 and is the tallest building in North East England at 70.7 m .
The imposing town hall, built between 1883 and 1887, is listed as a Grade II building . The Empire Palace of Varieties is a theater building built in 1897. A second theater is the Middlesbrough Theater (formerly Little Theater ) in the Linthorpe district, opened in 1957 by Sir John Gielgud .
Middlesbrough's best-known dish is parmesan or parmo - a breaded schnitzel made from chicken - or pork , topped with bechamel sauce and cheese, usually cheddar and mozzarella , but no parmesan . Parmos can be bought in restaurants and food stalls . In addition, the culinary specialties from Yorkshire popular in Middlesbrough.
Albert Park, located in the city center, offers a recreational space for residents and is the city's green lung. The idea of a park in the city was first developed by Henry Bolckow . It was opened in 1868 and used as a venue for the first two years of the club after Middlesbrough FC was founded in 1876. A statue of football legend Brian Clough has been in the park since 2007 . He is shown with his football boots on his shoulders on the way to training in Ayresome Park , the former sports ground. In 1869 a lake with a fountain was created in the park and renovated in 2004.
A second park is located in the southern district of Marton. Stewart Park, a 48-hectare park that is now home to numerous animal species, opened in 1928. In it is the place where the birthplace of the famous navigator James Cook once stood. The Captain Cook Birthplace Museum has been providing information about Middlesbrough's most famous personality since 1978 .
Middlesbrough is home to the traditional football club Middlesbrough FC , which play in the Football League Championship , the second highest division . He plays his home games in the 35,000-seat Riverside Stadium , which was reopened in August 1995 on the banks of the Tees. Ayresome Park was previously the club's venue for 92 years before the stadium was demolished in 1996 and replaced with residential complexes. The club was a founding member of the newly introduced Premier League in 1992 . Had long recorded previously over 128 years without major title win, FC Middlesbrough in 2004 won by a 2: 1 win against Bolton Wanderers in the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff the Football League Cup . This authorized the team of then coach Steve McClaren for the 2004/05 season to participate in the European soccer competition for the first time. In the following season they were able to qualify for the UEFA Cup again and even reached the final, which was lost 4-0 to Sevilla FC . Well-known former players of the club included Steve Bloomer , Wilf Mannion , George Hardwick , Brian Clough , Gary Pallister , Juninho , Fabrizio Ravanelli and Graeme Souness . Well-known coaches were Jack Charlton , Bruce Rioch , Bryan Robson and Steve McClaren.
Another, but lower-class football club was Middlesbrough Ironopolis FC , which was based in the city in the 1890s, but was dissolved after a few years.
The speedway sport was played at Cleveland Park Stadium between 1928 and 1990. Resident driver teams of the post-war era were the Bears , Teessiders, and Teesside Tigers .
There is a future plan for the next 20 years to unite the cities of Stockton-on-Tees and Middlesbrough. A new city with around 360,000 inhabitants is to be built on both banks of the tea. The project includes a restructuring of around 30 km² of building land.
Middlesbrough is located at the intersection of highway-like -developed A-roads A19 ( Newcastle - Doncaster ) and A66 ( Workington - Grangetown ). Other A-roads in the city are the A171, A172, A174, A178, A1032, A1044, A1085 and A1130.
Middlesbrough Station is served by Northern Rail and TransPennine Express . TransPennine has rail links to Leeds , York , Liverpool and Manchester . Northern connects Middlesbrough with Darlington (connection to the East Coast Main Line with direct connections to London ), with Saltburn via Redcar and with Whitby via the Esk Valley Line, which is well worth seeing .
Bus traffic is particularly well developed: several companies operate both inner-city routes and overland connections to Sunderland , Stockton-on-Tees , Darlington and Newcastle . National Express and Megabus offer long-distance bus routes to destinations across the British Isles.
The Durham Tees Valley Airport is about 15 kilometers west of the city, on the A66 (exit Long Newton) distance. It also has a train stop on the route to Darlington.
A transport specialty is the Middlesbrough transporter ferry , which is the last crossing over the Tees before it flows into the North Sea. She is one of the last two suspension ferries still in service in the UK. A trip across the river takes 90 seconds.
Middlesbrough has been a university town since Teesside University was founded in 1992. The university specializes in the field of computer animation and has around 20,000 students. It holds the so-called Animex International Festival of Animation and Computer Games every year . In addition to the university, Middlesbrough College also offers higher education . It is attended by around 16,000 students. There are also a number of other so-called secondary schools that offer further education after elementary school.
Sons and daughters of the town:
- James Cook (1728–1779), navigator and explorer
- Ernest William Hornung (1866–1921), writer
- Adrian Warburton (1918–1944), Royal Air Force reconnaissance pilot
- Kathleen Winifred Hughes (1926–1977), historian
- Don Revie (1927–1989), football player and coach
- Peter Townsend (1928–2009), social scientist
- Marion Ryan (1931-1999), singer
- Brian Clough (1935-2004), football player and coach
- Patrick Durkin (1936–2009), actor and reciter
- Michael Bernard McPartland (1939-2017), Roman Catholic priest
- Pete York (born 1942), drummer
- Ron Aspery (1943-2003), saxophonist
- Wendy Richard (1943–2009), actress
- Denis Neale (* 1944), table tennis player
- Paul Doherty (* 1946), writer and teacher
- Tony Hicks (1948-2006), drummer
- Sid Barras (* 1948), racing cyclist
- Paul Rodgers (born 1949), musician
- Micky Moody (born 1950), guitarist
- Chris Rea (* 1951), singer, musician, composer and guitarist
- Peter Whiteside (1952–2020), modern pentathlon
- Peter Trewavas (* 1959), musician
- Greg Clark (* 1967), politician
- Mike Waters (* 1967), South African politician
- Glen Durrant (* 1970), dart player (BDO)
- Mike Dunn (* 1971), snooker player
- Graeme Murty (born 1974), football player
- Jamie Parker (* 1979), film and stage actor
- Jonathan Woodgate (born 1980), football player
- Christopher Tomlinson (* 1981), athlete
- Stewart Downing (born 1984), football player
- Chris Hogg (born 1985), soccer player
- Matt Jarvis (* 1986), soccer player
- James Arthur (* 1988), singer
- David Daniell (* 1989), track cyclist
- Dael Fry (born 1997), English football player
- Mid 2018 Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
- Census 2001 Key Statistics. (XLS; 934 KB) Urban areas in England and Wales KS01 Usual resident population. In: Reference table. Office for National Statistics (ONS), June 17, 2004, accessed October 3, 2013 (English, UK population, line 565).
- Middlesbrough Parish information from Bulmers' 1890 . GENUKI. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- Northern Echo of February 23, 1870 "Middlesbrough has sometimes been designated the Ironopolis of the North."
- Journal of Social History, Volume 37, No. 3 (Spring, 2004), p. 746 "Middlesbrough never ceased to be Ironopolis .."
- Youngs, Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Volume 2
- Captain Cook Birthplace Museum
- Stockton-Middlesbrough Initiative ( Memento of February 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- The City website (English)