The domestic pig is one of the longest domesticated pets in the history of human civilization and is kept almost exclusively for meat production. As an omnivore, it used to be used to recycle kitchen waste, but this is now prohibited in many countries for reasons of hygiene. In rural areas, pigs are sometimes still kept outside of farms today, but these are exceptions due to restrictions on home slaughter . Today around half of the pork produced worldwide comes from intensive animal husbandry .
The greatest producers
According to the food and agriculture organization FAO, around 121 million tons of pork were produced worldwide in 2018 .
The following table gives an overview of the twenty largest producers of pork worldwide, which produced 88.8% of the total.
(in t )
|1||People's Republic of China||54.037.400||11||Philippines||1,873,063|
Germany had an export surplus of 229,364 tons of pork in 2016. (The import of pork was 808,295 tons, the export was 1,037,659 tons of meat.) 15,542,605 live pigs were imported to Germany for fattening and 2,464,606 animals were exported.
While the Germans exported almost five percent less to EU countries in 2015, exports to China grew by 17 percent to 379,000 tons compared to the previous year. With 13.3 percent of German pork exports and around 386,000 tons, Italy was the main buyer in 2015.
EU exports totaled around 2.4 million tonnes in the first eight months of 2018. Exports to China and South Korea are constantly increasing . China is the EU's main customer. In 2017, Switzerland exported 2,228 tons of pork, 18,902 tons of slaughter by-products and 44 tons of meat preparations. Switzerland too wants to deliver pig feet , ears , tails and snouts to China in the future . The free trade agreement between Switzerland and China serves as the basis . Swiss Nutrivalor, a subsidiary of Centravo , received approval in 2019 to export pork products to China. In 2019, the degree of self-sufficiency in Switzerland was 93 percent.
In 2018, pork with a total value of around 24.1 billion euros was traded across borders worldwide. The USA was the most important international export country in terms of export value, just ahead of Germany and Spain. A look at the ten most important export countries shows that the majority of the pork traded internationally comes from EU countries and North America.
|#||country||Exports (in € million)|
The following table gives an overview of the ten largest consumers of pork worldwide (in kg / person / year).
|rank||country||kg / head / year|
Between 1998 and 2013, worldwide pork consumption was at a relatively constant level of 15 kilograms per capita per year. In 1961 it was still 8 kg. Austria had the highest per capita pork consumption of the EU countries in 2013 with 52.56 kilograms per capita.
In 2018, pork consumption in Switzerland was 21.6 kilograms per capita.
Eating undercooked or undercooked pork carries the risk of infection with the hepatitis E virus. The disease of Hepatitis E usually takes place without symptoms in Europe, but can also show serious symptoms. Around every sixth European has already been infected with genotype 3, which is common there. Immunocompromised people guesses the Robert Koch Institute from the consumption of raw, just ripened and adobe house and wild boar products such as ground pork and short-ripened raw sausages (z. B. fresh sausage) and not least, heated to 70 ° C domestic and wild boar meat from. Genotypes 1 and 2, which are widespread in southern countries, are mainly ingested through faecal contamination when eating and drinking.
Religious pork bans
The consumption of pork is forbidden in both the Jewish and Islamic dietary laws . In addition, pork is avoided by the seven-day Adventists , Rastafarians and members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church .
Social debate about the offer of alternative dishes in public canteens
- Denmark : In January 2016, the city council of the Danish city of Randers sparked a “meatball war”. It was decided that pork should also be offered in the public canteens.
- Germany : The CDU parliamentary group leader in Schleswig-Holstein, Daniel Günther, filed an application against a pork ban, as more and more canteens, daycare centers and schools were taking pork out of their offer in order to take Muslim customs into account. Integration does not work if the majority adapts to a minority in advance obedience . The CDU is not planning a “pork obligation”. The operators put forward mainly practical arguments: Cooking pork-free for only some of the children is too complicated.
- France : The school canteens in France have had so-called substitute dishes for over 30 years when pork is part of the daily special. In 2016, some mayors tried to ban these alternative courts for Muslims and Jews, insofar as this was not religiously neutral. Ex-President Nicolas Sarkozy supports this: The constitutionally anchored "principle of secularity" prohibits a division of the school menus according to religion.
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- Out of consideration for Muslims, more and more schools and daycare centers are doing without pork - this is now causing a dispute