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Crna Gora
Црна Гора
Flag of Montenegro
Coat of arms of Montenegro
flag coat of arms
Official language Montenegrin 1
Capital Podgorica
State and form of government parliamentary republic
Head of state President Milo Đukanović
Head of government Prime Minister Zdravko Krivokapić
surface 13,812 km²
population 622,000 ( 163rd ) (2019)
Population density 46 inhabitants per km²
Population development 0.0% (estimate for 2019)
gross domestic product
  • Total (nominal)
  • Total ( PPP )
  • GDP / inh. (nom.)
  • GDP / inh. (KKP)
  • $ 5.5 billion ( 152. )
  • $ 14 billion ( 152. )
  • 8,826 USD ( 76. )
  • 22,348 USD ( 67. )
Human Development Index 0.829 ( 48th ) (2019)
currency Euro (EUR) 2
independence July 13, 1878
(from the Ottoman Empire )

June 3, 2006
(from Serbia and Montenegro )

National anthem Oj svijetla majska zoro
National holiday July 13 (confirmation of independence by the Berlin Congress in 1878 )
Time zone UTC + 1 CET
UTC + 2 CEST (March to October)
License Plate MNE
ISO 3166 ME , MNE, 499
Internet TLD .me
Phone code +382
1Regionally also Serbian , Bosnian , Albanian and Croatian
2 Unilaterally as foreign currency transferred and not the European Monetary Union involved
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Montenegro ( Montenegrin or Bosnian / Croatian / Serbian  Црна Гора / Crna Gora [ ˈt͡sr̩naː ˈɡɔra ], Albanian  Mali i Zi ) is a republic on the southeastern Adriatic coast in southeastern Europe . The Montenegrin national territory borders in the northwest on Croatia (25 km), Bosnia and Herzegovina (225 km) and in the northeast on Serbia (124.4 km), in the southeast on Kosovo (78.6 km) and in the south on Albania (172 km). On June 3, 2006, Montenegro became independent again; it had previously been part of Yugoslavia since 1920 .

The Balkan state with about 625,000 inhabitants and an area of 13,812 square kilometers, one of the smaller states of Europe - slightly smaller than Schleswig-Holstein . The capital and largest city is Podgorica , the second largest city is Nikšić . The main industries are the service sector and tourism , especially on the Montenegrin coast .

Montenegro is a member of the United Nations , the WTO , the OSCE , the Council of Europe and NATO . Montenegro is a candidate for accession to the European Union ; it uses the euro as its currency .



Montenegro, from Venetian montagna negra, means "Black Mountain". The self-designation Crna Gora can mean "black mountains", "black wooded mountains" or "black forest".


Oro-Mediterranean step on the glacial Pazua ridge (Velje leto) in Orjen. Habitat for the Crimean peony and the Orjen iris .
Montane fir-beech and subalpine maple-beech forests of the Bijela gora . Black pine in the left foreground
A betony of the Illyrian flora province in the sub-Adriatic Orjen (on Betonica serotina see left)

In a European comparison, Montenegro is a relatively sparsely populated, wooded mountainous country in the southeastern part of the Dinaric Mountains . The inaccessible high mountains are divided by steep, forbidding canyons . The Tara Gorge is the deepest gorge in Europe. Therefore, only the valley of the Lim, which is characterized by numerous widenings, is more densely populated.

Only in the southeast is Montenegro characterized by lowlands. Its most fertile areas lie in the cryptodepression of Lake Skadar and the lowlands of the lower Morača and Cijevna ; Among other things, the typical red wine Vranac is grown there.

The numerous poljes are of particular importance . Nikšić Polje is the largest and most densely populated. In addition to the typically Central European beech, fir and spruce forests of Central Montenegro, which are among the most species-rich forests in Europe with their abundance of trees (including the endemic-relictic tree species Greek maple , snake skin pine , Rumelian pine and tree Hazel ), Mediterranean hardwood forests with stone oak and Macedonian oak are also represented. At Skadar Lake there are typical alluvial forests with English oaks and softwood meadows. The primeval forests of the national parks at Durmitor and Biogradsko jezero in Belasica are a retreat and habitat for predators such as wolf, brown bear and lynx .

The country can be divided into three main landscape areas from southwest to northeast:

  • the steep coastline on the Mediterranean Sea ( Adriatic Sea ) with the historic Mediterranean coastal towns, divided by bays (e.g. Bay of Kotor ) ,
  • the barren and waterless high karst plateau Altmontenegros ( Rudine , Banjani and the Katunska nahija with the highest coastal mountains in Dalmatia, the Orjen with the Zubački kabao ( 1894  m ) and the Lovćen ). Here only a few poljen offer some agriculturally usable soil ( Grahovo , Cetinje ),
  • as well as the repellent north Montenegrin high mountain region, deeply divided by canyons (Tara Canyon, Piva Canyon). Here are the highest peaks of Montenegro and the entire Dinaric Mountains, the Prokletijemassif with the highest elevation in the country, the Zla Kolata ( 2534  m ) and the Durmitor massif with the Bobotov Kuk ( 2522  m ). The Durmitor ( Debeli namet glacier ) and especially in the Prokletije (Jezerce Spitze, Zla Kolata, Karanfil) are the only mountain ranges on the Balkan Peninsula with numerous firn fields and smaller glaciers (up to 350 m long and 300 hectares in size) all year round. In the Pleistocene cold phases, Montenegro was the most heavily glaciated area in southern Europe. New Quaternary research on geological events during the Ice Age in the Southeast Dinarides has proven a previously suspected massive glaciation of Montenegro during the Mindel Ice Age . Even in the sub-Adriatic Orjen, an ice sheet of up to 400 m thickness and the presence of numerous outlet glaciers that reached as far as the edge of the Bay of Kotor on the Adriatic coast have been documented for the Mindel epoch . As a result of the large glaciation, the high mountains of Montenegro are typically characterized by forms of glacial morphology such as glacial lakes, moraines, trough valleys, steep walls and karlingen. To this day they are also a retreat for the Ice Age flora, such as the Ice Age relics silver arum ( Dryas octopetala ) and edelweiss ( Leontopodium alpinum ). The occurrence of Dryas has even been documented on the Bijela gora not far from the Adriatic coast, where mostly Mediterranean high mountain plants are found.



Distribution of ethnic groups by municipalities in 2011
Population pyramid of Montenegro 2016

The population of Montenegro, like that of many countries in Southeastern Europe, is multiethnic. In the 2011 census, 278,865 people or 44.98% of the population described themselves as Montenegrins , 178,110 or 28.73% as Serbs , 53,605 or 8.65% as Bosniaks , 30,439 or 4.91% as Albanians , 20,537 or 3.31 % % as Muslims (in the ethnic sense), 6251 or 1.01% as Roma , 6021 or 0.97% as Croats and 47,513 or 7.68% stated another nationality or no nationality or stated no data at all.

The Serbs make up the majority of the population, especially in areas in northern Montenegro on the border with Serbia and on the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina . In the coastal town of Herceg Novi they make up the majority of the population. The Bosniaks and Slavic Muslims live mainly in the northeast, around Plav and Rožaje in the triangle of Serbia, Kosovo and Albania . Another minority are the Albanians, who mainly live in the areas along the border with Albania and Kosovo. In the municipality of Ulcinj they make up the majority of the population with 71 percent (2011 census).

There are also displaced persons living in Montenegro who are not included in the census because they have refugee status. These are 6,926 mostly Serbian refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina and 16,137 refugees from Kosovo (mostly Roma and Serbs).

According to the UN, life expectancy in Montenegro between 2010 and 2015 was 76.4 years (men: 74.0 years, women: 78.8 years).


According to the constitution of October 19, 2007 , the official languages ​​of Montenegro are Montenegrin , Serbian , Bosnian , Albanian and Croatian . Article 11 of the Minorities Act passed on May 11, 2006, on the other hand, allows the use of minority languages ​​as official languages ​​only in municipalities in which the minority in question constitutes the majority or a significant part of the population , which gives the Montenegrin authorities a certain amount of leeway. The Minorities Act of the Union of States of Serbia and Montenegro, passed in 2002, stipulated that the proportion of a minority in the total population of a municipality had to be at least 15 percent according to the last census in order for their language to be recognized as the official language at municipality level.

Both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets are in use. Especially in the tourist coastal regions, the Cyrillic is increasingly being replaced by the Latin script.

There are different opinions among the population regarding the name of the language as well as regarding the nationality. In the 2011 census, 42.9 percent of the population gave Serbian and 37 percent Montenegrin as their mother tongue . Bosnian and Albanian each made up 5.3 percent as mother tongue.

According to a 2014 survey of 1001 people, respondents named the language they spoke as follows:

  • 41.1% Montenegrin
  • 39.1% Serbian
  • 11.5% Montenegrin and Serbian (same language, no matter how it is called)
  • 3.7% Bosnian
  • 3.5% Serbo-Croatian
  • 1.1% Croatian


Serbian Orthodox Resurrection Cathedral in Podgorica , largest Orthodox church in Montenegro
Mosque in Dacići above Rožaje

72 percent of the population of Montenegro belong to the Serbian Orthodox Church , of which Amfilohije Radović is the Metropolitan . (→ List of Bishops of Montenegro ) There is also the ecumenical , autocephalous Church of Montenegro, founded in 1993 and canonically not recognized by the Orthodox Church . In addition to the Orthodox believers, there is a Muslim - Sunni minority, around 16 percent of the population, and several thousand Catholics , mainly Croatians and Albanians , especially in the coastal cities . Members of various Protestant communities each have fewer than 1,000 members. Since the beginning of 2012, Judaism has been the country's fourth official religion. There is a Jewish community of about two hundred members.

Population development

year population
1950 395,000
1960 487,000
1970 520,000
1980 581,000
1990 615,000
2000 614,000
2010 624,000
2017 629,000

Source: UN


The border situation in the Balkans in 1912 before the outbreak of the Balkan Wars

As a principality and a kingdom

From the end of the 15th century, the princes of the Crnojević family resided in Cetinje . From 1516 Prince-Bishops ( Vladika ) ruled the Principality of Montenegro . Until the middle of the 19th century, they were both the spiritual and secular heads of the Montenegrins. Large parts of today's Montenegro belonged at least formally to the Ottoman Empire until 1878 . With the resolutions of the Berlin Congress , the internationally recognized independent Principality of Montenegro was created , which was upgraded to the Kingdom of Montenegro in 1910 . King Nikola , who has ruled as prince since 1860, was on the side of Serbia and thus of the Entente at the beginning of the First World War in summer 1914 . In January 1916 Austria-Hungary conquered Montenegro in a short campaign , which was followed by a two-year period of occupation .

Member State of Yugoslavia

Flag of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (1946-1993)

When the Central Powers collapsed in autumn 1918 and the First World War ended, the king was overthrown by a decision of the National Assembly in November 1918 and Montenegro was incorporated into the newly formed Kingdom of Yugoslavia , initially as the Province of Montenegro, from 1929 as part of the Banschaft Zeta . During the Second World War, after the military defeat of Yugoslavia by German troops, from 1941 onwards, Montenegro was re-established as the Italian puppet state of the Independent State of Montenegro . After the Second World War, Montenegro became one of the six republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now including the area around the Bay of Kotor , but without the area around the city of Peć in Kosovo, which was briefly part of Montenegro from 1913 ) . The constitution of Yugoslavia, to which Montenegro belonged at the time, of 1946 for the first time guaranteed full legal, economic and social equality of the sexes, including the right to vote for women .

Road to independence

Majority at community level Referendum 2006:
Yes (> 55%_, 50-55% _),
No (> 55%_, 50-55% _)

The referendum on the future status of Montenegro held in 1992 after Croatia and Slovenia left the state union decided on Montenegro's remaining in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. 95.65% or 266,273 voters were in favor of remaining in Yugoslavia and 3.14% or 8,755 voters in favor of detachment. The turnout was 66.04% or 278,382 of a total of 421,529 eligible voters.

After the wars in Yugoslavia in the 1990s, the differences between Montenegro and Serbia increased because the people of Montenegro no longer wanted to bear the isolation and the burden of the war. The government of Prime Minister Đukanović, who had been in power since the early 1990s, sought to break away from Serbia. Only under pressure from the European Union did Montenegro refrain from secession in 2002 and agreed with Serbia on the establishment of a loose association of two independent states called Serbia and Montenegro .

With reference to the wars in Yugoslavia, the then Montenegrin President Milo Đukanović apologized several times for the participation of Montenegrin soldiers in the Croatian war . In 2005, the first payments as compensation for looting and devastation in Croatia were agreed (see also: International conflicts of the successor states of Yugoslavia ).

On May 21, 2006, a referendum on the independence of the state of Montenegro was finally held. The government and the opposition had agreed on this after a long dispute. Most recently, both of them accepted the EU's proposal , which required a 55 percent majority of voters with a turnout of at least 50 percent for independence . With a turnout of 86.39% or 419,240 out of a total of 485,280 registered voters in 2006, the necessary 55 percent majority was just exceeded with a result of 55.49% (230,661). 44.51% or 185,002 voted no and were in favor of Montenegro remaining on the side of Serbia in the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.

OSCE election observers described the legal framework for the referendum as “largely in line with international standards for electoral processes”. However, the opposition criticized the fact that the right to vote was linked to the primary residence of the potential voter, as a result of which around 250,000 Montenegrins with permanent residence in Serbia were excluded from the referendum, out of a total of only 484,718 registered voters.

Croatia and the UN congratulated Montenegro on independence the day after the decisive election. On June 3, 2006, this was carried out through the declaration of independence by the Montenegrin parliament. As the legal successor state of Serbia and Montenegro, the Republic of Serbia recognized Montenegro as an independent state on June 15, 2006; Serbia had already formally declared itself independent on June 5, 2006.

The Orjen, the highest coastal mountains of the Dinarides
Vineyard near Lake Skadar

Path of Euro-Atlantic Integration

Montenegro has been trying to join the European Union since independence . As a first step, a Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) was signed with the EU on October 15, 2007 . On December 15, 2008, the application for EU membership was officially submitted by the Montenegrin Prime Minister Milo Đukanović in Brussels.

After the European Commission had confirmed that the requirements were met in November 2010 , the European heads of state and government decided on December 17, 2010 to grant Montenegro candidate status. In its annual progress report on the candidate countries of October 12, 2011, the EU Commission proposed starting accession negotiations with Montenegro. In order to join the EU, Montenegro must press ahead with its reforms, strengthen freedom of the press and strive for better cooperation in the Balkan region. In particular, the status of Kosovo must be assessed uniformly. On June 26, 2012, the European Council decided to start concrete accession negotiations, which were officially started three days later. The European Commission (as of February 2018) considers accession to be possible by 2025.

Montenegro also tried to join NATO . In April 2008, the heads of state and government of the NATO member states decided to open accession negotiations with Montenegro at their summit in Bucharest. On December 3, 2009, the foreign ministers of the NATO member states officially declared Montenegro a candidate country at their meeting in Brussels; they did not mention a possible date of joining. At its summit meeting in Wales in 2014, NATO announced that it would decide on membership by the end of 2015 at the latest. On December 2, 2015, NATO officially invited Montenegro to join. The Accession Protocol was signed on April 19, 2016; On June 5, 2017, Montenegro became the 29th member state of NATO. On October 16, 2016, an armed group of Serbs and Russians broke into the government building in Podgorica; In 2019, the attackers received prison sentences of up to 15 years. After Albania and Croatia joined NATO, Montenegro was the only non-NATO country on the Adriatic and was therefore strategically important for Russia.


Administrative structure

Outline map of the Montenegrin municipalities

Montenegro is divided into 24 municipalities ( opštine , Sg. Opština ), with Nikšić by area and Podgorica by population being the largest.

See also: List of municipalities in Montenegro

Biggest cities


From the early parliamentary elections in October 2002, the alliance “Democratic List for a European Montenegro”, which was led by the ruling Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), emerged victorious. It received almost 48% of the vote and thus the absolute majority of the seats in the Parliament of Montenegro . The Socialist People's Party (SNP), which spoke out in favor of maintaining the state alliance with Serbia, achieved a good 38% with its alliance “Coalition for Change”.

On July 12, 2004, the Montenegrin government decided to replace the previous flag of Montenegro with a traditional one, as well as the introduction of the new national anthem Oj svijetla majska zoro . The text of the new anthem, which is causing controversy, comes from Sekula Drljević and was written in 1937.

Top politicians of the ruling DPS party have long been pleading for the independence of Montenegro, which Serbia and the European Union rejected. Under massive pressure from the EU, an agreement was reached in 2003 according to which Montenegro should remain in a joint confederation with Serbia until 2006, but then hold a referendum on the dissolution of the confederation.

On September 10, 2006, the first parliamentary elections after the declaration of independence took place, which the coalition of DPS (33 seats, Democratic Party of Socialists) / SDP (five seats, Social Democratic Party) / BP (three seats, Bosniak Party) / LDP (three Seats, Albanian party) with 44 of the total of 80 parliamentary seats. The opposition parties accounted for: Serbian list with SNS (Serbian People's Party), SRS (Serbian Radical Party, Vojislav Šešelj), DSJ (Democratic Unity Party) and NSS CG (People's Socialist Party of Montenegro) twelve parliamentary seats. SNP (Socialist People's Party) eight seats, NS (People's Party) and DSS (Democratic-Serbian Party) three seats, PZP (Movement for Changes) - Nebojša Medojević eleven seats, Democratic Union of Montenegrins and Albanian Alternative each have one seat Turnout was around 70%.

On October 19, 2007, for the first time since 1905, a constitution for an independent Montenegrin state was passed and solemnly promulgated three days later. Their decision was one of the most important points that the European side had imposed on the Balkan state for further integration into the Euro-Atlantic structures. It not only regulates the use of the official languages, but also unbundles the problems surrounding the residents' dual citizenship of Montenegro and Serbia.

On April 6, 2008, the first presidential election since independence took place. The current incumbent Filip Vujanović was the winner of the election . He was re-elected on April 7, 2013 .

In the parliamentary election on October 16, 2016 , the ruling DPS was again the strongest force, but clearly missed an absolute majority. On November 29, 2016, the new Marković government met.

With 76.64%, the 2020 election had the highest turnout since the split from Serbia in 2006. The electoral alliance Za budućnost Crne Gore received 32.55% of the vote and thus 27 seats in parliament, six more than before. The Demokratska Partija Socijalista Crne Gore of President Đukanović won the most votes with 35.06%, but lost six seats in parliament. This was the first time that the ruling coalition had lost a majority in parliament. Krivokapić announced the coalition's victory shortly after the polling stations closed and before the final election results were published, but the composition of the new government was not clear until December 4th.


The longtime Montenegrin Prime Minister and President Milo Đukanović

(Official seat in Cetinje )

prime minister

  • Milo Đukanović (February 1991 to February 1998)
  • Filip Vujanović (February 1998 to January 2003)
  • Milo Đukanović (January 2003 to November 2006)
  • Željko Šturanović (November 2006 to February 2008)
  • Milo Đukanović (February 2008 to December 2010)
  • Igor Lukšić (December 2010 to December 2012)
  • Milo Đukanović (December 2012 to November 2016)
  • Duško Marković (November 2016 to December 2020)
  • Zdravko Krivokapić (since December 2020)

Political indices

Political indices
Name of the index Index value Worldwide rank Interpretation aid year
Fragile States Index 55.5 out of 120 124 of 178 Stability of the country: stable
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
Democracy index 5.77 out of 10 81 of 167 Hybrid regime
0 = authoritarian regime / 10 = complete democracy
Freedom in the World Index 62 of 100 - Freedom status: partially free
0 = not free / 100 = free
Freedom of the press ranking 33.83 out of 100 105 of 180 Recognizable problems for the freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 45 of 100 67 of 180 0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean 2020

State budget

The national debt in 2009 was about 1.66 billion US dollars or 36% of GDP .

In 2011 the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was in the following areas:



The Montenegrin armed forces consist of the army , the navy and the air force . The Montenegrin army emerged in May 2006 from the army corps of the joint Serbian-Montenegrin army stationed in Podgorica . The joint navy was taken over by Montenegro, but is to be reduced to a small coast guard . The Montenegrin Army has 61 T-55 tanks, which have been decommissioned for cost reasons, and around 300 artillery pieces . The workforce is 6500, and further cuts are to be expected. The German Bundeswehr trains, among other things. also the Montenegrin military.


With the break-up of Yugoslavia, the Montenegrin government expanded the Montenegrin police into a substitute paramilitary army. The number of police officers had increased from 10,000 to 15,000 in the spring of 1999. Today the civil police in Montenegro, headed by a police headquarters ( Uprava policije ) in Podgorica, has around 5,200 employees.


Since the 1990s, Montenegro has been a center of international cigarette smuggling , among other things . The opposition sees the involvement of former Prime Minister Ðukanović in smuggling as a reason for his campaign for independence. In this regard, the Prime Minister of Montenegro Milo Đukanović, after taking office again at the end of March 2008, voluntarily surrendered to the investigating officials in Bari , Italy. The survey comprised around 80 questions. An agreement with the court in Bari, which preceded Đukanović's voluntary answer to the questions, prevented the content of the survey from being published. The survey should have taken place the previous summer in 2007, but was only carried out at the end of March after Milo Đukanović was reappointed prime minister after his party colleague had to resign after just one year due to illness.

Even today, Montenegro is increasingly concerned with smuggling narcotics , cigarettes, weapons , people , stolen vehicles from the EU and unsolved contract killings of organized crime . An example of this is the unsolved murder of Duško Jovanović , editor-in-chief of the government-critical newspaper Dan , who was shot on the night of May 24th to 25th, 2004. The trial of a prime suspect was suspended in late 2006 for lack of evidence.

The chief investigator Slavoljub Šćekić was murdered on August 30, 2005 in connection with the murder of Duško Jovanović and the murder of high police officers Goran Žugić and Darko Beli Rapopović. Investigations have so far led to no trace, an indictment against the same suspect as in the murder case Duško Jovanović has been dropped due to a lack of evidence.

Furthermore, the EU and other international organizations criticize the crushing corruption in the state apparatus, which is disproportionately large for the small country and has not been restructured since the 1990s.

On September 11, 2006, the media reported the two days earlier in the Adlerflug ( Orlov let ) police operation of 15 members of a terrorist and criminal organization that was also operating in Albania and Kosovo, in the Albanian-majority community of Tuzi. In the subsequent trial, she was sentenced to a total of 51 years in prison. In addition to the arrests, a large number of small arms including ammunition, hand grenades, bazookas and anti-tank mines were seized in several hiding places in caves and pits in the Tuzi municipality. In 2010, the shelter for the drug trafficker Darko Šarić , who is on the run in Serbia, was dug.

Human rights

Organized crime is the biggest human rights problem in Montenegro.

When Montenegro was granted official EU candidate status in 2010, the European Commission noted that the need to fight organized crime, improve the situation of displaced persons and guarantee freedom of expression remained. Amnesty International still considers the human rights situation to be problematic in 2011: journalists and some non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were intimidated. Members of the Roma are denied still social and economic rights. However, the prosecution of war crimes is ongoing.

Right to freedom of expression

Journalists and some NGOs have been and are subjected to threats and intimidation , according to Amnesty International . In 2010, government officials brought libel lawsuits against journalists, which resulted in the conviction of heavy fines. In some cases, these were above the statutory maximum of 14,000 euros. In June 2010 amendments to the Freedom of Information Act were introduced by the government. According to NGOs and journalists, these restrict both the right to freedom of expression and access to information.

In October 2010, the attorney general declined to inform the human rights organization Human Rights Action of the progress of 14 criminal proceedings that the organization had inquired about. These included death threats against Aleksandar Zekovic, a member of the Citizens Control Committee.

Minority protection

Members of the Roma are denied social and economic rights. In the absence of adequate accommodation, many of them live in precarious conditions. In October 2010, two Roma girls were killed in a makeshift settlement on a garbage dump near Lovanja when their house made of roofing felt caught fire.

In July 2010, an anti-discrimination law was passed that contains, among other things, clauses to protect homosexual, bisexual and transgender people. The law had not yet entered into force at the end of 2010.


Main trading partner (2013)
Export to Import of
Serbia € 133.5 million Serbia € 505.9 million
Croatia € 59.5 million Greece € 149.8 million
Slovenia € 36 million People's Republic of China € 142.8 million
Source: MONSTAT 2014
Main trading partner (2010)
Export to Import of
Serbia 23% Serbia 26%
Greece 17% Bosnia and Herzegovina 8th %
Italy 15% Germany, Greece 7% each
Bosnia 7% Italy 6%
Slovenia 6% Croatia 5%
other countries 32% other countries 41%
EU countries 56% EU countries 38%
Source: Fischer Weltalmanach 2012

The service sector generated by far the largest share of GDP in 2011 with 88% (or 73% of employees), followed by industry with 11% (or 23%) and the agricultural sector with 1% (or 6% of employees) .

The most important mineral resources include bauxite (main export good), iron ore and lignite ; In industry , tobacco , aluminum and salt processing are important branches of production. In agriculture , vegetables, cereals, potatoes , tobacco, wine , citrus fruits , olives and figs are mainly grown.

In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Montenegro ranks 77th out of 137 countries (2017-2018). In 2017, the country was ranked 83rd out of 180 countries in the index for economic freedom .

The hotel island Sveti Stefan


In 1999, the German mark was introduced as the currency . With the conversion of the German mark to the euro as the national currency is the since 2002 Euro used. Since the country does not participate in the European Monetary Union , it does not have the right to mint its own euro coins.

At the end of 2005, for the first time since 1913, own stamps were issued again.


The tourism plays a vital role in Montenegro. 21% of the gross domestic product is generated by it. According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), Montenegro has been one of the three fastest growing travel countries worldwide for years.

State budget

The state budget included expenditures in 2016 of the equivalent of 1.63 billion US dollars , which were income equivalent to 1.56 billion US dollar against. This results in a budget deficit of 1.7% of GDP .

The national debt was 71.3% of GDP in 2016.


Transport network of Montenegro


Standard gauge lines

By Montenegro runs north through Podgorica to the main Montenegrin port of Bar which is important for the Balkan Belgrade-Bar railway . It is a predominantly single-track line that is electrified throughout. It was only put into continuous operation in 1976 and is considered to be one of the most spectacular mountain railways with numerous tunnels and bridges, including the Mala-Rijeka Viaduct , which at 198 meters above ground is the highest railway bridge in Europe and the second highest in the world.

There are also two further routes from Podgorica to Nikšić and via Shkodra to Tirana ( Albania ).

The operator of the Montenegrin railways is Željeznica Crne Gore (ŽCG).

Narrow gauge lines

There used to be a narrow-gauge connection from Nikšić via Trebinje ( Bosnia and Herzegovina ) to the Sarajevo – Mostar – Ploče railway line . There are considerations to restore the connection in standard gauge.

The Antivari Railway , also no longer in operation, was the first railway line in Montenegro. It was a narrow-gauge railway (750 mm gauge) from Bar (Italian: Antivari) on the Adriatic Sea to Virpazar on Lake Skadar.

Air traffic

There are two international airports in the country, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport .

The only scheduled airline based in Montenegro, Montenegro Airlines , was liquidated at the end of 2020.


Ferry in the Bay of Kotor (September 2018)

The country has an important seaport in Bar . From here ferries run several times a week to Bari and Ancona in Italy .

In order to shorten the travel time around the Bay of Kotor , there is a ferry connection between the villages of Kamenari and Lepetane that runs several times a day.

Road traffic

A road tunnel near the Tara gorge

In 2005, the 4.1 kilometer Sozina road tunnel (toll road) created an important connection between Podgorica and Sutomore (southern coastal region between Budva and Bar ), which reduced travel time by around half an hour (the journey via the coastal road through Traffic jams can be very time-consuming). Tivat Airport can benefit from a similar situation thanks to the Vrmac tunnel . These two projects primarily benefit tourism , but also improve the connection between the coastal area and the capital Podgorica. A crossing of the Bay of Kotor is also planned with the Verige Bridge .

The country does not yet have any motorways, but three routes are in the planning phase, the Bar – Boljare motorway as a connection with Serbia , the Grahovo – Božaj motorway as the Montenegrin part of the Adriatic-Ionian motorway and the Andrijevica – Čakor motorway as a connection to Kosovo . In addition, two expressway connections, the Herceg Novi – Ulcinj expressway and the Plužine – Podgorica expressway , are to be realized.

From July 15, 2008 to December 31, 2011 it was necessary to pay the Eko Naknada environmental fee in the form of a vignette. The vignette for this de facto toll was valid for twelve months from the date of purchase and cost 10 euros for a car, for example.


Petar Petrović-Njegoš

Prince Petar II. Petrović-Njegoš is repeatedly mentioned as the greatest poet in Montenegro . This is still highly venerated today with a mausoleum on Mount Lovćen .


On January 25, 2007, Montenegro became the 53rd member of the European Football Association, UEFA, and on May 31, 2007, of FIFA . Admission to the European Handball Federation took place on August 7, 2006.

The sport of water polo , which is mainly played in small coastal towns, is highly regarded in Montenegro . In their first participation in a European championship , the national team won the title in Malaga on July 13, 2008 after extra time with 6: 5 against Serbia.

The women's national handball team also won the title at the European Championship in Serbia on December 16, 2012 . In the final, they defeated the Norwegian women, who had been overpowering for years, in overtime with 34:31.

See also: Montenegro national football team ; Montenegrin men's national handball team

The tour of Montenegro has been taking place for many years with participants from many countries and the Montenegrin Profiline team. This “Putevima Kralja Nikole” or “Paths of King Nikola” cycling race is the largest national cycling event.

public holidays

date description annotation
January 1st New Year New Year according to the Gregorian calendar
6th January Orthodox Christmas Christmas (December 24th) according to the Julian calendar
January 7th Orthodox Christmas Day Christmas Day (December 25th) according to the Julian calendar
January 14th Orthodox New Year New Year according to the Julian calendar
17th April Orthodox Good Friday Date only for 2020 (see Easter date )
April 19th Orthodox Easter Date only for 2020 (see Easter date)
20th of April Orthodox Easter Monday Date only for 2020 (see Easter date)
1st of May Labor Day
May 9th day of the victory End of the Second World War in Europe in 1945
May 21 Independence day Independence referendum day 2006
July 13th Statehood Day National holiday

See also

Portal: Montenegro  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of Montenegro


in order of appearance

  • Moses Paić, Johann Heinrich Scherb: Cèrnagora. A comprehensive description of the country and the inhabitants of Cèrnagora (Montenegro) . Suppan, Agram 1851 ( digitized version ).
  • Jens Becker, Achim Engelberg (ed.): Montenegro in transition. Reports and essays . Westphalian steam boat, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-89691-546-0 .
  • Walter Lukan et al. (Ed.): Serbia and Montenegro. Space and population - history - language and literature - culture - politics - society - economy - law . LIT, Münster 2006, ISBN 3-8258-9539-4 .
  • Elizabeth Roberts: Realm of the Black Mountain. A History of Montenegro . Ithaca 2007, ISBN 978-0-8014-4601-6 .
  • Reinhold Fleischhacker: Montenegro - the rediscovered paradise. A travel almanac . USP, Oberhaching 2008, ISBN 978-3-937461-26-7 .
  • Katrin Boeckh: Serbia - Montenegro. Past and present . Pustet, Regensburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7917-2169-9 .
  • Uğur Özcan: II. Abdülhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri (Ottoman-Montenegrin political relations in the time of Abdülhamid II ). Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2013, ISBN 978-975-16-2527-4 .
  • Renovabis (ed.): Small country with a great history - Montenegro . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-7917-2958-9 .

Web links

Commons : Montenegro  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Montenegro  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
 Wikinews: Montenegro  - in the news
Wikisource: Montenegro  - Sources and full texts
Wikivoyage: Montenegro  travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. population, total. In: World Economic Outlook Database. World Bank , 2020, accessed April 18, 2021 .
  2. Population growth (annual%). In: World Economic Outlook Database. World Bank , 2020, accessed April 18, 2021 .
  3. World Economic Outlook Database October 2020. In: World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund , 2020, accessed April 18, 2021 .
  4. Table: Human Development Index and its components . In: United Nations Development Program (ed.): Human Development Report 2020 . United Nations Development Program, New York, pp. 343 ( [PDF]).
  6. Gerhard Herm : The Balkans. The powder keg of Europe . Econ Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf / Vienna / New York / Moscow, 1993, p. 275, ISBN 978-3-430-14445-2
  7. ^ Hughes, PD (2007) Recent behavior of the Debeli Namet glacier, Durmitor, Montenegro. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32, 1593-1602.
  8. ^ Phil Hughes: Twenty-first Century Glaciers and Climate in the Prokletije Mountains, Albania. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2009, pp. 455-459.
  9. ^ • Hughes, PD, Woodward, JC, van Calsteren, PC and Thomas, LE "The Glacial History of the Dinaric Alps, Montenegro." Quaternary Science Reviews 30, no. 23-24 (2011): 3393-3412. eScholarID: 130308 | doi: 10.1016 / j.quascirev.2011.08.016 .
  10. ^ Hughes, PD, Woodward, JC, van Calsteren, PC, Thomas, LE and Adamson, K. "Pleistocene ice caps on the coastal mountains of the Adriatic Sea." Quaternary Science Reviews 29, no. 27-28 (2010): 3690-3708. eScholarID: 87178 | doi: 10.1016 / j.quascirev.2010.06.032 .
  11. Christian Bräuchler & Pavle Cikovac: Vegetational diversity in a hyper-karstic, hyper-humid oro-mediterranean Environment. In proceeding of: 40th Anniversary Conference of the Ecological Society of Germany, Austria and Switzerland, Volume: 40, Page 405-430, Held at Justus Liebig Universität Gießen, The future of Biodiversity, 8/2010. (online:
  12. a b Statistical Office of the Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin)
  13. Country information from the Federal Foreign Office on Montenegro
  14. Constitution of Montenegro, website of the Montenegrin Parliament ( Memento of March 26, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian; PDF; 171 kB)
  15. U Skupštini RCG usvojen Zakon o manjinskim pravima i slobodama : Press release of the Montenegrin government on the minority law (Montenegrin)
  16. Youth Initiative for Human Rights: Minorities in Montenegro: Legislation and Practice ( Memento of October 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) PDF page 8 (Serbian)
  17. Serbian-Montenegrin Minority Law of 2002 ( Memento of July 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (Serbian)
  18. MP: Crnogorskim jezikom govori 41.1 odsto građana, a srpskim 39.1. In: July 3, 2014, accessed February 22, 2020 .
  19. Federal Foreign Office: Religion and other data on Montenegro
  20. Mitropolija Crnogorsko Primorska of the Serbian Orthodox Church
  21. Article on Judaism in Montenegro Jüdische Allgemeine, May 3, 2012
  22. World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 28, 2017 .
  23. Referendum na pola - Referendum 1992 Montenegro
  24. 2006 election results Podgorica slavi Dan nezavisnosti (PDF)
  25. ^ Wording of the declaration of independence of June 3, 2006, Montenegrina: Digitalna biblioteka crnogorske kulture i nasljeda
  26. EU Commission: Montenegro is applying for EU membership. In: December 15, 2008, accessed August 6, 2015 .
  27. Expansion: Serbia and Montenegro are getting closer. European Commission, accessed October 12, 2011 .
  28. EU negotiates with Montenegro .
  29. ^ Kurier: Foreign Minister of Montenegro resigned .
  30. Serbia and Montenegro could join the EU as early as 2025 , ZEIT online, February 4, 2018.
  31. DW-World: NATO summit only decides on a small new round of enlargement . December 14, 2009.
  32. Montenegro becomes a candidate for NATO membership . 4th December 2009.
  33. ^ Declaration of the NATO summit in Newport (pdf).
  34. ^ Spiegel Online: Montenegro invited to join . 2nd December 2015.
  35. Erich Rathfelder : High imprisonment for Putin's putschists . In: taz of May 10, 2019, p. 13.
  36. Moscow's attack on Montenegro . In: taz , February 26, 2017.
  37. Parties in the Parliament of Montenegro since 2006 ( Memento from December 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  38. Rezultati DIK-a na 100 odsto prebrojanih glasova: DPS 35.06, "Za budućnost Crne Gore" 32.55 odsto glasova (Montenegrin), accessed on December 10, 2020
  39. New start in Montenegro by Philippe Descamps and Ana Otasević in Le Monde diplomatique [1]
  40. ^ Fragile States Index: Global Data. Fund for Peace , 2020, accessed April 18, 2021 .
  41. ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index. The Economist Intelligence Unit, accessed April 18, 2021 .
  42. ^ Countries and Territories. Freedom House , 2020, accessed April 18, 2021 .
  43. 2020 World Press Freedom Index. Reporters Without Borders , 2020, accessed April 18, 2021 .
  44. ^ Transparency International (Ed.): Corruption Perceptions Index . Transparency International, Berlin 2021, ISBN 978-3-96076-157-0 (English, [PDF]).
  45. Kfw: Economic Development of Montenegro ( Memento from January 4, 2011 in the web archive )
  46. Factfish: Montenegro - Statistics and Data
  47. Montenegrin army begins destroying its tanks (English)
  48. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe: Country Profile of Montenegro ( Memento from June 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
  49. ^ Speedboats full of smuggled cigarettes FAZ, May 15, 2006
  50. Đukanović questioned by investigators in Bari (English)
  51. Voice of America: Načelnik Uprave za opšti kriminalitet crnogorskog MUP Slavoljub Šćekić ubijen ispred porodične kuće u Podgorici (August 30, 2005, Serbian)
  52. Michael Martens: After the election in Montenegro: The double partner . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of April 7, 2008, accessed on October 13, 2018.
  53. Online newspaper Danas: Teroristi u Crnoj Gori, petorica u bekstvu (September 11th 2006, Serbian)
  54. Ljudska prava u Crnoj Gori 2010–2011
  55. Amnesty International: AMNESTY REPORT 2011 Montenegro
  57. At a Glance: Global Competitiveness Index 2017–2018 Rankings . In: Global Competitiveness Index 2017-2018 . ( [accessed December 6, 2017]).
  58. [2]
  59. ^ The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 28, 2017 .
  60. ^ Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. Retrieved July 28, 2017 (American English).
  61. Eric's Rail News - September 2000
  62. Montenegro: "Eco-Toll" abolished (ExpatNews)
  63. ^ Reprint: Kessinger 2010, ISBN 978-1-161-02939-0

Coordinates: 43 °  N , 19 °  E