Albania Greece Italy Kosovo Croatia Montenegro North Macedonia Romania Serbia Turkey
|speaker||over 7.6 million|
|Official language in||
Albania Kosovo North Macedonia Montenegro
|Recognized minority /
regional language in
Italy Romania Serbia
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||( B ) alb||( T ) sqi|
sqi (macro language)
Individual languages included:
The Albanian language (own name gjuha shqipe [ ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ ]) belongs to the Balkan Indo-European language group of the Indo-European language family and to the Balkan language federation . It has been documented in writing since the 15th century and is now the official language in Albania , Kosovo and North Macedonia as well as minority language in other countries in Southeast Europe and Italy .
The Albanian has two major dialect groups , in the north the Gheg dialect and in the south, the Tosk , which can be divided in some cases very different local subdialects (see Albanian dialects ). Today's written Albanian language was not developed until the middle of the 20th century on the basis of the Tuscan dialect group. In 1972 this process came to a conclusion at a congress in Tirana . For a number of years there has been a call to take more gender variants into account in language policy .
The Albanian vocabulary adopted loanwords from ancient Greek , then from Latin ; borrowings from South Slavic , ( Central ) Greek and Turkish , Italian and French and other languages followed. Anglicisms are currently being used increasingly .
Of Albanians as a population group and speakers of this language for the first time reported Byzantine writers in the 11th century as Anna Comnena . Although not recorded in a uniform written form, the Albanian language was encountered from the north of present-day Greece to the present-day Croatian coast. In 1285 in Ragusa (today's Dubrovnik ), the sentence Audivi unam vocem clamantem in monte in lingua albanesca, which has been handed down in a document, attests to the presence of the Albanian language, which is considered to be the first mention of this language in itself. In the 14th century Albanian populated areas in Thessaly and even in Attica are attested. In today's Albania, the Slavic and Romansh population slowly assimilated to the Albanians and adopted their language. This process continued into the 20th century.
The oldest written evidence in Albanian is a 208-page manuscript by Theodor von Shkodra on theology, philosophy and history. According to the author, it was written in 1210 and was discovered in the archives of the Vatican in the 1990s. Another early Albanian sentence has come down to us from Pal Engjëlli (1416–1470), Archbishop of Durrës . It is the old Gian baptismal formula " Un'te paghesont 'pr'emenit t'Atit e t'Birit e t'Spirit Senit " (German: "I baptize you in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit"), which the clergy wrote down in a letter in 1462.
The Jerusalem pilgrim Arnold von Harff (1471–1505), who had also crossed Albania on his travels, handed down a short Albanian- German word list in his travel report from 1496 . The Catholic priest Gjon Buzuku wrote the oldest printed Albanian book, the Meshari 'missal' , in 1555 .
The national movement Rilindja
With the rise of nationalism among the Albanians in the 19th century - apart from a few precursors - an Albanian literature emerged . The first newspapers and magazines were published after 1870. At that time, Albanian was written either in Latin or in Greek , depending on the denomination , and Muslims also used Arabic letters . To remove the ambiguities in the pronunciation of the Arabic script, the Muslim scholar Rexhep Voka (1847-1917) developed an adapted Arabic alphabet ( Elifbaja ), consisting of 44 consonants and vowels, which he published in 1911. It was hardly used. The supporters of the Albanian national movement Rilindja 'Rebirth, Renaissance ' endeavored at the end of the 19th century to standardize the spelling. The proposal with the most approval was the so-called "Stamboller Alphabet" (Albanian for Istanbul ) by Sami Frashëri , an important Albanian scholar who worked primarily in the Ottoman capital.
In 1908 Albanian intellectuals from all parts of the country met for the Monastir Congress in what is now Bitola (Alb. Manastir ) in Macedonia . At this meeting it was finally decided that from now on the Albanian language should be written exclusively in Latin script. The starting point was the Stamboller alphabet and the "Bashkimi alphabet" (Albanian for 'the union') developed by Gjergj Fishta in Shkodra . They also agreed on a strict phonetic notation with only two special characters: Ç / ç and Ë / ë ; these were the two characters that were already to be found on the French typewriter keyboard . All other Albanian sounds that have no equivalent in the Latin alphabet should be expressed by letter combinations. The rules of 1908 are still in force today, and the Monastir Congress can rightly be called the birth of Albanian orthography , even if it would take another 60 years before the dialect forms from Gezh and Tuskish became a general written standard merged.
In the 1918 census in the areas of Albania occupied by Austria-Hungary, 28.8% of men and 8.8% of women were able to read and write in cities, but only 8.8% of men and 0.1 in rural areas % the women. 23.6% of the men in the cities and 1.1% of the men in the country used the Latin script, while 9.9% of the men in the city and 0.9% in the country read in the Turkish-Arabic script wrote. Among women, 8.7% in the city and 0.1% in the country wrote in the Latin script and 0.3% in the city and 0.008% in the country in the Ottoman script.
Possible intermediate stations of Albanian on the way from Indo-European are not yet clearly understandable. Not least because of the spatial proximity of the historically known Illyrians , many researchers tried to combine Albanian with Albanian, which, however, remains difficult to prove due to the completely inadequate evidence of Illyrian. The philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) was the first to express this assumption. Other representatives of this direction were linguists such as Franz Bopp , Gustav Meyer , Eqrem Çabej , Franz von Miklosich and Agnija Desnickaja . Gustav Weigand assumed that the Albanians were descended from the ancient Thracians .
Recently Joachim Matzinger again pointed out the difficulties of a clear assignment.
Alternatively or in addition, the prehistoric affiliation to a Balkan-Indo-European intermediate stage is suggested, together with Greek and Armenian . The counter-argument of a “language federation” is already ruled out for Armenian. This assumption was not only considered by Norbert Jokl , but also by Martin E. Huld and Joachim Matzinger. This assumption is further supported by a lexico-statistical analysis and a glottochronological calculation by SA Starostin .
The closed Albanian- speaking area on the Balkan Peninsula includes Albania , Kosovo , the western and north-western parts of North Macedonia , the north-western part of Greece , as well as some neighboring regions in Serbia and Montenegro . Long-established Albanian-speaking minorities live in southern Italy and on Sicily (see Arbëresh ) as well as on the Peloponnese , in Attica and other southern Greek regions and islands (see Arvanites ). In addition , Albanians lived in southern Epirus until a few decades ago (see Çamen ). There are also smaller minorities in Bulgaria ( Mandriza ), Romania ( Bucharest , Timișoara , Iași , Constanța , Cluj-Napoca ) and in the Ukraine ( Zaporizhia and Budschak Oblast ).
A total of 7.2 million people speak the Albanian language, of which around 2.5 million in Albania, around 2.6 million in the other Balkan countries and more than two million emigrants worldwide.
The central Albanian river Shkumbin divides the Albanian-speaking area into a northern Gaelic and a southern Tuscan zone. There is also a transition zone along the river that is around 15 to 20 kilometers wide. During the Rilindja , two written Albanian languages emerged for the Tuscan and the Gegic dialect. Today's Albanian standard language, which was unified in 1972, is largely based on the northern Tuscan dialect with some Gegic elements.
The two main dialects differ phonetically , morphologically and also lexically . The phonetic differences are small, such as the nasal â [ ɑ ] of Gegischen and ë [ ə ] of Tosk ( NANA - NENA , the mother ') or the Gheg dialect n with the Tosk r ( syni - syri 'the eye'). Another difference is that words that have a “q” in Tuskan become a “k” in the counterpart ( qesh - kesh ' to laugh').
The morphological differences are all the more numerous; the Gegic has an infinitive that Tuskish lacks. In addition, the future tense is formed in the opposite tense with the conjugated verb 'haben' (in the opposite me pâs ) and the infinitive, while in Tuskish this is done via an unconjugable form of the verb 'Wollen' ( do ) with a relative clause , which leads to the future tense constituting verb in conjugated form in the present tense . This subordinate clause is introduced by the subjunction të . An example of this is unë do të shkoj for 'I will go'.
The vocabulary of the two main dialects also differs in part when it comes to words for everyday things, for example 'milk' is tâmbël in Gegic and qumësht in Tuskish . Village 'is Gegischen Katun , in Tosk Fshat . The fox 'is in Gegischen skile or shpin and Tosk dhelpër . Also g. bërshê (n) opposite t. (v) enjë ‚stink juniper; Yew ', rrêj - gënjej ' lie ', krejt - fare ' whole ', or shpullë - pëllëmbë ' palm '.
- Northwest region in Northwest Albania and in all Albanian municipalities in Montenegro (near Bar and Ulcinj )
- Northeast Gish in Kosovo , Northeast Bania, in all Albanian municipalities in Serbia and in the areas around Skopje , Kumanovo , Tetovo and Gostivar in Northwest Macedonia
- Central Gisch in the Mirdita , in northern central Albania (Tirana, Durrës and Peshkopia ) and in southwest Macedonia ( Debar and Struga )
- Southern Gish in Central Albania ( Kavaja to Elbasan )
- Gegisch-Toskische transition zone on the Shkumbin (about 20 kilometers wide, including Shpat and Sulova )
- North Tuscan in the area between Vlora , Lushnja , Pogradec and Bilisht as well as within North Macedonia in many villages on Lake Ohrid and Prespa and as linguistic islands scattered in the regions of Bitola , Kruševo and Dolneni
- Labish Tusk on the Albanian Riviera to Piqeras and from Vlora over the Vjosatal to Tepelena (up to here Labëria ) and Përmet and in the east in the regions of Leskovik and Erseka
- Çamisch-Tuskisch in the southernmost Albania ( Gjirokastra and Saranda ) and earlier also in the eponymous Çamëria in northwestern Greece
- Arbëresh -Toskish in some regions of southern Italy (including Sicily )
- Arvanitic -Toskish in many settlements in central and southern Greece (but is mostly seen as a single language )
The Albanian alphabet consists of a total of 36 letters , seven of which are vowels and 29 consonants . The Albanian language is written phonetically comparatively consistently . Digraphs , composed of consonants, are understood as independent letters - they are considered inseparable units and are therefore classified accordingly in Albanian dictionaries.
Phonetics and Phonology
|c||[ ʦ ]||Voiceless alveolar plosive and voiceless alveolar fricative as in German Z ar|
|ç||[ ʧ ]||Voiceless alveolar plosive and voiceless postalveolar fricative as in German. Sealed eche|
|ie||[ ð ]||Voiced dental fricative as in English. th is|
[ ɜ ] /
[ ə ]
|emphasizes: like the O in English. w o rse ( BE ), is similar to the open Ö in deutsch kö nnen;
unstressed: e as in German Matt e ( Schwa ), often barely audible at the end of the word.
|gj||[ ɟ ]||Voiced palatal plosive like gy in Hungarian ; similar to German dj|
|ll||[ ɫ ]||Velarized voiced lateral alveolar approximant such as л in Russian. л aмпa / lampa or l in Cologne and Dutch|
|nj||[ ɲ ]||Voiced palatal nasal as in Lasa gn e|
|q||[ c ]||
Voiceless palatal plosive palatal t, t + light sh, slightly less strong than ç; similar to tj in German Ma tj it
alternative pronunciation: tj or kj, spoken far back (especially North Macedonia)
|r||[ ɾ ]||Voiced alveolar Tap Relevant Zungenspitzen- r ; like span. r in pe r o|
|rr||[ r ]||Voiced alveolar vibrant, rolled tip of the tongue - as in Bavarian|
|sh||[ ʃ ]||Voiceless postalveolar fricative as in German. Sch ule|
|th||[ θ ]||Voiceless dental fricative as in English. th ink|
|v||[ v ]||Voiced labiodental fricative as in German W al|
|x||[ ʣ ]||Voiced alveolar affricates a [d] that merges directly into a [z] as in engl. bran ds|
|xh||[ ʤ ]||Voiced alveolar plosive and voiced postalveolar fricative similar to the English J for J ohn.|
|y||[ y ]||Rounded closed front vowel as in Germany. Gr ü n|
|z||[ z ]||Voiced alveolar fricative voiced s , as in Germany. S onne|
|zh||[ ʒ ]||Voiced postalveolar fricative voiced sh , as in French. J ournal|
Tuscan Albanian (Southern Albania, Arvanitika, Arbëresh, Southwest Macedonia) has 29 consonants and seven vowels . The stress is usually on the penultimate syllable . The Gegisch Albanian (Northern Albania, Kosovo, Northwest Macedonia, Southeast Montenegro, Southern Serbia) also has these consonants, vowels and nasal vowels that are missing in Tuscan: ɑ , ɒ , ɪ , ŋ , ɳ , ø , ɔ , ɹ , ʊ , ʏ .
|Plosives||p b||t d||c ɟ||k ɡ|
|Affricates||ʦ ʣ||ʧ ʤ|
|Nasals||m||n||ɳ ¹||ɲ||ŋ ¹|
|Flaps / Vibrants||ɾ r|
|Fricatives||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||H|
¹ These phonemes only occur in Gico Albanian.
The grammar of Albanian has similarities in structure to many other Indo-European languages . Albanian has the same diatheses as Greek (active and mediopassive voice) and is relatively richer in modes and tenses than Greek. Albanian has the three modes ( admirative , optative and conditional ) that are missing in Greek grammar and that are treated as modalities (although ancient Greek still had an optative). Albanian also has certain suffix articles such as Romanian , Bulgarian , (North) Macedonian , and the North Germanic languages ( Faroese , Icelandic , Danish , Norwegian and Swedish ).
The parallels with Greek , Romanian, Bulgarian and (North) Macedonian can be explained by the long and intensive contact between the bearers of these languages. These phenomena and similarities are researched with the model of the Balkans Language Association .
The Albanian language has two (or three) genera : masculine and feminine. Neutra can only be found as relics in today's language, which, however, can be found in an independent form.
Nouns and Determination
Albanian nouns are inflected after the grammatical category Determination and therefore have two basic forms (see also table below):
- the undefined or indefinite form, which for all masculine and feminine forms consists of the pure stem.
- the defined or particular shape created with a suffix and evolved from the defined article .
Masculine and feminine
Masculine : the endings (or suffixes) for the formation of the masculine are usually -i , after the velar stem end ( k , g or q ) -u . The functions of -i and -u are roughly comparable to a German “der”. However, not identical, as these endings in Albanian surnames are more like “von der / dem / him”.
- Some undefined nouns end with -ri and form masculine. These are just a few words. A standard Albanian / Tuscan -ri ending reflects on a northern Albanian ( Gegische ) -ni ending. In contrast to the Tuscan dialect, the original / n / sound has been retained in the counterpart and has not shifted to an r sound (see Rhotazism ). Here, too, the function of -ri is roughly comparable to a German “der” (but not identical either).
- Feminine : Most of the undefined nouns that end with -ë often form feminine in the defined form and are usually appended with -a . There are also exceptions. Undefined nouns that also end with -ë , but with a defining -i masculine form ("djal ë "> "djal i " ("boy"> " the boy")). Other defining endings for feminine are -ja , -ia . The functions of -a, -ja, -ia are roughly comparable to a German “die”. However, they are also not identical, since these can also correspond to a “the” or “from the”.
An overview of the most important patterns:
|indefinite||certainly||with / without article||indefinite||certainly||with / without article|
|Standard flexion:||diell||diell- i||Sun / the sun f.||hёn ё||hёn- a||Moon / the moon m.|
|yll||yll- i||Star / the star||frym ë||frym- a||Breath / the breath m.|
|ujk||ujk- u||Wolf / the wolf m.||ujk ё||ujk- a||Wolves in / the wolves in f.|
|pulled||pulled- u||Bird / the bird m.||vajz ё||vajz- a||Girl / the girl n.|
|Irregular:||sy||sy- ri||Eye / the eye n.||r e||r e - yes||Cloud (s) / the cloud f.|
|vёll a||vёll a - i||Brother / the brother||mot ёr||mot- ra||Sister he / the sister he f.|
|njer i||njer i - u||Human / the man m.||gru a||gru a - yes||Woman / the woman f.|
|djal ë||djal- i||Boy / the boy m.||lidhj e||lidhj- a||Connection / the connection f.|
|Joz ë||Joz- a||Jose (ph) / the Jose (ph) m.||Shkurt e||Shkurt- yes||Short e / the short e f.|
This roughly corresponds to the German nouns that carry a definite or indefinite article . The syntactic functions are not exactly the same.
In contrast to German, this also applies to (proper) names : The distinction between definite and indefinite form is important for the correctness of lexicon entries of Albanian places and persons in foreign languages. In cities, determined to -a end ( "Tiran a ") in German in line with the Italian practice this form is used. If a name ends with a definite -i ("Durrës i "), the indefinite endless form (in this case "Durrës") is preferred. See also the list of cities in Albania . On the other hand, on Albanian maps the indefinite form is normally used throughout ("Tiran ë ").
Albanian first and last names also have defined and undefined forms. In the case of male first names, the undefined forms are usually preferred and used to register the names (for birth certificates, passports, etc.). In the case of female first names, the specific forms are preferred for registering the names.
The plural formation of the Albanian nouns is very rich in forms and irregular . Altogether there are a little over 100 different ending forms with which the plural forms (and singular forms) are formed. Some contain very few words, while others are common.
The declension of standard Albanian includes five cases ( nominative , accusative , dative , genitive , ablative ). Genitive and dative have the same forms; only a preposition (i / e / të / së) is added to the genitive . That preposition is not necessary for the dative. The 6th vocative case is not a fundamental case for standard Albanian. However, vocative is used every day in the salutation and is optional. Some Albanian sub-dialects also have a locative . The declination depends on the gender of the word, its indefiniteness and whether it is in the singular or plural. The inflection takes place both via word endings (suffix articles) and with the help of preceding articles (i / e / të / së). Compared to the plural form, the declensions for the singular form are more regular.
- Example “yll, ylli” m. ("Star, the Star")
|Nominative:||yll||yll- i||yj- e||yj- et|
|Accusative:||yll||yll- in||yj- e||yj- et|
|Dative:||yll- i||yll- it||yj- eve||yj- evet|
|Genitive (i / e / të / së):||yll- i||yll- it||yj- eve||yj- evet|
|Ablative:||yll- i||yll- it||yj- esh||yj- evet|
The personal pronouns in Albanian are differentiated in the 2nd person according to respect and in the 3rd person according to gender :
|1||unë 'I'||no 'we'|
|2||respect||easy||ti 'you'||ju 'you'|
|3||genus||masculine||ai 'he'||ata 'she'|
|feminine||ajo 'she'||ato 'she'|
Adjectives, prepositions, adverbs, particles, syntax
The adjectives usually come after the noun they give a more detailed description. Most of them have a prefixed article i (masculine) and e (feminine). Example: qyteti i madh = the big city; motra e madhe = the big sister. Another part of the adjectives has no article. Example: makina efikase = the efficient machine. If an adverb is between an adjective and a connecting particle , the latter takes on the defined form. Connecting particles match nouns in gender , case and number .
In Albanian, prepositions require either the ablative or the accusative .
A peculiarity that Albanian shares with other languages is the doubling of the object .
Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Article 1:
Të gjithë njerëzit lindin të lirë dhe të barabartë në dinjitet dhe në të drejta. Ata kanë arsye dhe ndërgjegje dhe duhet të sillen ndaj njëri-tjetrit me frymë vëllazërimi.
„ Tə ɟiθ ɲɛɾəzit lindin tə liɾə ðɛ tə baɾabaɾt nə diɲitɛt ðɛ nə tə drɛjta. ata kanə aɾsyɛ ðɛ ndərɟɛɟɛ ðɛ duhɛt tə siɫɛn ndaj ɲəɾi tjɛtɾit mɛ frymə vəɫazərimi "
“All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood. "
- Gerd-Dieter Nehring: Albanian . In: M. Okuka, G. Krenn (Hrsg.): Lexicon of the languages of the European East . Wieser Verlag, Klagenfurt / Celovec 2002. pp. 47-65.
- Eqrem Çabej (ed.): Meshari des Gjon Buzuku from 1555 . Tirana 1968 (Albanian missal).
- Joachim Matzinger: The old Albanian text Mbsuame e Krështerë (Dottrina Cristiana) by Lekë Matrënga from 1592. An introduction to Albanian linguistics. (= Jena Indo-European text processing. 3). Verlag JH Röll, Dettelbach 2006. ISBN 3-89754-117-3 .
- Armin Hetzer : The trilingual dictionary of Theodoros Anastasiu Kavalliotis from Moschopolis , printed in Venice in 1770, Albanian - German - Modern Greek - Aromanian. Hamburg 1981.
Linguistics and history of language:
- Johann Georg von Hahn: Albanian studies . 3 volumes. F. Mauko, Jena 1854 ( digitized version ), therein: The Albanian alphabet, contributions to a grammar of the Tuscan dialect, Albanian language samples, contributions to an Albanian-German lexicon, German-Albanian directory of the words contained in the Albanian-German lexicon.
- Justin Rrota: Për historinë e alfabetit shqip dhe studime të tjera gjuhësore. Shkodra 1936 (reprint from 2005.)
- Norbert Boretzky: The Turkish Influence on Albanian . Part 1: Phonology and Morphology of Albanian Turzisms , Part 2: Dictionary of Albanian Turzisms . 2 volumes. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 1975 and 1976.
- Eqrem Çabej: Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes . 7 volumes. Akademia et Shkencave, Tiranë 1976-2014.
- Gunnar Svane: Slavic loanwords in Albanian . Aarhus University Press, Aarhus 1992.
- Bardhyl Demiraj: Albanian Etymologies . Rodopi, Amsterdam / Atlanta 1997.
- Robert Elsie: The Albanian Lexicon of Evliya Çelebi (1662), and what a dervish needs to know when passing through . in: Southeast Research . 57 (1998), pp. 95-102 ( PDF ).
- Vladimir Orel: Albanian Etymological Dictionary . Brill, Leiden / Boston / Cologne 1998. (rich, but unreliable; "Pokorny" is silent, dead)
- Guillaume Bonnet: Les Mots latins de l'albanais . L'Harmattan, Paris / Montréal 1998.
- Xhelal Ylli: The Slavic fief in Albanian. Part 1: loan words , part 2: place names . 2 volumes. Verlag Otto Sagner, Munich 1997 and 2000.
- Vladimir Orel: A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language. Brill, Leiden 2000.
- Shaban Demiraj / Kristaq Prifti: Kongresi i Manastirit. Tirana 2004. ISBN 99943-614-5-7 .
- Monica Genesin: Studio sulle formazioni di presente e aoristo del verbo albanese . Centro Editoriale e Librario, Università della Calabria, Rende 2005.
- Kolec Topalli: Fonetika historike e gjuhës shqipe . Dituria, Tiranë 2007.
- Hans J. Holm: Albanian basic word lists and the position of Albanian in the Indo-European languages , in: Zeitschrift für Balkanologie , 2009, No. 45-2: pp. 171–205.
- Ina Arapi: The use of infinitive and subjunctive in Old Albanian with a view to Romanian. Publishing house Dr. Korvač, Hamburg 2010. ISBN 978-3-8300-4572-4 .
- Stefan Schumacher / Joachim Matzinger: The verbs of Old Albanian: document dictionary, prehistory and etymology . Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2013. ISBN 978-3-447-06448-4 .
Textbooks, dictionaries, grammars:
- Oda Buchholz, Wilfried Fiedler , Gerda Uhlisch, Ardian Klosi : Concise Dictionary Albanisch , Langenscheidt, Munich 2000, ISBN 978-3-468-05395-5 .
- Oda Buchholz, Wilfried Fiedler: Albanische Grammatik , Verlag Enzyklopädie, Leipzig 1987, ISBN 978-3-324-00025-3 .
- Armin Hetzer: Textbook of the unified written Albanian language . Buske, Hamburg 2007, 6th edition, ISBN 978-3-87548-444-1 .
- Christiane and Axel Jaenicke: Albanian word for word , Kauderwelsch Volume 65, Reise Know-How Verlag, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-89416-255-9 .
- Wolfgang Koeth, Saskia Drude: Kosovo-Albanian word for word , Kauderwelsch Volume 221, Edition Tirta, Bielefeld 2009, ISBN 978-3-89416-579-6 .
- Pandeli Pani: Albanian intensive . Text and grammar book with a CD of texts and dialogues in MP3 format , Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-447-05332-7 .
- Basil Schader, Fadil Rexhepi: The bridge of words. School dictionary German-Albanian, Albanian-German, overviews - Ura e fjalëve. Fjalor shkollor Gjermanisht-Shqip, Shqip-Gjermanisht, Vështrimet , 6th edition, Zurich 2006, Lehrmittelverlag des Kantons Zürich, ISBN 978-3-906718-28-6 .
- Gjovalin Shkurtaj, Enver Hysa: Gjuha shqipe për të huajt dhe shqiptarët jashtë atdheut , Botimet Toena, Tirana 2001, ISBN 99927-1-454-9 .
- Emine Teichmann: Albanian as a foreign language, Shqipja si gjuhë e huaj . ISBN 978-99947-721-8-6 .
- Dritan Halili: Legal Dictionary German-Albanian / Albanian-German . Buske, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-87548-507-3
- Dritan Halili: German-Albanian economic dictionary . Buske, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 978-3-87548-385-7
- Armin Hetzer: Pocket Dictionary Albanian-German / German-Albanian . Buske, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-87548-536-3
- Albanian online dictionary (with 40,000 lemmas) ; monolingual.
- Entry on the Albanian language in the Encyclopedia of the European East (PDF file; 373 kB)
- fjalorth.de - Online Dictionary Albanian-German
- Fjalor.de online dictionary Albanian-German
- Small Albanian language course with audio output
- Free program of the 'Albanian Catholic Congregation Germany' for translations from / into Albanian-German-English, for download
- The Albanian Language, by Robert Elsie (English)
- Albanian dialects, by Robert Elsie (English)
- ^ Karl-Richard Bausch, Hans-Jürgen Krumm, Eva Burwitz-Melzer, Grit Mehlhorn; Handbook of Foreign Language Teaching; UTB GmbH; Edition: 6th completely revised. u. exp. (August 15, 2016); Page 480
- ^ Robert Elsie : The earliest references to the existence of the Albanian language . In: Journal of Balkanology . Berlin 1991, p. 101-105 ( elsie.de [PDF]).
- ↑ Albanian literature , Peter R Prifti, Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007
- ^ Robert Elsie: Albanian Literature. An Overview of its History and Development. , Österreichische Osthefte, Wien, 45, 1–2 (2003), pp. 243–276.
- ^ Robert Elsie: The Currents of Moslem and Bektash Writing in Albania (1850-1950). In: Albanian Catholic Bulletin. Volume 15, 1994, pp. 172-177, here p. 176.
- ^ Regional variation in marriage patterns in Albania at the beginning of the 20th century. Retrieved August 26, 2014 .
- ↑ Joachim Matzinger: The Albanians as descendants of the Illyrians from the perspective of historical linguistics . In: Jens Schmitt (Hrsg.): Albanian History - Status and Perspectives of Research . R. Oldenbourg Verlag , 2009, p. 13-36 .
- ↑ N. Jokl (1963 posthumously): The relationships between Albanian and the other Indo-European languages. In: Language 9: pp. 113–156.
- ^ ME Huld: Basic Albanian Etymologies. Slavica Publishers, Inc., Columbus OH 1984
- ↑ J. Matzinger (2000): Albanian grā 'women'. In: Munich Studies in Linguistics. 60: pp. 75-87.
- ↑ Hans J. Holm (2008): The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages. In: Christine Preisach, Hans Burkhardt, Lars Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold Decker (Eds.): Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications. Proc. of the 31th Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl). University of Freiburg, 7th – 9th March 2007. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg / Berlin, pp. 629–636.
- ↑ Václav Blažek (2005): From august schleicher to sergei starostin on the development of the tree-diagram models of the Indo-European languages. JIES 35 (1-2): pp. 82-109 = 28 pages
- ↑ 
- ↑  "Non-Canonically Case-Marked Subjects: The Reykjavík-Eyjafjallajökull papers", edited by Jóhanna Barðdal, Na'ama Pat-El, Stephen Mark Carey, year 2018, page 32
- ^ Journal of Educational and Social Research MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy, "A Comparative Overview of the Verbal System in Albanian and Greek", September 2014, pp. 106-107
- ^ Journal of Educational and Social Research MCSER Publishing, Rome Italy, "A Comparative Overview of the Verbal System in Albanian and Greek", September 2014, p. 109
- ^  "The Ancient Languages of Asia and the Americas", edited by Roger D. Woodard, Cambridge University Press, April 10, 2008, p. 241
- ↑  THE suffixation OF DEFINITE ARTICLES IN BALKAN LANGUAGES, Carmen Dobrovie-Sorin & Ion Giurgea, 2006
- ^  "Linguists of Tomorrow: Selected Papers from the 1st Cyprus Postgraduate Student Conference in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics", Kleanthes K. Grohmann, Aljona Shelkovaya Cambridge Scholars Publishing, April 25, 2012, page 241
- ↑  "Ammon, Ulrich; Dittmar, Norbert; Mattheier, Klaus J .; Trudgill, Peter: Sociolinguistics / Soziolinguistik", Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, Peter Trudgill Walter de Gruyter, chapter "Dialectal Situation" , from page 1876
- ^  "Albanian Grammar: With Exercises, Chrestomathy and Glossaries", Martin Camaj, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1984, page 36
- ^ "An Albanian Historical Grammar," Suart E. Mann, Buske, 1977