from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thracian territories (including Odrysen - bottom left) - 5th to 3rd century BC Chr.
Thracian art. Rhyton from the Panagyurishte gold treasure

The Thracians were an Indo-European people or a group of people in antiquity .

They were already in the Iliad of Homer mentioned as well as Herodotus described. Thracian tribes settled in the Balkans , in actual Thrace , in today's Bulgaria , Moldova , Romania , Serbia , North Macedonia , Kosovo , North Greece , between the northern Carpathians and the Aegean Sea and in Asia Minor , in Mysia , Bithynia and Paphlagonia . They are the greatest people after the Indians, wrote Herodotus. They did not have their own script, but were in close contact with the Greeks and their culture . Their language was Thracian . In ancient times they were also called Kikonen , after the Thracian tribe of the same name.

Ancient sources

The Thracians were described by the Greeks as hard-drinking and rough knuckles. Archilochus cursed a friend: "He is supposed to be shipwrecked and the Thracians are supposed to take him in Salmydessa ... with a shaggy head".

“He drinks like a Thracian” was a popular derogatory saying. The Greeks also considered Dionysus , the god of wine, to be Thracian. Singing and dancing, as well as instrumental music and poetry, were considered the domain of the Thracians. Xenophanes described the Thracians as blue-eyed and (red) blond.


In the Iliad (8th or 7th century BC) the Thracians are described as masters of metalworking. The Thracians are fond of weapons and horses , Homer reports :

"Home of fast horses", "Mother of the sheep", "Lancers" and "Chariot fighters".

They fought on the side of Troy. Because of their rich jewelry, they are said to have shone as bright as the sun on the battlefield. Agamemnon drank heavy Thracian wine, and the harsh north wind Boreas came from Thrace . In Canto 10 of the Iliad, Odysseus tells of the camp of King Rhesus :

Eioneus legacy. I have never seen horses as beautiful and as big as his. Whiter than snow and running as fast as hurrying winds. His car is artfully made of gold and silver. And with mighty weapons made of gold, one sees them with astonishment, he advanced. Indeed, it is not due to mortal men to wear them, they are intended for eternal gods. "

- Homer : Iliad, 10
Ceiling painting in Thracian burial chamber Ostruscha (around 4th century BC), Bulgaria
Xenophanes of Colophon

On the physical characteristics of the people, Xenophanes von Kolophon wrote (approx. 570-470 BC):

“Ethiopians say their gods have snub noses and are black; Thracians that theirs are blue-eyed and red-haired. "

(Fragment B16) [1]

The tendency to reddish hair is illustrated by the picture of the ceiling painting in the Thracian burial chamber Ostruscha (see illustration).


Herodotus wrote (approx. 490-424 BC) about the size and character of the people:

“The Thracian people are the greatest on earth after the Indian. If it were united and had only one ruler, it would be invincible and, in my opinion, by far the most powerful people there is. But since that is impossible and will certainly never be achieved by them, they are weak. They have a special name in every landscape, but the customs of the whole people are consistently the same. "

And about the burial customs of the Thracians:

“The body, if the dead man was a rich man, is exhibited for three days. All kinds of sacrificial animals are slaughtered, and after the mourning has been held, a feast is held. Then the corpse is cremated or buried, a burial mound is raised and a fighting game with all kinds of fights is held. The highest prices are offered for the individual fight depending on its importance. "


The Thracian settlement area was divided into different landscapes and surrounded by the Black Sea , the Aegean Sea and the Sea of ​​Marmara / Dardanelles . In the west are the Rhodope Mountains and in the north the Strandscha (Yıldız) Mountains. The Hebros ( Mariza ) river separates western Thrace from what is now the Turkish part. To the east, the historical Thracians also settled in western Asia Minor .

An idea of ​​the Thracian settlement area also gives a view of the areas now known as Thracian. The border of Thrace Cape Emine on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast continues to the west along the line Golubec , Ichtimanska Sredna Gora and Schumnatica to Mount Musala in the Rila Mountains , from there to the east over the Rhodope Mountains ( Videnica ) to the Bulgarian-Greek border at Kaintschal . In Greece it runs along the Nestos to the south to the Aegean Sea .

The northern Aegean islands of Imbros , Samothrace and Thasos were also settled by Thracians .


The Thracian ethnic group presumably originated from nomadic tribes of Indo-European origin. Some authors also assume a very strong autochthonous part of the population, others speak of Protothracians . The early peasant culture of the core area of ​​Thrace goes back to the 7th millennium BC. BC and was therefore also regarded as the actual old Europe . Some linguists even see this as the cradle of Indo-European , which is said to have spread from there across Asia Minor ( Hittites ) and the northern steppe regions to northern India as well as north and west.

Ancient Greek history

Some researchers assume that the Thracians represent a kind of indigenous or pre-population also for the Greeks (proto-Greeks). Perhaps the Thracians invaded mainland Greece before the Greeks. This is supported by the strong dominance of Thracian gods and myths in the Greek pantheon , reports by the authors of antiquity and names of places, fields and people in Greece. Thracian tribes also immigrated to Asia Minor and settled there in Bithynia , Paphlagonia and Mysia . In general, the oldest Greeks considered Thrace to be the entire area north of the Greek tribes up to the Scythians . For similar reasons, a connection between the Thracians, the Trojans and the Phrygians has been assumed again and again . Linguistically this could not be confirmed. So it is assumed today that the Phrygians in the 12th century BC Immigrated to Asia Minor via Thrace. Numerous place and tribal names as well as the names of the prehistoric kings of Phrygia speak for this connection, for example Tantalos , Teuphrant , Teleph , Tarhont and Migdon .

Oldest tribes

The ancient Greeks considered the Thracians, along with the Pelasgians , Lelegs and Carians, to be the ancients par excellence. They appeared in the stories, legends, myths, the place and field names as well as the king and tribal names all over Greece. So it is not surprising that sometimes even non-Thracian ancient tribes were viewed as Thracian by the Greeks. The number of Thracian tribes came to about 90 over time. Some of them disappeared, others merged. The Odrysen , the Bessen , the Thynen , the Geten , the Dacians , the Serden , the Moesier and the Asten attained greater importance .

Greek colonization

Between the Evros the east and the Strymon the west mentioned Herodotus (I to VII) in the east coast region, the Cicones , in the coastal area of Peraia the Sapierer , in Symvolon the Dersaier , in Marmaras Valley the Pierer , in the high mountain area of Pangaion the Satren , the Bessen and odomanti , west and north of the Pangaion in the valley of the lower Strymon and Angites the edoni , further north the Paioner and Paiopler as well as in the upper Strymontal the Bryger .

The Thracian area at the foot of the Rhodope Mountains was especially developed from the island of Thasos in the 7th century BC. Colonized by the Parians . They founded fortified settlements and acropolises on heights , which testifies to possible unrest and armed conflicts with the indigenous population. The Thracian tribes residing in the area of ​​interest of the Thasitian Greeks were active in trade, agriculture, timber and mining. At that time, mines and ore smelters may have been operated by Thracians in various locations for several centuries and the metals extracted were processed and traded.

Persian Wars

In 512 BC Thrace was conquered by the Persians under Darius . In 492 Mardonios and 480 Xerxes I moved through Thrace to Greece.

In the 5th century BC BC, probably as a result of the Persian Wars, Thracian territorial states developed. The sources are silent about this process. The kingdom of the Odryses became known , which began around 428 BC. Along the North Aegean Sea from the Strymon River to the Pontos Euxeinos ( Black Sea ) and the mouth of the Ister ( Danube ). According to Thucydides , Teres I was the first Odrysian king to gain supra-regional power in Thrace. In the Peloponnesian War , the Odrysen fought successfully as allies of Athens against its enemies. Thracian coastal cities joined the Attic League . The son of the Odrysian king Kotys I , Kersobleptes , had trouble with rival relatives, had bronze coins minted, received around 200 talents of gold and silver as taxes annually (around 500 kg of precious metal) and was friends with the Greek king Philip of Macedonia. When Kersobleptes made an open pact with Athens, Philip captured one of his sons and sent his army to Thrace.

Macedonian Province

Philip II of Macedonia conquered in 351 BC. The western part of Thrace and made it part of his empire. 341 BC The east followed as a Macedonian province. Strategists were used for the administration. 335 BC The Thracians were again subjugated by Alexander the Great . Lysimachus eventually formed a satrapy .

Hellenism and Celts

Around 281 there was a Hellenistic Thracian Empire. Around this time the Celts invaded Delphi on their retreat and founded an empire on the Tylis , which lasted from 278 to 212 BC. Existed. Philip V had to surrender the conquered areas of Thrace after 197. Antiochus III. then tried to bring the coast into Seleucid power.

The Chersonesus ( Lysimacheia , Bisanthe ) was founded in 189 BC. BC, Ainos , Maroneia 185/184 BC Besieged by Eumenes II , 170 BC. BC Abdera besieged.

Roman province

In 46 AD, after a long resistance , Thrace became a province of the Roman Empire and remained part of the Byzantine Empire .

Because of their fighting skills and fearlessness, Thracians were very popular and valued as gladiators (this type of gladiator was called thraex ). Also Spartacus , the famous gladiator and leader of the slave revolt named after him , is said to have been Thracian.

At the end of the Roman era, the traces of the Thracians as a political unit disappeared.

The kings of Thrace

Mythical kings

Historical kings

  • End of the 6th century BC BC Oloros ( King of the Dolonkers ), a tribe based on the Chersonese
  • Second quarter of the 5th century BC Chr. Teres I. ( King of Odrysians ), founder of Odrysenreiches , his son- Ariapeites was king of the Scythians.
  • Around 445-435 BC BC Sparadokos (Spartakos), son of Teres I.
  • Third quarter of the 5th century BC BC Sitalkes, son of Teres I.
  • 440-424 BC BC Sitalkes , Sitalk, ( King of the Odrysians ) son of Teres I , largest territorial expansion, expansion of the empire to Byzantion and from the North Aegean to the Danube, concluded a treaty with Athens in 431
  • 424 to around 410/05 BC Chr. Seuthes I. , son of Sparadokos , grandson Teres , presumably father of Maisades , last important Odrysenherrscher, according to Xenophon usurper with the help of the Greeks
  • Around 410 BC Chr. Maisades ( Odryse ), part of the kingdom on the Marmara Sea
  • around 410 BC Teres II ( Odryse ), part of the west of Byzantium
  • 410-400 BC Chr. Maisades , Mesad, father of Seuthes II. , Was expelled by the Persians from the areas of the Thynians , Melandites and Tranipsen
  • around 400–390 BC BC Medokos , ( King of the Odryses )
  • 390? -386 BC Chr. Seuthes II. Son of Maisades , presumably grandson of Seuthes I , lost the rule through the uprising of the Thynians , reconquered with Xenophon
  • 386-359 BC Chr. Kotys I. , Kotis ( King of Odrysians , see also Iphicrates , son. Another son was the Greek commander Charidemus , who is also still under Kersebleptes was a general in the Thracian army). Kotys appears to have been a common or honorable name in Thrace. Kotys Engiston and Kotys Etbeos appear as donors on silver phials from Alexandrovo , Vraca and Agighiol (Adzigiol).
  • 359-352 BC Chr. Amatokos ( King of Odrysians , vassal of Philip II.)
  • Approx. 359-341 BC BC Berisades (smaller kingdom between Odrysenreich and Macedonia, Maroneia and Eion )
  • 359-342 BC Chr. Kersebleptes , Cersobleptes ( King of Odrysians ), son of Kotys I, was dethroned by Philipp and ruled just east of Mariza
  • around 341 BC BC Patraios king of the peons , contemporary of Philip
  • 352 to about 300 BC Chr. Teres II. ( King of Odrysians ), successor Amatokos , vassal of Philip, had its own coins beat
  • 341-336 BC BC Philip II ( King of Macedonia )
  • 336-323 BC BC Alexander the Great ( King of Macedonia )
  • 330 Syrmos ( King of the Triballers )
  • 300-280 BC Chr. Seuthes III. (approx. 330–280), probably a dynast under Alexander, gathered the Thracians, moved from Macedonia against Lysimachus , founded Seuthopolis
  • 306-280 BC BC Lysimachus ( king and governor of Thrace ), as diadoch of Alexander administrator of Thrace, from 306 king. At that time Dromichaites was king of the Geten , Srojos ruler in Thrace, minted his own coins
  • Around 300 BC Chr. Sadalas little king of the Nipsians , neighbor of Mesembrias , contemporary of Lysimachus
  • 299-281 BC BC Arsinoë II ( Queen of Thrace ) (Greco-Macedonian descent)
  • Approx. 277-260 BC BC Skostokos
  • Second half of the third century BC BC Sadales ( King of the Asten (?) ), In northeastern Thrace
  • Approx. 225-218 BC Chr. Kavaros
  • around 200 BC Chr. Seuthes IV. ( King of the Odryses )
  • Until 184 BC BC Amadokos ( Odryse ), king (?) Of a sub-tribe
  • Before 181 to after 167 BC Chr. Kotys III. ( King of Odryses ), son of Seuthes IV, 178–168 ally of Perseus , after 168 alliance with Rome
  • Before 179 to after 172 BC Chr. Abrupolis ( King of Sapäer ), friend and ally of Rome
  • ??? - ??? v. BC Adaios
  • ??? - ??? v. Chr. Charaspes
  • Middle of the second century BC BC Teres ( King (?) Of the Odryses ), supported Andriskos
  • 150 to 145/1 Diedylis ( King of Kainer )
  • Around 147 BC Chr. Barsabas
  • 141 BC BC Zibelmios ( King of the Kainers), son of Diedylis, killed by subjects
  • Around 100 to 87 BC Chr. Kotys IV. ( King of buttons ), founder of the dynasty odrysisch-asteischen
  • Around 87 to 80 BC Sadalas I. ( King of the Asten ), perhaps son of Kotys IV., Supported Sulla
  • First half of the first century BC Teres ( Odryse ), partial prince under Kotys IV and Sadalas I.
  • First half of the first century BC Amatokos ( Odryse ), part prince under Kotys IV. And Sadalas I.
  • Around 58–45 / 4 BC Chr. Kotys V. ( King of buttons ), son of Sadalas I., supported Pompey
  • 45 / 4–42 BC Sadales II. ( King of the Asten ), son of Kotys V, bequeathed his territory to Rome
  • Middle of the first century BC Chr. Kotys I.
  • Approx. 48-42 BC BC Rhaskuporis I , son of Kotys, founder of the Japanese dynasty; Ally of Pompey, then of Brutus and Cassius.
  • Around 42 BC BC Rhaskos , brother of Rhaskuporis I.
  • Around 42 to 31 BC BC Kotys II , son of Rhaskuporis I, Battle of Actium, held to Marcus Antonius
  • around 31 BC BC to around 12 AD Rhoimetalkes I , son of Kotys II, battle of Actium
  • At 31 BC Chr. Sadalas (III.)
  • 22 (?) - 11 BC Chr. Rhaskuporis II. , Son-in-law of Rhoimetalkes I in the Pannonian uprising on the side of the Romans
  • Around 12-19 AD Rhaskuporis III.
  • Around 12 to before 19 AD Kotys III.
  • 26 AD Rhoimetalkes II , on the side of the Romans
  • 38–45 / 46 AD Rhoimetalkes III.


The extinct Thracian language, sometimes also called Dako-Thracian, is an independent branch of the Indo-European or Indo-European languages . It was spoken in Thrace, some Aegean islands, and northwestern Asia Minor. A closer relationship with the Phrygian could not be proven. The relationship with Greek is also unclear. Dialects of Thracian were Dacian , Getisch and Moesisch . There are some linguistic monuments, but only very short inscriptions in Greek , so that the impression arises that Thracian was hardly used as a written language for longer texts.

Thracian culture

The Thracians had a differentiated society. They were organized in tribes under the leadership of tribal chiefs and kings. Extensive trade connected them with the surrounding world of the Greeks, Persians , Scythians and other steppe peoples, including the Celts , Romans and even Egypt .

Thracian art, which had a long and complicated development path from the beginning of the Bronze Age to the end of antiquity, left behind remarkable treasures, tombs, places of worship, cities ( Seuthopolis ). One of the most interesting structures of the Thracians are burial mounds , in which the rulers and tribal leaders were buried. Today they are to be found especially in southern Bulgaria, where numerous such graves have been preserved. Unfortunately, they are increasingly being looted and the finds reach the international antique trade via stolen goods.

Particularly popular in the 1990s was the region of the Kazanlak Plain (known as the Plain of Roses), where new burial sites can be found showing the development of Thracian culture between the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Chr., Discovered, so that the world learned of a so-called low plain of the Thracian tsars .

The discoveries of the latter's archaeologists were considered a sensation. Examples are the Thracian cult center Starosel (near Chissarja , Plovdiv region ), Perperikon (near Kardzhali , in the Eastern Rhodopes), where a sacred rock city of the Thracians was discovered, Beglik Tash (near Primorsko , Burgas region ), Tatul , the treasures of Slatinitsa , Sinemorez and many others.

The Thracian tomb of Alexandrovo

Particularly beautiful frescoes in the Thracian tomb of Alexandrovo near Stara Sagora , which were uncovered in 2000, date from the Hellenistic period . There are very realistically stylized hunting scenes, as can hardly be found more vivid depictions in the ancient world.

Treasures of the Thracians

In Bulgaria and Romania numerous gold treasures have been found over the years (including in Krajova, Peretu, the settlement and burial mounds near Chotnitza and Karanowo).

The gold treasure of Chotnitsa

The oldest Thracian treasures come from the Stone-Copper and the Bronze Age. In addition to gold objects, they often contain copper and bronze hatchets, sickles and tools. The gold treasure discovered in 1955 near the village of Chotnitsa ( Veliko Tarnovo municipality ) dates from this period . The excavations took place in 1956 and 2000–2007. He is in the second half of the 5th millennium BC. And is considered to be the oldest. The treasure contains 44 gold objects, mostly bracelets, rings and amulets. In the second campaign, more gold artifacts, jewelry, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures and ceramic vessels and stone utensils were unearthed.

Dabene's treasure

A treasure trove from the year 2005 is the more than 4000 year old treasure from the Bronze Age . He was found in the summer in western Thrace near the village of Dabene . The excavators found 15,000 pieces of gold, even gold powder, an extremely rare find at this time. In 2006, during excavations in the same place, in addition to more than 500 tiny gold rings, a dagger made of a platinum-gold alloy was found. Due to the high hardness of the material, the dagger was still razor-sharp so that you could shave with it - a testament to the high level of metalworking art of the Thracians.

The gold treasure from Waltschitran

The Thracian gold treasure of Waltschitran (also Valtchitran) near Pleven is the heaviest gold treasure found in Europe. It was found in 1924 and is dated towards the end of the Bronze Age (16th – 12th centuries BC). It consists of six vessels and seven lids with a total weight of 12.5 kg of pure gold. The largest vessel weighs 4.5 kg and has two decorated handles. Another vessel, a large cup, was used to pour - most likely wine - into three smaller ones that only stood upright when full.

The Panagyurishte gold treasure

The Panagyurishte gold treasure

Gold Treasure Panagyurishte in central Bulgaria was discovered 1949th Consisting of nine vessels made of gold, the artistic workmanship is impressive. Seven of the vessels are rhytoi - three of them are in the shape of a woman's head, two resemble a fallow deer head , one a ram's head and one the front part of a billy goat. The rhyton necks are decorated with scenes from Greek and Thracian mythology. It also includes a phial , which is decorated with four concentric friezes with heads of black Africans and acorns. The handles of the largest vessel, an amphora , are designed as centaurs . The central frieze is arranged around the realistic wooden gate of a Thracian temple. In the inner part, two priests prepare a religious ceremony, five warriors fight in front of the temple facade. The treasure was dated in the 4th – 3rd centuries. Century BC It is believed that it was made in the Panagyurishte region.

The Rogozen silver treasure

Parts of the Rogozen treasure

Most of the Thracian treasures date from the Late Iron Age. The treasure of Rogozen (near Wraza ) is the largest according to its diverse composition - 108 phials, 54 jugs, one each skyphos, kothyle and gobele. Of great importance are the inscriptions on the walls of the vessels with the names of Thracian rulers and cities. The vessels are decorated with floral and geometric ornaments and depictions of people and animals, some of them grouped in scenes from Thracian mythology. Many of the jewelry elements are gold-plated.

Borovo treasure

Five silver vessels were discovered in the Thracian necropolis of Borowo , a small town in northern Bulgaria. On three rhytoi one can see the front parts of the bodies of a flying sphinx , a horse and a bull. A bowl with two handles is decorated with human heads and depicts a scene of animal fighting. A small rhyton jug depicts dances and festivals of gods and heroes. Three of the vessels bear inscriptions with the name of the Thracian ruler Kotys I.

Slatinitsa gold treasures

On July 23, 2003, Bulgarian archaeologists unearthed a 2400 year old treasure with over 15,000 gold objects from the Thracian era. The archaeologists found the treasure when they were digging near the village of Slatinitsa , about 300 km east of the Bulgarian capital. The chance encounter between the scientists and a farmer's wife was decisive. She wore a striking piece of jewelry made of small golden rings that her husband had found in the fields and made into a chain.

The researchers found, among other things, a golden crown, golden rings, silver sacrificial cups as well as parts of armor and horse harness. Based on the grave goods, it is likely that it is a royal tomb. The body was in a large wood-paneled pit with two horses and a dog. The grave, or the burial, could be dated from 360 to 370 BC thanks to the enclosed Greek pottery. To be dated.

The Thracian ruler Seutus , whose reign of terror has been described by the Greek chronicler Xenophontes , could be buried in the tomb . Seutus had crowned himself king 2500 years ago and suppressed the Thracian tribes with the help of Greek mercenaries.

The excavator and archaeologist Daniela Agre, on the other hand, suggests King Kersobleptes , an honorary citizen and ally of Athens, ruler of the Thracian Odrysenian Empire , son of the great Kotys I (see above).

Topolchane's golden mask

In July 2007, the archaeologist Georgi Kitow found a golden grave mask during excavations near the village of Topolchane not far from Sliven . The pompous golden mask is attributed to a Thracian ruler. Together with valuable ritual vessels, ceramics and other grave goods, the mask was discovered in a burial chamber equipped with wooden walls. The grave is dated to the 4th century BC. Dated. Today it is believed that this grave belongs to the Thracian ruler Teres I , the father of the Sitalkes .


The Thracian weapons were of a special form. The shield was round and small. Her sword was a romphaia , a long, slightly curved sword.


The Thracians were mainly cattle breeders and lived in the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula but also in the plains, where they founded cities early on. Thracian names from cattle breeding live on in the rural culture of the Balkans to this day.


  • At the Hebros , at the foothills of the Rhodope Mountains , there is said to have been a mythical battle between Hera (embodiment of the Rhodope Mountains) and Zeus (embodiment of the Balkan Mountains ). But this is also where the origin of the Thracian fertility cult ( Orphic cult) lies .
  • The Thracian people worshiped the Great Mother and her virgin-born son as the deity of hunting and fertility . Both are known by different names, including in Phrygia . Artemis , also Bendis or Axieros , also Semele (Thracian Zemelos = earth), the great mother goddess, goddess of the hunt and fertility and mother of nature (in Phrygia Cybele ). Bendis, goddess of the family and sex, was actually closer to Hera, but was equated by the Thracians with Artemis.
  • Dionysus , son of Semele, was also very popular with the Greeks because of the orgiastic cults associated with him. Raw meat was consumed in order to incorporate the god, and a lot of wine was ritually drunk (in Phrygia Sabazios ).
  • Dionysus was assigned the nymph or maenad Eryope .
  • Orpheus was also considered the son of the Bendis and is considered a mythical king from the Rhodope Mountains of Thrace. His grandfather was Charops , his father Oiagros , the name of a river god. According to another tradition, Mount Pierus in South Macedonia was the home of Orpheus and the Muses .
    Orpheus is considered a historical figure by science. He was possibly a reformer of the Dionysus cult. His myth embodied the immortality of the soul and combined strong oriental influences with the Thracian roots. The Greeks ascribed the invention of music and dance to him. His myth of the love for the nymph Eurydice is connected with the underworld, Hades . With his singing and playing the lyre, he bewitches gods, people and even animals. According to the myth passed down by the Greeks, the maenads threw the head of Orpheus into Hebrus , who is then supposed to have driven to the island of Lesbos , still singing . Ovid reports that Orpheus, always accompanied by a flock of nymphs, is torn to pieces by Thracian women.
  • Apollo , Orpheus is said to have worshiped him on Mount Pangaion .
  • Kadmilos , god of vegetation on Samothrace.
  • Axiersos and Axiersa as gods of the underworld.
  • Eurydice , also Agriope, or Argiope, Thracian tree nymph .
  • Boreas, Greek god of the north wind, was worshiped by the Thracians alike.
  • Eioneios river god of Strymon who was originally called Eion or Aioneios. He was considered the father of King Rhesus .
  • Phyllis the daughter of the Thracian king Sithon . Out of grief over the long absence of her lover Demophon, she gave herself to death and was transformed into a leafless almond tree, which, then embraced by Demophon, sprouted leaves.
  • The Thracian king Polymnestor killed Polydorus , the richly gifted son Priam , out of greed after the fall of Troy , and threw his body into the sea. Hecabe , his mother, fished him out, blinded Polymnestor in revenge and kills his children.
  • The Lapiths of Larisa, who fought the legendary battle with the Centaurs, probably have Thracian roots. It shall Bute , the father of Hippodamia , as king of the Thracians. The Lapiths are considered to be descendants of Apollo .
  • Ity's son of the Thracian king Tereus with the Athenian king's daughter Prokne . In revenge, his mother tears him to pieces and takes him to his father's supper.
  • Darzalas was worshiped by the residents of Odessos .
  • Gebelaizes , also called Salmoxis , was worshiped by the Geten.

Numerous Greek myths about Heracles are connected with the Thracians or are entwined with the mythical kings Kadmos , Lycurgus , Diomedes and Orpheus .

In Hellenistic times, a Thracian hero was revered as a cavalryman.

Later, Christianity had an easy time in Thrace, since the religious components, mother, son, immaculate conception and Lord's Supper already had an old tradition here.

Famous Thracians

  • Orpheus : Mythical figure (Orpheus cult)
  • Eumolpos : Mythical figure (the "beautiful singing"), a Thracian who immigrated to Eleusis , son of Poseidon and Chione , a daughter of Boreas , as a singer, warrior, priest of Demeter
  • Marron : mythical priest-king of Apollo. The Thracian port city of Maroneia is already famous for its wine by Homer. Odysseus receives his wine there from the Apollo priest Maron, son of Euanthes ( Odyssey 9, 40 ff .; 9, 196 ff.)
  • Spartacus : Gladiator in Rome and leader of the slave revolt of 73 BC Chr.
  • Maximinus Thrax : 235-238 Roman emperor
  • Justin I .: 518–527 Eastern Roman emperor of rural Dako-Thracian origin
  • Thracian maid: an unknown sly woman who appears in the Thales description of Socrates .
  • Sosias was a Thracian slave who commanded 1000 mining slaves in Laurion on behalf of the Athenian general Nikias.
  • Thucydides was related to Thrace: his mother's great-grandfather, Prince Olores , had mines in the gold- and silver-rich Pangaion Mountains in Thrace.
  • Antisthenes , the pupil of Socrates and father of Cynic philosophy, was of Thracian origin on his mother's side.
  • Elpinike , sister of the Athenian politician and statesman Kimon , was a daughter of the Thracian princess Hegesipyle.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Kalin Porozanov (Institute for Thracology, Sofia): Indo-Europeans in Eurasia. In: The Thracians. The golden kingdom of Orpheus. Catalog Bundeskunsthalle Bonn. Zabern, Mainz 2004, ISBN 3-8053-3341-2 .
  2. Gold Treasure Khotniza (Engl.)
  3. Adventure archeology. Cultures, people, monuments. 2005,4, p. 7 u. 2006,4, p. 8. ISSN  1612-9954