|Landsat image of the Dardanelles|
|Connects waters||Sea of Marmara|
|with water||Aegean Sea|
|Separates land mass||Asia Minor|
|of land mass||Gallipoli Peninsula ( Balkans )|
|Smallest width||1.3 km|
|Greatest depth||82 m|
|Coastal towns||Çanakkale , Gelibolu , Lapseki|
The Dardanelles ( modern Greek Δαρδανέλλια Dardanellia , also Δαρδανέλια Dardanelia ( n. Pl. ), Turkish Çanakkale boğazı ) are a strait in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Turkey , between the Aegean and the Marmara Sea . In ancient times, this strait was called Hellespont (pronounced Heles-pont ), named after Helle , a figure from Greek mythology , and ancient Greek πόντος pontos "sea", "high seas".
The Dardanelles lie between the European Gallipoli peninsula and Northwest Anatolia , which belongs to Asia Minor , and are the most south-westerly part of the inner Eurasian border . The name comes from Dardanos , a settlement that was near Troy .
This strait connects the Aegean Sea with the Marmara Sea and via the adjacent Bosporus with the Black Sea . The Dardanelles are about 65 kilometers long and between 1.3 and 6 kilometers wide, with an average depth of 50 meters. On the surface, a current flows from the Marmara Sea to the Mediterranean , while an undercurrent flows in the opposite direction, due to the almost twice as high salinity of the Mediterranean as compared to the Black Sea.
The port city of Çanakkale is located on the Asian coast of the Dardanelles . The Çanakkale 1915 bridge between Lapseki and Gelibolu is under construction. At 3,623 meters, it will be the longest bridge in Turkey . The target completion date is 2023 .
In Greek mythology , it is said that Achilles was buried in the floods of the Hellespont after his death in the Trojan War . According to tradition, the ancient places Sestos on the European and Abydos on the shores of Asia Minor were the scene of the story of Hero and Leander .
In the Second Persian War , the Persian King Xerxes crossed the Hellespont during his campaign against Greece around 480 BC. With two ship bridges , each of which consisted of over 300 ships and is said to have had a temporary opening for smaller ships. Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC. BC with an army of about 35,000 Macedonians and Greeks at the beginning of his Persian campaign .
In the Peloponnesian War there were several significant battles on the Hellespont, including the Battle of Kyzikos in 410 BC. And the battle of Aigospotamoi , the decisive defeat of the Athenians in 405 BC. Chr.
In 1656 there was the Battle of the Dardanelles , one of the naval battles and battles that the fleets of the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire fought for supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean.
According to the Dardanelles Treaty of 1841, only Turkish warships were allowed to cross this strait. In the run-up to World War I, the Dardanelles played an important role: Russia was concerned that the German Empire might gain too much influence over the region. For this reason, Russia put pressure on the Entente to offer resistance to the German Reich in setting up a military mission. During the First World War , due to its strategic location , the Dardanelles were the scene of the Battle of Gallipoli with high casualties on both sides. Since 1936, the Montreux Treaty has regulated passage rights.
- Jona Lendering: Hellespont (Dardanelles) . In: Livius.org (English)
- Newspaper article on the "Dardanelles question" (until 1923) in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics . (ditto since 1923 )
- Çanakkale to be site of Turkey's longest bridge. In: hurriyetdailynews.com. January 28, 2012 (English).
- Türkiye'nin en uzun köprüsü Çanakkale'ye. In: milliyet.com.tr. October 27, 2012 (Turkish).
- Herodotus 7:36
- Christopher Clark : The Sleepwalkers . Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-421-04359-7 .