Alexanderzug (also called Alexander Campaign) is the name in ancient history for the coherent, ten-year campaign of conquest of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great . It took place as part of the Persian War that broke out at the instigation of his father Philip II of Macedonia and lasted from spring 334 to March 324 BC. Thanks to his army, which had already been excellently trained by Philip, capable officers and generals and his personal abilities, Alexander was extremely successful despite a relatively small armed force .
Chronology (all information BC)
- Spring 334: Beginning of Alexander the Great's campaign against Persia and the Great King Dareios III. Kodomannos .
- May 334: Alexander's victory in the Battle of Granicus ; then the conquest of Asia Minor took place ( siege of Miletus and siege of Halicarnassus ).
- November 333: Alexander's victory in the battle of Issus and rejection of the peace offers of Darius and the conquest of Phenicia .
- January – August 332: Siege and subsequent storming of the city of Tire ; then on to Egypt .
- Autumn 332: Successful siege of Gaza and entry of Alexander into Egypt without resistance.
- Spring 331: Foundation of the city of Alexandria in the Nile Delta ; Train to Siwa Oasis and visit the Ammon Oracle there; then departure for Mesopotamia .
- October 331: decisive battle between Alexander and Darius near Gaugamela on the Tigris ; the defeated Persian king fled and was later murdered by his satrap Bessus (July 330); Alexander was proclaimed "King of Asia" by his troops; then he occupied Babylon and moved into other central Persian cities.
- Spring 330: The Achaemenid ruler's palace of Persepolis is pillaged .
- May 330: In Ekbatana, Alexander declared the all-Greek federal war ended and released the war contingents of the members of the Corinthian League ; then Alexander moved further east.
- 330–327: Eastern Persia is subjugated in bloody campaigns; Alexander must divide his army into smaller divisions in order to be able to operate more flexibly against the rebels; Alexander advanced as far as Bactria and Sogdia .
- Summer 327: beginning of the campaign to India ( Punjab ); Alexander achieved several victories in the following years, for example against the powerful Indian prince Poros in the battle of the Hydaspes .
- Summer 326: Alexander's troops refused to allow their king to continue on the Hyphasis due to general exhaustion caused by the constant monsoon rains; then Alexander was forced to break off his campaign of conquest and then moved further downstream of the Indus .
- Summer 325: Alexander reached the eastern ocean, whereupon he sacrificed to the Egyptian god Ammon on the open sea; then Alexander began the march back to central Persia.
- Autumn 325: Beginning of the costly train through the desert of Gedrosien .
- March 324: Alexander reached the Persian royal seat of Susa , with which his "Alexanderzug" came to an end.
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