Philip II (Macedonia)
In decades of fighting against the Illyrians , Thracians and the Greek Poleis , he made Macedonia the supreme power in Greece . After his victory over the Athenians and Thebans in the battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He united the Greek states in the Corinthian League , to whose hegemon he was elected. The achievements of the Macedonian army under his son and successor Alexander were based essentially on the military reform of Philip II.
Macedonia before Philip II
The ancient Macedonia was a largely agricultural embossed state in the north of Greece . Even in ancient times it was controversial whether and to what extent the Macedonians were related to the Greeks - a dispute that still causes plenty of conflict today. Above all, however, Macedonia was viewed by the Greeks as "semi-barbaric", since its form of government was kingship, which had almost completely disappeared in Greece, its population clung to almost archaic customs and it had almost no urban culture, one of the main characteristics for the Greeks " civilized life ”. However, the Argead family was considered Greek and was allowed to do so from the early 5th century BC. To participate in the Olympic Games. The ports on the coast were in Greek hands, while Macedonia was of some importance as a supplier of wood (especially important for shipbuilding) and pitch.
Mainly due to internal structural problems, Macedonia had hardly played a role in the Greek power struggles before the reign of Philip II. The exception was the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC), during which the Macedonians changed sides several times. The influential nobility , split into regional cliques in the high and lowlands, strictly observed their autonomy. As a result, the king's influence often only extended over a small part of the actual kingdom and large parts of it were beyond his direct control, especially since the king assumed the position of primus inter pares among the nobles and his power was primarily based on personal ties and not based on institutions. Many changes of government in Aigai (or from around 400 BC in Pella ) were bloody. Nevertheless, if the king had enough political instinct and bound the nobility to himself, he could rule relatively unrestrictedly, since he only had to take formal consideration of the Macedonian army assembly. This played a role, for example, in the recognition of the king or in high treason trials. However, no king had really succeeded in this before Philip.
The problematic strategic situation of Macedonia, which was exposed to a constant threat from the Illyrians and other peoples from the Balkans , made matters worse . Macedonia had a powerful cavalry, but insufficient infantry, as there was no urban class that could have borne the cost of weapons and armor. One of Philip's achievements is to have recognized the need for reform in the army structure and to have effectively mastered it. More than his military and organizational talent, his diplomatic skills distinguished him, as he succeeded in controlling the rebellious Macedonian nobility for the first time and strengthening the kingship so that it was almost absolutist in Philip's time.
The early years
Philip II was the third son of King Amyntas III. and Eurydice was born. In his youth he lived for three years (approx. 368–365 BC) as a hostage in Thebes in the house of the general Pammenes, as security for the observance of the alliance between Thebes and Philip's brother Alexander II. In Thebes, Philip could use the skills of admire through Epaminonda's reorganized and drilled Theban army that died in 371 BC. In the Battle of Leuktra the Spartans , who until then had been considered invincible in open battle, had been able to destroy them and thus established the Theban hegemony . Philipp should later make use of the experience he gained there, both in the military and in the diplomatic field. It wasn't until his older brother Perdiccas III. became king of Aloros under the reign of Ptolemy , he returned from Thebes.
Philip took over for his underage nephew Amyntas (IV.) 359 BC. The reign (according to some historians already at the end of 360), since his older brother Perdickas had died in a battle against the Illyrians , and apparently soon became king in place of the young Amyntas. In contrast to earlier cases in Macedonian history in which "guardians" murdered their wards, he left his nephew alive. Amyntas (IV.) Lived until Philip's death in 336 BC. At his court; only then did Philip's son Alexander the great murder him. At least since the birth of Alexander in 356 BC. In the 2nd century BC Philip is likely to have ruled as king in his own name.
At the time of his assumption of government, Macedonia was threatened with collapse, as the Illyrians were on the verge of permanently occupying large parts of the empire. Because with Perdiccas III. 4,000 Macedonians were also killed, a bloodletting that the kingdom could hardly catch at first. Other neighbors such as the Paionians , the Thracians or Athens pursued their own interests at the expense of the weakened state. Philip managed to stabilize the kingdom through a variety of promises, tributes, bribes and military actions. So he banished the danger posed by the Illyrians by defeating their old king Bardylis . In the following years Philipp was even able to expand his sphere of influence. The mighty nobility stood in the crisis years after 359 BC. BC probably largely closed behind Philip, other pretenders to the throne were eliminated by Philip. In the first years of his reign, Philip must have succeeded in uniting the Upper Macedonian kingdoms such as Lynkestis or Elimiotis under his leadership and integrating them into his system of rule. Alexander I last succeeded in doing this over a century earlier, but in contrast to Philip II, he had not been able to tie her tightly to himself.
Army reform and first successes
The additional troops from Upper Macedonia only made up part of the coming military success. Rather, the reforms of the army carried out by Philip were responsible for the success of the Macedonian army. The sarissa (a lance about 5.5 m long) was added to the equipment of the infantry and the formation was staggered in combat. The coordination of the armed forces was also crucial; especially the interaction of infantry and cavalry gained in importance. The Macedonian army became the most powerful army that antiquity had seen up to then, and Macedonia, which was previously insignificant, became a serious power factor. Philipp, who did not spare himself in combat, could rely on capable helpers. His best general was Parmenion , who had supported Philip since he took office and had successfully waged war against the Illyrians. Above all, however, this army was owed to the king and loyal to him, not to the nobles. So Philipp gave land to men whose sons now served in the elite equestrianism - the "companions" ( hetairoi ), compared to the "companions on foot" ( pezhetairoi ). In addition, numerous lightly armed foot troops served in the army, covering the flanks or providing support during combat. In addition, engineer troops were used for sieges if necessary, with Philipp also using Greek specialists. The experience of the Macedonians in the field of siege technology later benefited Alexander.
In the first years of his reign, Philip left no stone unturned to stabilize his empire. In the first two years he defeated the Illyrians and Paionen and then began as early as 357 BC. To expand in the coastal area of Macedonia, where he, a real politician, cleverly played off the two powers represented there, Athens and the Chalcidian League. It shouldn't be the last time that Philipp showed his diplomatic talent. The Macedonian army captured the city of Amphipolis founded by Athens , then Pydna and Potideia (356 BC). Both times it collided with Athenian interests. The Athenians had expected that Philip would give them Amphipolis, which, of course, he had never intended; With Pydna, Philip even conquered a city allied with Athens. As sea cities they were also of great value to Macedonia, and Athens was still there until 355 BC. Involved in an alliance war, which is why they could not take care of the North Aegean problems.
356 BC BC Philip seized the chance to bring the city of Krenides under his control. From there he was called to help against a Thracian prince. After the fall of Krenides, the city was renamed Philippi . With the highly symbolic naming, Philip established a tradition that was taken up by Alexander and later by the Diadochi and finally the Romans. The city and the surrounding area now allowed Philip to exploit the mines of the Pangaion Mountains. The annual profits of the mines - around 1,000 talents (the sum was roughly equivalent to what Athens received from the confederation area at the height of its power ) - used Philip II to expand his influence, partly to recruit mercenaries, partly to attract politicians and envoys from others Cities to make great gifts and to get them on his side. He also had a new gold coin minted with his name.
Internally, the Macedonian state remained relatively loosely organized. The king was the focus of all state activities. Philip tied several noble families to himself; The so-called “royal pages” ( basilikoi paides ) also served this purpose : sons of noble families who were brought up around the royal court. Philip usually left garrisons in the conquered Greek cities, but their self-government was hardly affected, even though Philip appointed “agents” who were supposed to inform him about internal processes. It should be noted that the cities in the coastal region, which now and subsequently fell to Macedonia, played an important role in the new state, especially in economic terms.
Struggle for hegemony
Until 355 BC As described, the coastal region bordering Macedonia was largely in Philip's hands. At the same time Philip II besieged Methone , the last great city allied with Athens on the northern Aegean. The Macedonians stormed the city the following year after the defenders realized that Athens was unable to deliver the promised relief despite promises of aid . Philip lost his right eye. Campaigns to Thrace followed , but initially did not have the hoped-for success. Its expansion was also directed south, towards Thessaly . Thessalian royal houses fought for supremacy, including the Aleuads of Larissa, with whom the Macedonian royal house had been friends for decades. The Aleuads called on Philip II for help after the Phokers became involved on the side of their opponents from Pherai .
At that time, Thessaly was the sideline of the Third Holy War , in which Macedonia was now involved (353 BC). The Phocians occupied and sacked Delphi , seat of the famous oracle of Delphi . They also formed an alliance with Sparta. Philip II, called for help by the Aleuads, gladly took the opportunity - not least, he hoped that it would be useful for propaganda purposes: as early as 356 BC. He had cleverly exploited the victory of his horse-drawn carriage at the Olympic Games ; now he was playing the " Panhellenic card" again. Philipp was not entitled to victory as a rider, but as the owner of the victorious horse. He often had the motif of a young rider with a palm branch as a sign of victory struck on the reverse of his coins. The head of the Greek god Zeus, Apollo or Heracles was embossed on the front.
At the same time, the cry for help was also a welcome excuse to move Macedonian troops to central Greece. However, they initially suffered two defeats against the Phocians commanded by Onomarchus and had to withdraw temporarily to Macedonia. Philip II returned in 352 BC. BC returned to Thessaly and was able to decisively defeat the Phocians in the battle on the crocus field . In the course of this Philip was recognized by the Thessalians as archon (and thus leader) of their league for his commitment in the war against the Phocians . An advance by the Macedonians into central Greece, however, was stopped by the Athenians, who blocked Thermopylae . For this Philip turned back to Thrace. There the Thracian king Kersobleptes had switched to the side of Athens, as a result of which Philip II was confronted with a potential two-front war. He withdrew his troops from central Greece and until 351 BC. BC restored the original order in Thrace.
With the conquest of important silver and gold deposits on the Pangaion (see above) Philipp had given himself enough leeway for his further plans, which culminated in the hegemony over all of Greece. After his interlude in Thrace, Philip II attacked in 349 BC. To the Chalcidice . At first he focused on small towns like Torone , Mekyberna and Stageira , the hometown of Aristotle . But his main focus was undoubtedly on the strategically important Olynthos . That is why he began to look for a c assus belli , presumably while he was still in Thessaly . Because two of his half-brothers were staying in Olynthus, he could demand their return to Macedonia, knowing full well that the Olynthians would not give in. The decisive factor was the potential danger emanating from the Chalcis, especially in an alliance with Athens. After the extradition was rejected, Philip II besieged in 349 BC. The city and was able to conquer it a year later. The city was destroyed, the two half-brothers of Philip, who could have asserted claims to the throne, were murdered and the population was sold into slavery, similar to Stageira and Potideia. Athens had responded too late to the call for help from Olynthus; a fleet of 30 triremes had not reached the city in time. The Athenians could only helplessly watch the Macedonian expansion. In the peace of Philocrates in the year 346 BC In the same year that the Phocians were finally defeated, Macedonian hegemony was recognized over large parts of Greece.
343 BC Philip concluded with the then Persian great king Artaxerxes III. , the last important Achaemenid , a non-aggression pact or a delimitation of the respective spheres of interest. Otherwise Philip would have risked the wrath of the great king at a time that was unfavorable for him, especially since he had partly secretly and partly openly supported insurgent Persian governors. In Athens they were alarmed about the Macedonian expansion, while Philip made serious efforts to reach an understanding and offered improvements to the Peace of Philocrates. When this was rejected, Philip declared in 341 BC. The Athenians said he would no longer accept their interference. Until 340 BC BC Thrace was completely in Macedonian hands; it was placed under a Macedonian strategos . In the same year Philip besieged Byzantium , which held out, however, and captured an Athenian grain fleet. This, however, jeopardized the vital supply of grain from the Bosporan Empire , which is why the Athenians now declared war on Philip II, under the influence of the speaker and politician Demosthenes , who had given several haunting speeches against Philip's policies (see the Expression Philippika back). One consequence was that the newly created Macedonian fleet was initially heavily harassed by the Athenian fleet and had to retreat to the Black Sea. The morale of his soldiers - after all, both the siege of Byzantium and Perinth had failed - Philip restored through a successful campaign on the Danube. 339 BC The Macedonian army advanced surprisingly quickly into central Greece and occupied strategically important positions, but the fighting brought no decision. Now Thebes also joined the alliance founded by Athens.
Beginning of August 338 BC With an army of 30,000 Macedonians and Thessalians, Philip II destroyed the (roughly equal) allied Greek armies of Thebes, Athens and other city-states through the massive cavalry deployment, which was led by his son Alexander, in the battle of Chaironeia . It was the end of the last serious rebellion of the rest of the Greeks against Macedonia and, if this was not yet clear to contemporaries, the end of the traditional polis world . Philip treated the defeated Athens, where there were certainly representatives of a pro-Macedonian policy ( e.g. Aeschines or Demades , who negotiated peace between Macedonia and Athens), quite mildly, while Thebes received a Macedonian occupation as a result of the defeat and also in terms of political autonomy lost.
Philipp founded in 337 BC The so-called Corinthian League , to which all Greek city-states except Sparta belonged. He became its hegemon and authorized strategos and thus de facto controlled the federal government, which was above all an instrument for the implementation of its policies. He also proclaimed a General Peace ( κοινή ειρήνη , koiné eiréne ) - a long- cherished hope of many Greeks who were tired of constant wars - and obtained the approval of the Confederation for a campaign against the Persian Empire . The reason was to take revenge for the destruction during the Xerxes campaign 140 years earlier; in reality, however, it was probably a matter of directing the forces of the always restless city-states towards a common goal and diverting them from anti-Macedonian actions. At the same time, the campaign promised rich booty and an expansion of Macedonian influence.
Philipp and Alexander
Philipp had several wives, sometimes more than one at the same time. The ancient writer Satyros of Kallatis names seven of them:
- Phila, sister of Derdas III. from the ruling house of Elimeia in Upper Macedonia
- Audata, probably a relative of the Illyrian King Bardyllis I.
- Olympias of Epeiros , niece of the Molossian king of Epeiros , mother of Alexander the great and Cleopatra
- Nikesipolis of Pherai , Thessaly, mother of Thessalonike
- Philinna of Larissa , Thessaly, mother of Arrhidaios
- Meda, daughter of a Getic king
- Cleopatra , niece of the Macedonian general Attalus
- Theodore Antikas, daughter of the Scythian king Atheas
At least Cleopatra and Olympias, and perhaps Meda too, were Philip's wives at the same time, while there are no reports of the others. His weddings were part of Philip's alliance policy, in which alliances were sealed with the connection of the respective royal houses. In addition to various affairs with women, Philipp also had sexual contacts with men, which was not unusual.
As far as is known, Philip II had only five children from the wives mentioned above. From Nikesipolis he had a daughter named Thessalonike, from Philinna a son named Arrhidaios , from Olympias Alexander and Cleopatra and from his last wife Cleopatra a daughter named Europa.
The relationship with his son Alexander was often very tense, although he tried to surpass his father's achievements. An episode from Alexander's childhood has come down to us that is hardly historical, but was also intended to illustrate Alexander's fiery ambition as well as Philip's pride in his achievements: When one day the horse Bucephalus was offered to Philip , he refused it, apparently not was to be tamed. However, Alexander stated that he could do it, which he did. Then Philipp is said to have proudly declared:
“Go, my son, find your own kingdom worthy of you.
Macedonia is not big enough for you. "
Apparently Philip wanted on the one hand to prevent Olympias from exerting too much influence on his son; on the other hand, his behavior was sometimes ambivalent. Philip, who had also brought the Greek philosopher Aristotle to Pella to teach Alexander and some of his friends, probably expected the unconditional loyalty of his son, even if his position as his successor was not assured. The same applied to his mother Olympias, who had no special rank among the many wives of Philip and whose influence only stemmed from being the mother of the likely next Macedonian king. Other children of Philip - such as Alexander's half-brother Arrhidaios - or future male descendants of Philip, however, meant a threat to Alexander's position in the Macedonian Empire. It was not jealousy but instincts of power that determined the actions of the ambitious Olympias and probably also Alexander. The Pixodaros affair of 336 BC points to considerable competition between Philip's sons . In the context of which several friends of Alexander were exiled. Philip had tried to establish good relations with Pixodaros, the Persian governor in Caria , and suggested his son Arrhidaios as son-in-law. Alexander, who apparently feared his person would be set back, offered himself up as Pixodaros' son-in-law, but no connection was established.
As early as 337 BC Chr. Philip took another wife with Cleopatra. She was the niece of the Macedonian general Attalus , who already had a great influence at the court of Pella. This led to considerable tension between Philip and Alexander; It has also been speculated that Philipp, for whatever reasons, no longer trusted Alexander after his success at Chaironeia. At a celebration, according to Plutarch , Attalus is said to have humiliated Alexander by indirectly calling him the illegitimate heir to the throne, a common means in the political struggle at the Macedonian royal court. After this scandal, in which Philip himself took the side of Attalus and wanted to attack Alexander with a sword, which he was unable to do because of his drunkenness, Alexander is said to have mocked his father:
“Look at him, gentlemen. This man wants to lead you from Europe to Asia, but he fails even when trying to go from one bed to the next. "
Whether the reports about the wedding are correct or whether the Pixodaros affair did not have an impact: Alexander went into exile with his mother in Epeiros. Six months later, Alexander returned to Pella, even if the tensions persisted, especially since the power-conscious and spirited Philipp did not shy away from violence if necessary. Nevertheless, Alexander proved to be equal to the demands of his father, for example in military matters.
Before Philip could set out on the campaign against Persia (an army detachment under Parmenion's command was already in Asia Minor ), he was killed during the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to the Molossian prince Alexander of Epeiros (a brother of Olympias, whom he called around 350 BC King in Epeiros) by his bodyguard Pausanias in the summer of 336 BC. Murdered BC. Immediately afterwards the assassin was killed and Alexander was made the new king of the Macedonians.
Various motives are cited in the sources, including the fact that Pausanias was deeply humiliated by Attalus and that Philip received no satisfaction; It was also rumored that Philip and Pausanias had had a homosexual relationship (which in Macedonia was not considered offensive as long as certain rules were followed). The complicity of Philip's wife Olympias (or Alexander) was often suspected in the past by historians who simply adopted their character assessment from Plutarch's Alexandervita, in which Olympias is judged very poorly. Many powers, however, were interested in Philip's death: the city-states of Greece to which he had subjugated; the Persian governors of Asia Minor, who would have been the target of the campaign then imminent; but also individuals or power groups of the Macedonian court. This question cannot be conclusively clarified from the known sources, although at least the participation of the Olympias in the plot is quite likely.
Alexander ascended the throne after Philip's death - he should build on his achievements and celebrate magical successes with his Alexander procession. However, without the army reorganized by his father and the position of power achieved by it, and not least without the capable Macedonian generals brought in by Philip, Alexander could never have achieved so much. Even if Alexander surpassed Philipp in military talent, that does not diminish Philip's achievements. Alexander was also aware of this; because during the Persian campaign, according to Arrian , he is said to have said to his troops when they became rebellious:
“Philip took over you as streamers and arms; many of you, clad in furs, grazed your few sheep in the mountains and fought, without much success, against the Illyrians, the Triballians and their neighbors, the Thracians. Instead of furs, he gave you cloaks, led you down from the rugged mountains into the plains, made you equal to the neighboring barbarians in battle, so that you no longer trusted in the strength of forts than in your own bravery and could assert yourself. He made you builders of cities and brought you good laws and customs. "
Philip was highly regarded by the Macedonians during his lifetime, and this is also reflected in the sources. The historian Theopompos , who judged Philip not only positively, could quite rightly proclaim that Philip II was the most important ruler that Europe had produced up to then. It was Alexander's even greater military successes in Asia that made Philip's memory subordinate to that of his son. The complaints of many Greek authors about Philip's actions are primarily based on their fundamental rejection of the kingship, which the Greeks of the time viewed as despotic rule over enslaved subjects. This was combined with the impotent realization that the idea of one's own greatness was almost only a memory and that it could not withstand the military superiority of Macedonia.
Burial in the barrow of Vergina
In 1977 the archaeologist Manolis Andronikos explored the great mound of the Macedonian royal family in Aigai, the ancient capital of Macedonia, today's Vergina . The barrow consists of four burial chambers, of which burial chambers II and III were intact until the excavation, burial chamber I was already looted in antiquity. Furthermore, in the burial mound are the remains of a temple, which heroon as a temple for the tomb complex Philip II.
Identifying the people buried proved difficult. There were indications both for burial chamber II and, most recently in a scientific publication in 2015, for burial chamber I as the burial place of Philip II. In the overall view of the knowledge gained, however, it is now assumed that burial chamber II is the grave of Philip II. There the bones of Philip II were found in a golden larnax and probably those of one of Philip's wives in the antechamber of the tomb in a similar larnax, whose identification is uncertain. The chamber also contained rich grave goods: weapons and armor, remains of a wooden and ivory bed, the tools used at the funeral and other things.
All contemporary historical works that followed Xenophon's Hellenica (the work ends in 362 BC), had titles such as Philippica or Macedonica and dealt with the reign of Philip II, have only survived to us as fragments or are known to us only by name. These include the works of Anaximenes , Theopompos and Ephoros by Kyme (collected in: The fragments of the Greek historians ). However, some of them served as templates for later, at least partially preserved works.
For this reason, we are primarily dependent on secondary sources that have arisen with a clear temporal distance from the event treated. An important representation is the 16th book of the universal history of Diodorus , which among other things used Ephoros and Theopompos, whereby Diodorus made some chronological errors. In addition, the work of Marcus Junianus Iustinus must be mentioned (a greatly abbreviated outline of the historical work of Pompeius Trogus ), which, however, is afflicted with numerous factual inaccuracies and also not very successful stylistically.
The speeches from the time of Philip that have largely survived to us are of great importance, for example by Demosthenes , Isocrates or Aeschines . Likewise, some of the biographies written by Plutarch , such as the Alexander or Demosthenes, offer valuable information, even if they are not to be understood as objective-historical treatises. There are also non-literary sources such as inscriptions, coins and archaeological findings.
- Elizabeth Carney, Daniel Ogden (Eds.): Philip II and Alexander the Great. Father and Son, Lives and Afterlives. Oxford University Press, Oxford et al. 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-973815-1 (collection of essays on central topics).
- George Cawkwell: Philip of Macedon. Faber & Faber, London 1978, ISBN 0-571-10958-6 .
- JR Ellis: Macedon and north-west Greece. / Macedonian hegemony created. In: The Cambridge Ancient History . Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge et al. 1994, ISBN 0-521-23348-8 , p. 723 ff. (Easily readable overview).
- Johannes Engels : Philip II and Alexander the Great. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-15590-4 (brief overview).
- Volker Fadinger : The assassination attempt on King Philip II of Macedonia in Aigai 336 BC Chr. In: Peter Neukam (Ed.): Legacy and Challenge (= dialogue between school and science. Classical languages and literatures. Volume 31). Bayerischer Schulbuch-Verlag, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-7627-8366-7 , pp. 101-145.
- Jörg Fündling : Philip II of Macedonia. von Zabern, Darmstadt 2014, ISBN 978-3-8053-4822-5 (current, easy-to-read biography; review in the Göttingen Forum for Classical Studies 18, 2015).
- Nicholas GL Hammond, Guy T. Griffith: A History of Macedonia. Volume 2: 550–336 BC Clarendon Press, Oxford et al. 1979, ISBN 0-19-814814-3 (basic, detailed overview).
- Nicholas GL Hammond: Philip of Macedon. Duckworth, London 1994, ISBN 0-7156-2604-3 .
- Waldemar Heckel : Who's Who in the Age of Alexander the Great. Prosopography of Alexander's Empire. Blackwell, Malden MA et al. 2006, ISBN 1-4051-1210-7 , pp. 208-211 (brief overview with references to sources).
- Sabine Müller: The Argead. History of Macedonia up to the age of Alexander the great. Schöningh, Paderborn 2016.
- Gerhard Wirth : Philipp II. (= History of Macedonia. Volume 1 = Kohlhammer-Urban-Taschenbücher. 369). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart et al. 1985, ISBN 3-17-008820-3 .
- Ian Worthington : Philip II of Macedonia. Yale University Press, New Haven CT et al. 2008, ISBN 978-0-300-12079-0 .
- Literature by and about Philip II in the catalog of the German National Library
- Jona Lendering: Philip II of Macedonia . In: Livius.org (English)
- Plutarch's life of Alexander with LacusCurtius
- Speeches of Demosthenes (English)
- Eugene N. Borza: Greeks and Macedonians in the Age of Alexander. The Source Traditions. In: Robert W. Wallace, Edward M. Harris (Eds.): Transitions to Empire. Essays in Greco-Roman History, 360-146 BC, in honor of E. Badian (= Oklahoma Series in Classical Culture. 21). University of Oklahoma Press, Norman OK et al. 1996, ISBN 0-8061-2863-1 , pp. 122-139, is rather skeptical about a relationship. On the other hand, cf. the various statements by Hammond, such as: Nicholas GL Hammond: Literary evidence for Macedonian speech. In: Historia . Vol. 43, No. 2, 1994, pp. 131-142, JSTOR 4436322 . In the following, “Macedonian (n)” only expresses the origin from ancient Macedonia.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 13 ff.
- On the history of Macedonia before Philip II, see Eugene N. Borza: In the Shadow of Olympus. The Emergence of Macedon. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ 1990; Sabine Müller: The Argead. Paderborn 2016.
- André Aymard: Philippe de Macédoine otage à Thèbes . In: Revue des études anciennes . tape 56 , 195, pp. 28 .
- Diodorus 16: 1, 3.
- Iunianus Iustinus 9,8,1.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 42 ff.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, pp. 44–47.
- Diodorus 16,4,2.
- to the following also Karl-Wilhelm Welwei : Greek History. From the beginnings to the beginning of Hellenism. Schöningh, Paderborn et al. 2011, ISBN 978-3-506-77306-7 , p. 404 ff.
- Sabine Müller: The Argeads. History of Macedonia up to the age of Alexander the Great. Paderborn, p. 171.
- Diodorus 16.8.6.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 58.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 60.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 63 ff.
- Diodorus 16: 24, 1-3. See Sabine Müller: Die Argeades. History of Macedonia up to the age of Alexander the Great. Paderborn 2016, p. 172.
- Diodorus 16,35,2.
- Diodor 16,35,5 .. Cf. Jörg Fündling: Philipp II. Von Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, pp. 69-70; NGL Hammond: Philipp of Macedon. London 1994, p. 47.
- Diodorus 16,38,2.
- It was probably not good reason that Alfred Heuss called it "the great game about Hellas": Propylaea world history. A universal story. Volume 3: Greece, the Hellenistic World. Special edition (reprint of the 1960–1964 edition). Propylaen-Verlag, Berlin et al. 1991, ISBN 3-549-05017-8 , p. 389 ff.
- Diodorus 16,53,2.
- Plutarch, Alexander 7.2.
- Iunianus Iustinus 8,3,10
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 76.
- Diodorus 16,53,3.
- Karl-Wilhelm Welwei: Greek history. From the beginnings to the beginning of Hellenism. Schöningh, Paderborn et al. 2011, ISBN 978-3-506-77306-7 , p. 409.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 115 f.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, pp. 141–143.
- See, among others, Edmund Bloedow: Why did Philip and Alexander Launch a War against the Persian Empire? In: L'Antiquité Classique . Revue semestrielle. Volume 72, 2003, , pp. 261-274, JSTOR 41664257 .
- Narrated by Plutarch , Alexander 6.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 156 ff.
- Peter Green: Alexander of Macedon. 356-323 BC A historical Biography. Revised and enlarged, reprint. University of California Press, Berkeley CA et al. 1991, ISBN 0-520-07165-4 , pp. 90 ff.
- Plutarch, Alexander 9.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 159.
- Even after Philip's death, the father-son conflict was not without consequences: During Alexander's campaign it came in 328 BC. In Marakanda to a quarrel between Alexander and Kleitos , one of his closest friends, who had previously saved Alexander's life. Kleitus felt that he had been transferred behind the front lines and declared that Alexander was denying his father Philip because he now felt himself to be the son of Zeus Ammon. Thereupon Alexander became so angry that he killed Kleitus, which he is said to have deeply regretted afterwards: cf. inter alia Arrian , Anabasis, 4,8 or Plutarch, Alexander, 50-52.
An exact dating is problematic: some researchers postpone the murder in June, others in October of the year 336 BC. See the commentary in: Justin : Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus. Volume 1: Books 11-12: Alexander the Great. Translated and Appendices by John C. Yardley. Commentary by Waldemar Heckel . Clarendon Press, Oxford et al. 1997, ISBN 0-19-814907-7 , p. 73.
Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 161 f.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, p. 164 f.
- Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, pp. 165-167; see. among others also JR Ellis: The Assassination of Philip II. In: Harry J. Dell (Ed.): Ancient Macedonian Studies in honor of Charles F. Edson (= Institute for Balkan Studies. 158). Institute for Balkan Studies, Thessaloniki 1981, pp. 99-137.
- Arrian, Anabasis, 7,9,2; Translation from: Frank W. Walbank : The Hellenistic World (= dtv history of antiquity. Dtv 4402). 4th edition. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-423-04402-0 , p. 28.
- The Fragments of the Greek Historians , No. 115, Fragment 27.
- Article at Archeology.org . Preliminary publication: Manolis Andronicos : Vergina. The Royal Tombs and the Ancient City. Ekdotike Athenon, Athens 1984; see. also Jörg Fündling: Philip II of Macedonia. Darmstadt 2014, pp. 7-10.
- Antonis Bartsiokas: The lameness of King Philip II and Royal Tomb I at Vergina, Macedonia . In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 112, July 20, 2015, pp. 9844-9848.
J. Musgrave, AJNW Prague, R. Neave, R. Lane Fox, H. White: The Occupants of Tomb II at Vergina. Why Arrhidaios and Eurydice must be excluded. In: Int J Med Sci. 2010; 7: s1-s15 ( medsci.org );
TG Antikas, LK Wynn-Antikas: New Finds from the Cremains in Tomb II at Aegae Point to Philip II and a Scythian Princess , in: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 26, 2016, pp. 682-692.
- TG Antikas, LK Wynn-Antikas: New Finds from the Cremains in Tomb II at Aegae Point to Philip II and a Scythian Princess , in: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 26, 2016, pp. 682-692, here p. 689.
King of Macedonia
359–336 BC Chr.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Greek Φίλιππος Β΄|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||King of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 382 BC Chr.|
|DATE OF DEATH||336 BC Chr.|
|Place of death||Aigai|