Coordinates: 38 ° 19 ′ 26 ″ N , 23 ° 19 ′ 2 ″ E
The Boeotian Thebes ( Mycenaean Greek ?? te-qa , ancient Greek Θῆβαι , Thebes ( f. Pl. ), Latin Thebes , now Thiva ) was in ancient times the largest city in the Greek countryside Viotia. It lies on the heights of the Teumessos , was already referred to by Homer as the "City of the Seven Gates" (Thebe Heptapylos) and was the most important place of the Boeotian League in ancient Greece .
The earliest traces of human settlement in Thebes so far come from the late Neolithic , especially in the form of clay vessels and clay statuettes. From the Early Helladic (FH; early Bronze Age ), especially FH II (approx. 2700–2200 BC), significant remains of settlements were discovered in Thebes and the surrounding hills. During this phase, the apparently well-organized settlements, some with multi-storey buildings, grew, and the wealth, as evidenced by many valuable small finds, also from a number of graves around Thebes. These are chamber graves with dromos . Even then, Thebes, along with Eutresis and probably Orchomenos and Lithares, was one of the largest at least protourban centers of Boeotia. During FH III (approx. 2200–2000 BC) Thebes, like all other settlements of Boeotia and many other regions of Greece, was destroyed; an event which - meanwhile no longer undisputed - is often associated with an immigration of Indo-Europeans from the north ( Balkan Indo-Europeans ). As a result, there was initially a strong cultural decline. Thebes remained uninterruptedly settled during the following Middle Helladic period (Middle Bronze Age, approx. 2000–1700 / 1600 BC), the first half of which revealed far less wealth and much simpler settlement structures than the Early Helladic period. Towards the end of this period and at the transition to the late Helladic period (approx. 1700 / 1600–1050 / 00) richly furnished warrior graves appeared, in which weapons as well as other valuable grave goods etc. a. found from gold. Typical ceramics of the Middle Helladic and partly also at the beginning of the Late Helladic are mainly the Miny ceramics but also the so-called matt - painted ceramics .
Thebes was probably on the list of place names of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenophis III. (approx. 1385–1351) mentioned with the designation di-qa-ja-s . However, this assumption is debatable. It was already an important center in Mycenaean times, which was established around 1200 BC. According to the Linear B texts found there, he ruled the south-eastern part of Boeotia and possibly also the south of Evia .
The Mycenaean upper town (“royal castle”) built on the hill called Kadmeia lies below the modern town, so that systematic excavations are only carried out in a few places. Therefore, so far only a few rooms of the palace buildings have been explored. Two differently oriented building complexes came to light, for which it is unclear whether they belong to two different, temporally separated palaces (then referred to as the old and new Kadmeion). It seems certain that there were three destructions in total. The first occurred in the second half of the 14th century BC. BC, towards the end of the Late Helladic (SH) III A2. It is possible that after this destruction the old Kadmeion was abandoned and a new one was built, but the findings are not clear. Another destruction occurred at the end of SH III B1 (approx. 1240/25 BC), after which some rooms were restored, while others apparently were no longer used. At the end of SH III B2 or the transition phase SH IIIB to IIIC (approx. 1190–80 BC), a third destruction occurred, after which (finally) the (new) palace was finally abandoned.
Although large parts of the palace could not yet be explored due to modern overbuilding, numerous important finds have already come to light during the excavations so far, including an archive with many linear B panels that served the palace administration . A substantial Fund represent 42 precious, especially Mesopotamian (usually Cassite ) and Cyprus , cylinder seal represents. In addition there are nine unengraved seal, as well as some badly worn that are not readable and determined. Most of the seals date from the 15th to 13th centuries BC. BC, but some old Babylonian specimens are significantly older. They were originally hoarded in wooden boxes on the upper floor and were discovered in a layer of destruction in the so-called treasure room . However, it is unclear whether this layer of destruction corresponds to that of the late 13th / early 12th century or an earlier one shortly after the middle of the 13th century BC. BC (at the end of SH III B1). Many seals were made of lapis lazuli , a material that was extremely rare in Greece at the time. A number of decorative elements were also made of lapis lazuli, such as lapis lazuli pearls of various shapes and small anthemia made of lapis lazuli for necklaces, which were discovered in the same room. At least the Kassite seals - whose total weight of 496 g roughly corresponds to a mine at the time - probably reached Thebes at the same time. According to u. a. the editor Edith Porada could have been a gift from the Assyrian ruler Tukulti-Ninurta I , who lived around 1225/1220 BC. BC Babylon had conquered. The gift relates to good relations between Thebes and Assyria, which Porada also derives from the so-called Šauštgamuwa Treaty , the draft of a letter from Tudḫalia IV to the vassal king Šaušgamuwa in Amurru , according to which the ships of Aḫḫijawa (? The reading is not certainly) should not connect with Assyrian traders in Amurian ports. Porada does not mention, however, that in the same document, which is usually dated before the destruction of Babylon, the ruler of Aḫḫijawas has been deleted from a list of the great kings regarded as equal by a horizontal line. Areichungijawas explained the deletion with a significant loss of importance shortly before the contract. Since 1225/1220 BC B.C. appears quite late as the terminus post quem and would be difficult to reconcile with a possible destruction at the end of SH III B1, this theory is, however, controversial. In any case, the find indicates that the empire of Thebes was not insignificant at that time and maintained extensive diplomatic contacts.
For some time there have been opinions that Thebes in the 13th century BC The leading power in Greece and its ruler was the king of Aḫḫijawa from Hittite sources. Aḫḫijawa is the Hittite name of an empire west of the Hittites , the center of which was apparently only accessible by sea from western Asia Minor , which existed in the 14th and for much of the 13th century BC. BC but also ruled parts of southern western Asia Minor, in particular Millawanda (very likely Miletus ). It is meanwhile equated by the prevailing research opinion with a Mycenaean empire. As an argument for the fact that Thebes was its capital, u. a. stated that the representatives of Boeotia and with Peneleus a Theban are at the beginning of the ship catalog of the Iliad , but not Mycenae with Agamemnon , and that the entire fleet of Aulis leaves Boeotia. However, the age of the ship catalog is controversial. The Mesopotamian cylinder seals (see above) are also regarded as an indication that Thebes was born in the 13th century BC. The leading power Aḫḫijawas was. The Tübingen ancient orientalist Frank Starke takes the view that a cuneiform letter ( KUB 26.91) of the Hittite palace correspondence known since Emil Forrer was not sent by the Hittite great king, but a letter from Greece to the Hittites. In this letter a Kagamu , ancestor of the king of Aḫḫijawas and evidently contemporary of Tudḫalija I , is mentioned, whose name Starke suggests as Kadmos , which could indicate Thebes; however, the reading “Kadmos” is controversial and Starke has not published his reinterpretation to this day. The mention of Tudhalija I and the alliance of states' Aššuwa - which is undisputed in research - shows a long relationship between Aḫḫijawa and the Hittites, which dates back to the late 15th century. The writing may come from the time of Hattušili III. , the likely author of the famous Tawagalawa letter . This letter is addressed to the ruler Aḫḫijawa, addressed as the “great king”, whose name has not been preserved. However, his brother Tawagalawa is mentioned several times, who is also referred to as the great king and possibly was king before his brother or held a double kingship with him . Already Forrer saw in Tawagalawa the hittitizing spelling of an early form of the Greek name Eteocles, which is meanwhile also research opinion. Forrer already connected the name with Boeotia, however with the mythical Eteocles of Orchomenos ; Today, however, from the area of Greek legends - with caution - reference is made to Eteocles of Theban mythology, who was to hold a dual kingship with his brother Polynices . Furthermore, reference is made to two linear B tables (Fq 177 and 198) from Thebes, in which a respected man from Miletus is mentioned, who was apparently once a high official in Miletus and is now cared for in the Theban palace. Provided that until the second third of the 13th century BC BC Mycenaean Miletus - and not the Cretan Milatos - is meant, this would indicate that Miletus was an outpost of Thebes in western Asia Minor . During the rule of the Hittite king Tudḫalija IV. Aḫḫijawa apparently lost control of Millawanda, at least information in the Milawata letter is interpreted accordingly; the archaeological finds in Miletus show increasing Hittite influence from the late 13th century. The roughly simultaneous destruction of Thebes could explain that Aḫḫijawa's influence in western Asia Minor declined around this time.
In research, however, it is also suggested that Mycenae was the leading power in Mycenaean Greece, and there are also opinions that Aḫḫijawa was an East Aegean empire, for example with Rhodes as its center.
Archaic to Roman times
728 BC The city received new laws from the Bakchiad Philolaos from Corinth . Thebes belonged from the 6th century BC. BC to the Boeotian League , became the seat of the Boeotarchs and thus the capital of the League ( Aristoteles Pol. 1274a). 507 BC Thebes started a war against Athens , but was defeated.
During the Persian Wars Thebes stood with Orchomenus on the side of the Persian Empire and suffered with this the defeat at Platää in 479 BC. After which the heads of the Persian party were executed.
As a result, Theben's reputation had suffered so much that Athens was able to repeatedly break the influence of Thebes by establishing democratic constitutions in the Boeotian cities and how to subject Boeotia to its own hegemony.
After the victory at Oinophyta in 456 BC BC Boeotia (except Thebes) had been won for the Attic League , the exiles from Boeotia, in association with the Orchomenians, fought an Athenian army under Tolmides in 447 BC. At Koroneia , whereby Boeotia broke away from the Attic League. At the same time, the aristocratic constitution was restored in Thebes and the city continued to be ruled by the nobility overthrown by Athens. Theopompus describes the federal constitution, which now runs until 387 BC. Applies. In the Peloponnesian War , Thebes was one of the bitterest enemies of Athens and tried in 431 BC. In vain to conquer Platää; not until 427 BC With the support of the Peloponnesian League he succeeded in destroying this city.
410 BC Thebes made a new alliance with Sparta. When the 30 tyrants ruled in Athens after the overthrow of democracy, the Athenian refugees gathered mainly in Thebes and occupied from here in 403 BC. Under Thrasybulus the small border fortress Phyle and later the Piraeus . As a result, Thebes again adopted a democratic constitution. Thebes became very wealthy through the Athenian booty in the Decelish-Ionian War .
It also began in 395 BC. In alliance with Corinth and Argos the Corinthian war against Sparta , but his coalition was founded in 394 BC. BC at the Nemeabach and at Koroneia . The war dragged on until 386 and ended in the royal peace established by the great Persian king .
At the outbreak of the First Olympian War (382 BC), the Spartan general Phoibidas occupied the castle of Thebes by a coup d'état with the help of Leontiadas , restored the rule of the aristocracy and sent the heads of the democratic party into exile (Nep .Pel.1)
But as early as 379 BC Pelopidas returned to Thebes with the other refugees, overthrew the aristocrats and, with the help of an Athenian army, forced the evacuation of the castle. Thebes then concluded an alliance with Athens, but Pelopidas and Epameinondas rose to the head of the state. (Nep.Pel.2)
Thebes, with the help of the Athenians, repelled two incursions by the Lacedaemonians . It was even able to expand its supremacy in the Boeotian League. To this end, it not only subjugated other Boeotian cities, but even destroyed them, appropriating their national territory and votes in the Boeotian League. When the Thebans in 371 BC . Chr general peace did not accept because the Spartans called for the dissolution of the Boeotian League, the Theban war began in which Thebes led by Epaminondas in the battle of Leuctra the hegemony in Greece won. It also overturned Sparta's power in the Peloponnese, with Epameinondas founding the Arcadian League and restoring the independence of Messenia . It even sought maritime domination to oust Athens from this position of power.
Athens now went over to Sparta's side, which, although not preventing the Boeotian League's military operations in the Peloponnese, was able to seriously impair it. After Epameinondas' victory and death at Mantineia (362 BC), Theben's power sank again, which had only risen so high through the genius of his two greatest statesmen. Nevertheless, the alliance around Thebes was still the strongest power in Greece and continued to pursue an aggressive regulatory policy. The jointly composed landscape of Phocis was sentenced to a heavy fine at Thebes instigation by the Amphictyon Court for violating the Delphic temple area. This provoked the third holy war (355 BC - 346 BC).
Only after the Amphictyons in 339 BC Chr. The Locrians of Amphissa had declared holy war and Philip summoned to enforce their judgment against the Locrians, and this Elateia occupied, the Athenians and Thebans took up arms against that, but succumbed in the Battle of Chaeronea .
Thebes then had to take on Macedonian garrisons in the castle. After Philip's death (336 BC), Thebes revolted in 335 BC. Against Alexander the great on false news of his death. After only twelve days he stood in front of the city and destroyed it according to the resolution of the Corinthian Synedrion; 6,000 Thebans fell, 30,000 were sold as slaves. Alexander left only the house of the poet Pindar standing.
It wasn't until 313 BC. Thebes was freed by Kassandros and 315 BC. Rebuilt with the help of the Athenians and now experienced a new bloom under Macedonian rule. However, it never regained its former meaning in antiquity.
293 BC BC – 292 BC BC and 290 BC Thebes rose against Demetrios I Poliorketes and was besieged twice. Thebes took part in the Third Macedonian War .
In the Achaean War 146 BC It joined the Achaeans' declaration of war on the Romans, but Metellus took Thebes; Thebes fell away from Mithridates , but joined Sulla . After losing the battles at Skarpheia and Leukopetra , the inhabitants of Thebes fled to the Peloponnese, and Thebes has since been deserted.
Pausanias found the lower city deserted except for the temples, the residents only lived in the Acropolis, which was no longer called Kadmeia, but Thebes.
Thebes was already an important place of worship in the early days. A sanctuary of Apollon Ismenios stood here and excavations in the 19th century have uncovered the Kabir temple .
Ancient Boeotian Thebes lay in a hilly area rich in springs over the southern edge of the Aonic plain. The Kadmeer (Kadmeions) are considered to be the early inhabitants . According to legend, the city or initially the castle of Kadmeia was founded by Kadmos after he killed the dragon that was desolating the land. Kadmos came from Phenicia according to versions of the legend that were probably not created until archaic times , but according to many other versions he was from Boeotia. The foundation of the city of Thebes is already described in a legend. According to this, Kadmos is said to have founded Thebes together with five warriors who had grown from the sown teeth of a dragon that Kadmos had slain. (see legend of the foundation of Thebes )
The other mythical history of Boeotian Thebes is also rich in legends, which entwine around Heracles , Dionysus and Laios . The city is the center of the Theban sagas and birthplace of Heracles, Oedipus , the seven against Thebes and Antigones . Another Theban saga is that of Niobe (wife of King Amphion ) who, as a married ruler and mother of 14 children , drew the wrath of Leto with her arrogance .
In any case, legend has it that Phoenician immigrants may have settled near Thebes , followed by Greek immigrants from Asia Minor, as the legend of Amphion tells, who lured the stones with his lyre. Amphion and Zethos extended the walls and added seven gates, which triggered the winged word of "Thebes with seven gates" - in contrast to the "Thebes with one hundred gates" in Egypt, which Homer mentions in the Iliad . In its heyday, the ring was more than 7 km (15 km (?)) In circumference. The Boiotians, who came from Thessaly, displaced the original inhabitants of the city.
The son of Laius , Oedipus , also belonged to the family of the Cadmeions . The legend of the Sphinx (or Phix), who lived in front of Thebes and killed every stranger who could not solve its riddle , also falls in the time of Oedipus . This was ended by Oedipus by solving the riddle of the Sphinx . Oedipus handed the government over to his sons Eteocles and Polynices with the stipulation that each should rule for one year in turn. Eteocles broke the treaty and thereby initiated the famous march of the seven against Thebes . Later followed Epigonenkrieg (d. E. The campaign of the sons of those seven) connected to the defeat of the Thebans at Glisas ended and the destruction of ancient Thebes.
The oldest traditions mention Ogyges , king of the Ectens, as ruler in the Theban land . According to the Ectens, the hyanten and the aons populated the area. After the arrival of Kadmos, he founded the city of Thebes:
- Kadmos , son of Agenor
- Pentheus , son of Echion
- Polydorus , son of Cadmos
- Nykteus , son of Hyrieus, takes over as guardian of the young Labdakos
- Lykos , brother of Nykteus, when Nykteus dies he takes over the rule until Labdakos is grown up
- Labdakos , son of Polydoros
- Lykos, reigns again, this time for the one year old Laios
- Amphion and Zethus , sons of Zeus and Antiope
- Laios , son of Labdakos
- Creon , son of Menoikeus
- Oedipus , son of Laios
- Creon, son of Menoikeus, takes over the government a second time, for the sons of Oedipus
- Polynices , son of Oedipus
- Eteocles , son of Oedipus
- Creon, son of Menoikeus, takes over the government a third time, this time as guardian of the Laodama
- Lykos , son of Lykos - first freely invented by Euripides
- Laodamas , son of Eteocles
- Thersandros , son of Polynices
- Peneleos , guardian of Teisamenos
- Teisamenos , son of Thersandro
- Autesion , son of Teisamenos
- Damasichthon , son of Opheltes, grandson of Peneleus
- Ptolemy , son of Damasichthon
- Xanthos , son of Ptolemy
In addition to the aforementioned, Amphitryon also appears in mythology as king of Thebes. After Xanthos' rule, the Thebans ended the rule of an individual.
After Georg Friedrich Kolb , Thebes was the only city-state in the Boeotian League that did not allow the head of the house to abandon deformed children or children he believed could not be fed adequately, or to otherwise abandon them to death.
- Sarantis Symeonoglou: The Topography of Thebes from the Bronze Age to Modern Times. Princeton University Press, 1985.
- Hans Beck : Polis and Koinon. Studies on the history and structure of the Greek federal states in the 4th century BC Chr. Stuttgart 1997.
- Michael Siebler : It all started in Thebes. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . No. 185, August 11, 2003, p. 31 ( faz.net ).
- S. Deger-Jalkotzky, O. Panagl (Ed.): The new Linear B texts from Thebes. Your illuminating value for the Mycenaean language and culture. Files from the international research colloquium at the Austrian Academy of Sciences on December 5th and 6th, 2002 (= Publications of the Mycenaean Commission. Volume 23). Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2006.
- Angela Kühr: When Kadmos came to Boiotien. Polis and Ethnos in the mirror of Theban founding myths (= Hermes individual writings . Volume 98). Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-515-08984-5 .
- Vassilis Aravantinos: Mycenaean Thebes. Old questions, new answers. In: Isabelle Boehm, Sylvie Müller-Celka (eds.) Espace civil, espace religieux en Égée durant la période mycénienne. Approches épigraphique, linguistique et archéologique. Actes des journées d'archéologie et de philologie mycéniennes, Lyon, 1st février et 1st mars 2007. Lyon 2010, pp. 51–72. online at persee.fr
- Vassilis Aravantinos: The Archeological Museum of Thebes. John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation, Athens 2010.
- ↑ This and the following according to Aravantinos 2010 (see literature), pp. 33–59 with many illustrations.
- ↑ The date of the end of Mittelhelladikums or the transition to the so-called Späthelladikum depends on the dating Minoan eruption on Santorini from
- ^ Antonín Bartoněk : The Boeotian Thebes on an Egyptian list of names? In: Sborník prací Filozofické fakulty brněnské univerzity. Volume 2, 1983, pp. 201-204.
- ^ John Bennet : The Geography of the Mycenaean Kingdoms. In: Yves Duhoux , Anna Morpurgo Davies (Ed.): A Companion to Linear B. Mycenaean Greek Texts and their World. Volume 2, Peeters, Louvain 2011, p. 160, which names Tegea as an alternative.
- ↑ Birgitta Eder : Considerations on the political geography of the Mycenaean world, or: Arguments for the supraregional importance of Mycenae in the Late Bronze Age Aegean. In: Geographia Antiqua. Volume 18, 2009, pp. 9, 24 f. (with further references to the corresponding Linaer B texts); Tassilo Schmitt : On the end of success. Reflections on the fall of the Mycenaean palace civilization. In: Gustav Adolf Lehmann , Dorit Engster, Alexander Nuss (eds.): From the Bronze Age History to the Modern Reception of Antiquities , Syngramma Vol. 1, Universitätsverlag Göttingen 2012, p. 126. Skeptical, however: Jorrit M. Kelder: The Kingdom of Mycenae. A Great Kingdom in the Late Bronze Age Aegean. CDL-Press, Bethesda, Maryland 2010, pp. 9, 69; Thomas G. Palaima : Euboea, Athens, Thebes and Kadmos. The Implications of the Linear B References. In: David W. Rupp, Jonathan E. Tomlinson (Eds.): Euboea and Athens Colloquium in Memory of Malcolm B. Wallace. The Canadian Institute in Greece, Athens 2009, pp. 74f.
- ↑ This and the following on possible phases and layers of destruction according to Louise Schofield : The Mycenaeans. The British Museum Press, London 2007, p. 94 f. and Konstantinos Kopanias: The Late Bronze Age Near Eastern Cylinder Seals from Thebes (Greece) and their historical implications. Communications of the German Archaeological Institute, Athenian Department (AM) 123, 2008, p. 40 f., The latter with many additional references.
- ↑ Penelope A. Mountjoy : Mycenaean Pottery. An Introduction. , Oxford University School of Archeology, 2nd ed. 2001 (1st edition 1993), ISBN 0-947816-36-4 , p. 4 Table 1 gives with 1225 v. A very late date for the transition from SH IIIB1 to B2.
- ↑ The oriental copies were published by Edith Porada : The Cylinder Seals Found at Thebes in Boeotia. Archive for Orient Research Volume 28, 1981/82, pp. 1-70.
- ↑ Konstantinos Kopasias: The Late Bronze Age Near Eastern Cylinder Seals from Thebes (Greece) and their historical implications. Announcements from the German Archaeological Institute, Athenian Department (AM) 123, 2008, p. 40 f.
- ↑ Konstantinos Kopasias: The Late Bronze Age Near Eastern Cylinder Seals from Thebes (Greece) and their historical implications. Notices from the German Archaeological Institute, Athenian Department 123, 2008, pp. 44, 55. Accordingly, outside Thebes, only ten seals made of lapis lazuli have been found in Mycenaean Greece, usually of significantly lower quality.
- ^ Edith Porada: The Cylinder Seals Found at Thebes in Boeotia. Archive for Orient Research Volume 28, 1981/82, p. 70.
- ↑ see eg Theo PJ van den Hout: The Ulmitešub Treaty. A prosopographical investigation (= studies on the Böğazköy texts. Volume 38). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1995, p. 114; Trevor R. Bryce : The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford University Press, revised edition 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-928132-9 pp. 315f.
- ^ Gary M. Beckman, Trevor R. Bryce, Eric H. Cline : The Ahhiyawa Texts (= Writings from the Ancient World 28). Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta 2011, pp. 67f.
- ↑ For a detailed discussion of how the seals got to Thebes: Konstantinos Kopasias: The Late Bronze Age Near Eastern Cylinder Seals from Thebes (Greece) and their historical implications. AM 123, 2008, p. 55 ff., Who himself puts forward the thesis that the Kassite cylinder seals were already sent by Burna-buriaš II as a diplomatic gift to another (e.g. Hittite or Egyptian) ruler and later given away to Thebes were.
- ^ Gary M. Beckman, Trevor Bryce, Eric H. Cline : The Ahhiyawa Texts. Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta 2011, p. 3 f.
- ↑ Homer , Iliad 2,494-510.
- ↑ Birgitta Eder offers an overview of the dispute over the age of the ship catalog and the different positions : Once again: The Homeric ship catalog. in: Christoph Ulf (Hrsg.): The new dispute over Troy. A balance sheet. CH Beck, Munich 2003, pp. 287-308. Online version
- ↑ Klaus Tausend: Comments on the identification of the Ahhijawa. In: Gustav Adolf Lehmann , Dorit Engster, Alexander Nuss (eds.): From the Bronze Age history to the modern reception of antiquities , Syngramma vol. 1, Universitätsverlag Göttingen 2012, p. 152 f.
- ^ Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier : Greece and Asia Minor in the late Bronze Age. In: Michael Meier-Brügger (Ed.): Homer, interpreted by a large lexicon. Files from the Hamburg Colloquium from March 6th to 8th October 2010 at the end of the lexicon of the early Greek epic (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. Volume 21.) De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-028518-5 , p. 162, note 181.
- ↑ Compare also Frank Kolb : Tatort «Troia». History - Myths - Politics. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2010, p. 59 f.
- ↑ Some information on the Tawagalawa letter and a translation by Jared L. Miller: A King of vonatti and a King of Aḫḫijawa (the so-called Tawagalawa letter) (= texts from the environment of the Old Testament. New Volume 3). Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2006, pp. 240–247, assyriologie.uni-muenchen.de (PDF).
- ↑ Metin Alparslan: Some thoughts on the Ahhiyawa question. In: A. Süel (Ed.): Acts of the Vth Congress of Hittitology. Corum September 02-08, 2002. Buasım Takihi, Ankara 2005, pp. 33–41, especially pp. 34–38 (with further evidence).
- ↑ Emil O. Forrer : Prehomeric Greeks in the cuneiform texts of Boghazköi. Communications from the German Orient Society in Berlin 63, 1924, p. 9 f.
- ^ Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier : Greece and Asia Minor in the late Bronze Age. In: Michael Meier-Brügger (Ed.): Homer, interpreted by a large lexicon. Files from the Hamburg Colloquium from March 6th to 8th October 2010 at the end of the lexicon of the early Greek epic (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. Volume 21.) De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, p. 153, note 124
- ^ Metin Alparslan: Some thoughts on the Ahhiyawa question. In: A. Süel (Ed.): Acts of the Vth Congress of Hittitology. Corum September 02 - 08, 2002. Buasım Takihi, Ankara 2005, p. 38 Note 9 emphasizes that the legend can by no means be cited as proof of the correctness of the theory that Tawagalawa also held the kingship.
- ↑ Klaus Tausend: Comments on the identification of the Ahhijawa. In: Gustav Adolf Lehmann , Dorit Engster, Alexander Nuss (eds.): From the Bronze Age history to the modern reception of antiquities , Syngramma vol. 1, Universitätsverlag Göttingen 2012, p. 153 f.
- ↑ Klaus Tausend: Comments on the identification of the Ahhijawa. In: Gustav Adolf Lehmann , Dorit Engster, Alexander Nuss (eds.): From the Bronze Age history to the modern reception of antiquities , Syngramma vol. 1, Universitätsverlag Göttingen 2012, p. 154.
- ↑ An overview of the arguments u. a. at Birgitta Eder : Reflections on political geography of the Mycenaean world, or: Arguments for the Trans-regional importance Mycenae in the Late Bronze Age Aegean. In: Geographia Antiqua. XVIII, 2009, pp. 5-46. On-line.
- ↑ z. B. Penelope A. Mountjoy : The East Aegean-West Anatolian Interface in the Late Bronze Age, Mycenaeans and the Kingdom of Ahhiyawa. Anatolian Studies 48, 1998, pp. 33-67.
- ↑ Pausanias 9,7,6.
- ↑ Josef Fischer: The early history of Boeotia. P. 27, antikesboiotien.uni-muenchen.de (PDF; 214 kB).
- ^ Georg Friedrich Kolb: Cultural history of mankind. Arthur Felix Verlag, Leipzig 1869, p. 158 ( Google Books ).