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Miletus (Mediterranean)
Red pog.svg
Location of Miletus on the Mediterranean

Miletus ( ionic Μίλητος Miletus , Dorian Μίλατος Mílatos , aeolian Μίλλατος Míllatos , Latin Miletus , Hittite likely Millawanda or Milawata ), also Palatia (Middle Ages) and Balat (modern times) called, was an ancient city on the west coast of Asia Minor , in today Turkey.

Geographical situation

Bay of Miletus and presumable coastlines in Archaic, Hellenistic and Late Antique times

Milet is about 80 km south of today's city of Izmir , near the village of Balat in the province of Aydın .

The ancient city lay on a headland protruding into the entrance to the Gulf of Miletus. The river Meander (in Turkish Büyük Menderes ), which flows into this gulf and carries large amounts of sediment with it, caused the gulf to become increasingly silted up, on which other Greek poles , such as Magnesia , Herakleia and Priene, lay beside Miletus . Miletus gained its special economic importance through the four bays around the headland that can be used as harbors .

A few kilometers from Miletus was the Sanctuary of Apollo of Didyma, administered by the city and of national importance .


Mythological origins

According to a Greek mythical tradition, Miletus was founded by Cretans from Milatos under Sarpedon . Strabo quotes Ephoros of Kyme , a historian of the fourth century BC. Chr .: “Miletus was first founded by Cretans over the sea [...] and settled by Sarpedon, who brought the inhabitants of the Cretan Miletos and named the city after that Miletus. The place had previously been owned by the Lelegs. ”According to another version, the settlement under the Cretan Milatos took place two generations before the fall of Troy .

Legend has it that the Ionian settlement was carried out by Neleus , son of Kodros , the last king of Athens . Herodotus reports that the Greeks came without women. After they slain the Carians , they married their daughters.

Prehistoric settlement

So far, only one secure Neolithic settlement site is known near Miletus, but excavations in Miletus have repeatedly found isolated Stone Age finds. In the area of ​​the Temple of Athena and to the east of the theater there were settlements in the Chalcolithic period , which are summarized as Milet I (late 4th millennium BC). In the wider area there are today around 600 sites that have been evaluated from an archeological landscape point of view. Settlement in the pre-Minoan period can be clearly demonstrated, but its findings are generally small. The Minoan and Mycenaean settlements in the area are essentially limited to Miletus and Didyma .


Bronze age

In the area of ​​the Temple of Athena, the settlement continued via Milet II (3rd millennium BC), which was still of southwest Anatolian character, to the first Minoan settlement ( Milet III , about 2000-1800 BC), which was continued by a Destroyed fire disaster and when Milet IV (about 1800-1450 BC) was rebuilt. Linear A inscriptions and remains of a temple complex in particular date from this period . The Kamares ceramics , which were very popular in the Eastern Mediterranean at that time and testify to the brisk trade with Crete , could be found everywhere . The local Minoan-type household ceramics - for example, conical bowls and three-legged saucepans - which are made locally from clay with a high mica content, also speak for the presence of the Minoan population, as immigrants bring their kitchenware with them with their eating and drinking habits. Two Minoan seals - one depicting a Cretan wild goat  - and a clay seal with an imprint on it were also found. Pottery of local, southwestern Anatolian character seems to indicate that a not inconsiderable proportion of the population of Miletus III was still made up of locals. The ruling class, however, was apparently Minoan. So there was undoubtedly a significant Cretan influence on the city, which thus represented a link in the metal trade between Crete and Inner Anatolia . The Greeks always considered the area around Miletus to be an area inhabited by Carians or Lelegers in older times , which was under Cretan influence before the Hellenes settled there on a large scale.

Milet IV was also destroyed and rebuilt as a Mycenaean city ​​( Milet V , around 1450-1315 BC). Several richly furnished graves on Degirmentepe belong to this settlement. Much of the painted Mycenaean pottery was again made on site. Since there were also masses of Mycenaean ceramics to be found, it is certain that the painted vessels were not just imports, but that Miletus was actually a Greek-Mycenaean city. The meanwhile dominant research opinion equates this Miletus with the city Millawanda (also the late spelling Milawata ), which is often mentioned in Hittite documents , which under the hegemony of Aḫḫijawa - in the opinion of almost all Hittitologists, archaeologists and ancient historians, a Mycenaean empire with a power center on the mainland Greece ( Mycenae or Thebes ) or, according to a lesser opinion, a Mycenaean state in the southeastern Aegean region. Millawanda was founded around 1316 BC. Destroyed by the Hittites in the second year of Mursilis II's reign . However, since the spoils of war (some people, cattle and sheep) that Muršili II gives in his annals as the result of his campaign against Millawanda sounds modest, it is also doubtful whether he actually conquered and destroyed Millawanda or whether the burn was not due to another event is attributable. Shortly afterwards, Mursili II conquered the neighboring Apaša , which is very likely to be equated with ancient Ephesus , and occupied it. As more recent excavation findings, including inscriptions, have shown, Apasa was the capital of the country of Arzawa , which also included the area around the Meander Valley . Around the time Millawanda was captured, the Uluburun ship sank off the Carian coast near Bodrum, south of Miletus. This date could recently be determined dendrochronologically . The ship had loaded exactly the same Mycenaean pottery that was found in the destruction layer of Miletus V.

The destruction of Miletus V left a 30–40 cm thick layer of fire on which the city of Miletus VI (around 1315–1100 BC) was built. Apparently, however, the destruction had no long-term consequences. According to Hittite documents, such as the letter from Manapa-Tarḫunta to probably Muwatalli II (KUB 19.5 + 19.79; CTH 191) and the Tawagalawa letter (KUB 14.3; CTH 181), probably from Hattušili III. v, Millawanda was recorded during the first half of the 13th century BC. At least controlled by Aḫḫijawa again . In the Tawagalawa letter , the Hittite king complained to the king of Aḫḫijawa about Piyamaradu , a rebel, presumably of Arzawian origin, who attacked the Lukka countries and, after the great king intervened, withdrew to Millawanda, and in earlier years wars against vassals of the Hittites in western Asia Minor - the Manapa-Tarḫunta letter already reports on this. Piyamaradu's actions were apparently supported by Atpa , the highest representative of Aḫḫijawa in Millawandas. The letter also states that Millawanda was by the sea, " aside from the Hittite king's route to the Lukka lands ". However, under Tudhalija IV , the city apparently came under the control of the Hittites, as stated in approx. 1230 BC. The so-called Milawata letter written in BC is closed, the recipient of which, a ruler subordinate to the Hittite great king, was either in Milawata or Tarkasnawa of Mira , according to the prevailing opinion . Precipitation occurs from approx. 1230 BC. Hittite sovereignty over the archaeological findings in Miletus. So that resembles around 1200 BC Built around 1100 meters long defense wall by Milet VI stylistically much more strongly Hittite fortifications than the approximately simultaneous defense walls on the Greek mainland. Also found in the Kammergrabenekropolis from the 13th century BC Hittite swords in some graves. Furthermore, a fragment of a Mycenaean crater that Niemeier around 1200 BC shows. A crown of horns , which is one of the attributes of Hittite gods, from around the middle of the 13th century BC. BC, but also Hittite great kings counted on representations. The Hittite sources seem to confirm archaeologically that Miletus / Millawanda was from the late 13th century BC onwards. BC was no longer under Mycenaean control. Miletus is mentioned on linear B tablets from the Mycenaean Pylos from the early 12th century. There the female ethnicon ???? mi-ra-ti-ja (= women - in this case they were slaves - from Milatos) is listed. Several Linear B documents from the Boeotian Thebes mention an apparently highly respected man from Miletus who lived at the Theban court.

For the time around 1200 BC Traces of destruction were discovered, but the city remained populated even after that. Miletus VII existed until the late phase of SH III C (early 11th century), as evidenced by ceramic finds in the severely disturbed layers of Miletus VI and VII. These are mostly fragments of locally produced clay vessels in the Mycenaean style, which reveal similarities to the pottery at the same time on Rhodes, Kos, smaller islands in the southeastern Aegean region and Iasos. It is unclear whether Miletus VII was destroyed and / or abandoned. Apparently Miletus was not inhabited for some time; The earliest post-Mycenaean pottery is early protogeometric (late 11th / early 10th century). A few shards could also be sub-Mycenaean .

Protogeometric and Geometric Time

According to tradition, Miletus was born in 1053 BC. Founded by Ionic colonists. An at least long break in the settlement of Miletus between the Mycenaean period (SH III C) and the protogeometric period (Miletus VII) could not be proven. In any case, early protogeometric and possibly also sub-Mycenaean ceramics from the late 11th century BC were found in Milet VII directly above the layer of destruction from the Late Bronze Age . Found. The pottery from the Protogeometric period (around 1050–900 BC) shows strong parallels to specimens from Athens, which fits surprisingly well with the mythical tradition of an Attic settlement by Neleus . About the development of Miletus from the eleventh to the early eighth century BC Until now little is known. So far, there are hardly any finds, especially remains of architecture, from this period.

Archaic time

From the 8th century BC From BC onwards, Miletus became the most important transshipment port for trade with the eastern Mediterranean and soon also with the Black Sea region and developed its own considerable industry, including for raw materials and products such as oil, wool and textiles. The purple dyeing was particularly important . In addition , the coinage (earliest electron coins of the sixth century BC) started from Miletus and other cities in Western Asia Minor, especially Ephesus and Sardis , which subsequently replaced barter. Miletus rose to become one of the most important Greek poles , temporarily exercised naval rule over the Aegean and founded it from the 7th century BC. Over 80 colonies, especially on the Propontis and around the Black Sea . An early and important Black Sea colony was Sinope , which in turn founded several daughter cities along the Anatolian Black Sea coast, including Trapezous . The northeasternmost colony of Miletus was Tanais , east of the Sea of Azov . But Milesian colonies also emerged in other areas, e. B. the Egyptian naukratis . Among other things, due to its extensive trading activities and the number of its colonies, Miletus was also called the head of Ionia . After the Kimmerian invasions in the seventh century BC In BC there were conflicts between the Greek cities on the west coast of Asia Minor with the neighboring kingdoms of the Lydians and later the Persians . In the sixth century BC The city was first subjugated by the Lydian king Kroisos , then by the Persians under Cyrus II . An uprising of the Ionian Greeks against the Persian Empire that started in Miletus failed. Miletus was defeated in 494 BC. Conquered and destroyed as a result of the Battle of Ark . Herodotus writes that the inhabitants were deported and resettled, but substantial traces of the resettlement are partly directly on the Persian layer of destruction, so that not much time can have passed between these two events. The destruction of Miletus by the Persians in 494 BC BC initiated the period of the Persian Wars , which was so important for Greek history .

Classical and Hellenistic-Roman times

Ancient city map

Because of the strict grid-like reconstruction according to the ideas of Hippodamos of Miletus (see Hippodamian scheme ), the city is now also known as the "Manhattan of antiquity". The city belonged to the Delisch-Attic League , partly under Athenian occupation. In the Peloponnesian War it fell in 412 BC. From Athens, fended off the Athenian counterattack in the Battle of Miletus and became the base of operations for the Spartan fleet.

In the fourth century BC The city was under Persian rule. Since Alexander the Great met resistance in it, it should lose the leading role in Asia Minor to Ephesus . The city's port was the scene of an offensive and successful action by the smaller Macedonian fleet against the Persian Armada. After conquering the city with the most modern siege technology, Alexander, to the surprise of his command staff, disbanded his own fleet. The reconstruction of the city began, and in the Hellenistic period Miletus was already able to assert itself again between the various powers that ruled in Asia Minor. 133 BC The city became part of the Roman province of Asia together with the Kingdom of Pergamon .

Miletus on the coast of Caria in Asia Minor

During the Roman Empire, the city flourished again, was adorned with numerous buildings, but remained of secondary importance, since the Romans chose Ephesus as the provincial capital. The beginnings of Christianity in Miletus also fall in Roman times. According to the New Testament story in Acts 20: 15–38, the apostle Paul said goodbye to the leaders of the church in Ephesus on his third and final mission trip before he returned to Jerusalem.

Byzantine period

For a long time it was believed that Miletus had already experienced a sharp decline in population in late antiquity , because a tightly drawn new wall ring had been dated to the year 538 based on a building inscription by the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. Only recent research has revised this picture, as there is ample evidence that Miletus was still flourishing in the later sixth century. It is now assumed that only the old market gate was renovated in 538 and the associated inscription was only later integrated into the Byzantine wall, which was probably built in the later seventh century. At that time Miletus had indeed shrunk considerably due to epidemics and warlike events. The settlement was now concentrated on the large theater, in whose auditorium houses were built and which was fortified against enemy attacks. In addition, a castle was built on the highest point of the theater, from which the medieval name of Milets “Palatia” can be traced back. As a bishopric, Miletus was of supraregional importance during this time.

Ilyas Bey Mosque

Islamic time

The princes of Mentesche temporarily had their seat in Miletus. They built numerous representative buildings. The excellently preserved Ilyas Bey Mosque from 1404 is an example. During this time, the port of Miletus was finally silted up by sediments from the meander.

Modern times

Until a severe earthquake in 1955, there was a village called Balat in the ruins. After the earthquake, the settlement was moved to the south, outside the actual city area.

Cultural meaning

Miletus was of great importance for culture and science in antiquity. The city is considered to be the birthplace of rational thought and philosophy in ancient Greece. By the Ionic natural philosophers Thales , Anaximander and Anaximenes , Miletus was founded in the 6th century BC. Known as the birthplace of science under the term "the school of Miletus". Thales was the first Greek thinker to break away from the mythological worldview of things and began to search for the arché, i.e. the origin of all being. Anaximander and Anaximenes were students of Thales and were of similar importance, for example Anaximander was the first cartographer.


The theater of Miletus

History of the excavations

Olivier Rayet carried out the first archaeological investigations in 1873. From 1899, large-scale excavations began in the urban area of ​​ancient Miletus under the direction of Theodor Wiegand . This work continued without interruption until 1913. The two world wars and the Asia Minor catastrophe interrupted regular research activities in Miletus. In 1938, however, Carl Weickert was able to carry out a brief excavation campaign. Regular on-site research did not begin again until 1955. The management of the post-war excavations was initially again Carl Weickert, then Gerhard Kleiner and Wolfgang Müller-Wiener . Volkmar von Graeve has been in charge of the excavation since 1989 , Philipp Niewöhner was his successor . The originals of the documentation of the old excavations before 1909 are in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin and in the DAI in Berlin. Copies of it are in the Miletarchiv at the Ruhr University Bochum , where all recent excavation documents are also collected. The current head of the archive is Christof Berns . In November 2017, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Turkey appointed Christof Berns as head of the excavations in Miletus, which will resume after a five-year break.

Research priorities

Bronze age

The excavations of the Bronze Age had been under the direction of Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier since 1994 . The investigations from Miletus I to V brought new discoveries and insights. Among other things, a charred wooden throne was found in a Minoan brick shrine in Milet IV. Finds of wooden furniture from the Bronze Age are extremely rare. A ritual throne, however, promises to be particularly revealing, especially since such thrones are known from Minoan seal representations. A priestess sits on a throne and receives offerings. We may have such a find ahead of us. Three Minoan seals were also found, including a Lentoid of rose quartz . On it is the engraving of a winged griffin fighting with a lion in the typical flying gallop . A similar representation of a lioness was found on the shard of a Rhyton ; A precious rock crystal arrowhead , probably an offering, was also found. Remains of typical Minoan frescoes also came to light. Several Linear A inscriptions carved into clay vessels prove a clear Minoan presence, as the Luwian hieroglyphs - or Hittite cuneiform script - would have been expected among the local population in the Bronze Age. Finally, there is a disc-shaped marble weight stone with a marking of six circles, which was calibrated according to the Minoan weight system. Milet IV is thus further evidence of a Minoan maritime domination with bases on the Cyclades and in the eastern Mediterranean region.

This period ends around 1500 BC. With a horizon of destruction, the cause of which is still controversially discussed. Another finding is the somewhat earlier dated layer of ash and destruction from the eruption of the Thera island volcano . The traditionally in the last third of the 16th century BC. Is dated, for the scientific dating methods in the last two decades, however, much earlier, in the second half of the 17th century BC. Chr., Data resulted (see Minoan eruption ). After that, however, as on Crete and the other eastern islands, the ash layer was cleared aside and the cities restored.

Milet V then assumed a completely Mycenaean character in both imported and domestic goods. It had an important ceramic production, so seven ceramic stoves made of mud brick were found in a very small space. The proportion of the autochthonous Anatolian population still seems to have been only small. Milet V was also ended by a 40 cm thick layer of fire. No new information could be obtained about the last Bronze Age layer, Milet VI, as the layer in the current excavation area was disturbed by Roman buildings. It ended around 1100 BC. Chr.

Archaic time

The excavation in Miletus began in 1899 with the aim of increasing knowledge about this city in archaic times, as Miletus was of outstanding importance precisely at this time, for example as the birthplace of the Ionian natural philosophy or due to the fate of the city on the eve of the Persian campaigns .

In fact, the pre-war excavations mainly produced results for the later periods. Archaic finds and findings have only been excavated at Kalabak-Tepe and the Temple of Athena, as well as in isolated places in the city. Armin von Gerkan doubted because of this rather sparse finding that the archaic Miletus was in the same place as the later city. The research after the war therefore often aimed to rebut Gerkan's theses. Increased digging was therefore carried out on the Temple of Athena.

The more recent research was again devoted to the city quarter on Kalabak-Tepe, where part of the city wall was known. On the southern slope of the hill, a residential area with several pottery ovens was uncovered. Furthermore, the situation on the east terrace of the hill, where a sanctuary of Artemis Chitone was located, could be clarified . Problems of the early classical repopulation after 494 BC. Were illuminated during these excavations. In addition, a sanctuary of Aphrodite von Oikous, previously known only from the sources, was discovered. From the finds of the votive offerings of the temple, the wide trade connection of Milets can be measured: many painted drinking vessels from Greece, especially Corinth, Sparta and Athens; the black Bucchero ware from Etruria ; Large-format clay figures from Cyprus, worked Tridacna shells from Northern Syria and numerous pieces of jewelry, amulets, scarabs and votive figures from Egypt.

The settlements of Assesos , Pyrrha and Teichioussa in the vicinity also belong to the territory ( Chora ) Milets . Teichioussa is located on the Akbük Gulf. Assesos was discovered in 1992 on the Mengerev Tepe . According to Herodotus, his sanctuary was given to Athena Assesia when the Lydian king Alyattes II invaded around 600 BC. Burned down. The only village found so far could be identical to Argassa . It owned a sacred precinct that dates back to the 4th century BC. When Temenos was marked out. A corresponding boundary stone could be found. According to the current state of research, it can be considered certain that the archaic Miletus was in the same place as the later city.

Center of the Hellenistic-Roman city, seen in 1997

Hellenistic and Roman times

Theodor Wiegand was able to gain important insights into the Hellenistic and Roman times through extensive excavations: The city therefore had an orthogonal street system, which is said to have been invented by Hippodamos of Miletus. The course of the Hellenistic and later city walls was regained. Important buildings in this period are:

The theater seen from the southwest
  • theatre
  • Buleuterion , the meeting place of the bule (council).
  • Nordmarkt, a market facility.
  • Südmarkt, whose representative entrance gate was transferred to Berlin by Theodor Wiegand, where it is now kept in the Pergamon Museum, see Miletus Market Gate .
  • Nymphaeum , a multi-storey fountain with sculptural decorations.
Faustina thermal baths, 1997
  • Faustina - thermal baths , a Roman bath.
  • Westmarkt, market at the Temple of Athena.
  • Stadion
  • Delphinion, sanctuary of Apollon Delphinios, the main god of the Milesians.
  • Oracle sanctuary of Apollo of Didyma . The sanctuary is connected to the Holy Gate of the city of Miletus by a 15 km long so-called Holy Road . At 118 m, the Apollo sanctuary was the third largest of the Greeks in the archaic period and the largest in the Hellenistic era.
  • The processional itself with its seven stations. From the 7th century "until the end of pagan antiquity around 400 AD, the processional path formed the" axis "of the Milesian territory for more than a thousand years and connected the two most important sanctuaries, the urban Delphinion and the extra-urban sanctuary in Didyma, as antithetical "poles" with one another. "

Since 2014, a project of the Ruhr University Bochum has been dedicated to researching Hellenistic and imperial housing developments and infrastructure on Humeitepe.


The following people came from Miletus:

Tyrants of the archaic period

See also

Ionia · Greek Colonization · Ionic Alliance




  • Miletus - results of excavations and investigations since 1899. Founded by Theodor Wiegand . Reimer / Schötz / de Gruyter, Berlin 1906ff.
    • Volume 1,1: Paul Wilski : Map of the Milesian Peninsula. 1906.
    • Volume 1,2: Hubert Knackfuß , Carl Fredrich : The town hall of Milet. 1908.
    • Volume 1,3: Georg Kawerau , Albert Rehm , Friedrich Hiller von Gaertringen : The Delphinion in Milet. 1914.
    • Volume 1,4: Armin von Gerkan : The Poseidon Altar at Cape Monodendri. 1915.
    • Volume 1.5: Julius Hülsen: The Nymphaeum of Miletus. 1919.
    • Volume 1.6: Armin von Gerkan: The north market and the harbor on Loewenbucht. 1922.
    • Volume 1,7: Hubert Knackfuss: The South Market. 1924.
    • Volume 1,8: Armin von Gerkan: Kalabaktepe, Athena temple and surroundings. 1925.
    • Volume 1,9: Armin von Gerkan, Fritz Krischen , Friedrich Drexel : Thermen und Palaestren. 1928.
    • Volume 1,10: Berthold F. Weber : The Roman Heroa of Miletus. 2004.
    • Volume 2.1: Armin von Gerkan: The stadium. 1921.
    • Volume 2.2: Theodor Wiegand , Kurt Krause: The Milesian landscape. 1929.
    • Volume 2,3: Armin von Gerkan: The city walls. 1935.
    • Volume 2,4: Walter Bendt: Topographical Map of Miletus. 1968.
    • Volume 3.1: Theodor Wiegand: The Latmos. 1913.
    • Volume 3.2: Fritz Krischen : The fortifications of Herakleia on the Latmos. 1922.
    • Volume 3, 4: Karl Wulzinger , Paul Wittek , Friedrich Sarre : Das Islamische Milet. 1935.
    • Volume 3.5: Alfred Philippson , Karl Lyncker: The southern Jonien. 1936.
    • Volume 3,6: Anneliese Peschlow-Bindokat : Field research in the Latmos. 2005.
    • Volume 6.1: Peter Herrmann : Inscriptions from Miletus. Part 1. A. Inscriptions n. 187–406 (reprint from volumes I 5 – II 3). B. Supplements and translations to the inscriptions n. 1–406 . 1997.
    • Volume 6,2: ders .: Inscriptions from Miletus. Part 2. Inscriptions n. 407-1019 . 1998.
    • Volume 6,3: ders .: Inscriptions from Miletus. Part 3. Inscriptions n. 1020–1580 . 2006.
  • Gerhard Kleiner : The ruins of Miletus . Berlin 1968.
  • Wolfgang Müller-Wiener (Ed.): Milet 1899–1980. Results, problems, etc. Prospects of an excavation. Colloquium, Frankfurt am Main 1980 . (= Istanbul Communications. Supplement 31). Tübingen 1986, ISBN 3-8030-1730-0 .
  • Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier : Miletus in the Bronze Age - a pulsating center between Orient and Occident. In: Ruperto Carola. Issue 2, 2000. ( online ).
  • Ortwin Dally et al. a. (Ed.): Periods. Miletus in imperial times and late antiquity . Schnell + Steiner, Regensburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7954-2235-6 .
  • Ioannis Andreas Panteleon: An Archeology of Directors. The exploration of Milets on behalf of the Berlin museums 1899–1914 . (= Mediterranean Studies. 5). Paderborn 2015, ISBN 978-3-7705-5676-2 .
  • Christof Berns : Research in Miletus - retrospect and perspective / Milet Araştırmaları - Geçmişe Bir Bakış ve Yeni Perspektifler. In: Ünsal Yalçın, Hans-Dieter Bienert (ed.): Anatolien - Brücke der Kulturen. Küprüsü Anadolu. te Bonn'da yapılan "Kültürlerin Köprüsü Anadolu" konulu uluslararası sempozyum kitabı (= publications from the German Mining Museum Bochum, no. 203). Bochum – Bonn 2015, ISBN 978-3-937203-75-1 , pp. 311-324.
  • Amy Raymond, Ivonne Kaiser, Laura-Concetta Rizzotto, Julien Zurbach: Discerning Acculturation at Miletus. Minoanization and Mycenaeanization. In: Evi Gorogianni, Peter Pavuk, Luca Girella (eds.): Beyond Thalassocracies. Understanding Processes of Minoanization and Mycenaeanization in the Aegean. Oxbow Books, Oxford 2016, pp. 58-74.

Web links

Commons : Miletus  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Strabo: Geography 14,1,6.
  2. Herodotus: Historien 9.97;
  3. Herodotus: Histories 1,146
  4. ^ Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier: Greece and Asia Minor in the late Bronze Age. The historical background of the Homeric epics. In: Michael Meier-Brügger (Ed.): Homer, interpreted by a large lexicon. Files from the Hamburg Colloquium from 6.-8. October 2010 at the end of the lexicon of the early Greek epic (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. New series volume 21). De Gruyter, 2012, p. 153, note 124 (with further evidence)
  5. ^ Gary M. Beckman, Trevor R. Bryce , Eric H. Cline : The Ahhiyawa Texts (= Writings from the Ancient World 28). Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta 2011, p. 3 f., According to which among the well-known ancient orientalists only Gerd Steiner still takes a contrary opinion.
  6. Represented primarily by Mario D. Benzi, cf. but also Penelope A. Mountjoy : The East Aegean-West Anatolian Interface in the Late Bronze Age. Mycenaeans and the Kingdom of Ahhiyawa , Anatolian Studies 48, 1998, pp. 33-67.
  7. Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier: Ḫattusa's relations to western Asia Minor and Mycenaean Greece according to the latest research . In: Gernot Wilhelm (Hrsg.): Ḫattuša-Boğazköy: The Hittite Empire in the field of tension of the ancient Orient . 6th Colloquium of the German Orient Society. tape 6 . Otto Harrassowitz, Würzburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-447-05855-1 , p. 315 ( online [accessed May 5, 2015]).
  8. CTH 61.II, on these see, inter alia, Gary M. Beckman, Trevor R. Bryce, Eric H. Cline : The Ahhiyawa Texts (= Writings from the Ancient World 28). Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta 2011, pp. 10-27 (with additional literature).
  9. On the Manapa-Tarḫunta letter and a. Harry A. Hoffner : Letters from the Hittite Kingdom. Society of Biblical Literature, Houston 2009, pp. 293-296.
  10. For this u. a. Jared L. Miller: A King of Ḫatti and a King of Aḫḫijawa (the so-called Tawagalawa letter). In: TUAT , New Series Volume 3, Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2006, pp. 240–247, (PDF)
  11. John David Hawkins : The Arzawa letters in recent perspective. British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan Vol. 14, 2009, p. 76.
  12. To this in detail z. B. Gary M. Beckman, Trevor R. Bryce , Eric H. Cline : The Ahhiyawa Texts (= Writings from the Ancient World 28). Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta 2011, pp. 123-133 (this one-sidedly argues that the recipient was Tarkasnawa von Mira , which is uncertain and controversial, as the authors themselves note, however).
  13. ^ Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier: Greece and Asia Minor in the late Bronze Age. The historical background of the Homeric epics. In: Michael Meier-Brügger (Ed.): Homer, interpreted by a large lexicon. Files from the Hamburg Colloquium from 6.-8. October 2010 at the end of the lexicon of the early Greek epic (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. New series volume 21). De Gruyter, 2012, p. 166 f.
  14. s. on this and on other, partly rejected theses regarding the recipient: Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier: Ḫattusa's relations to Western Asia Minor and Mycenaean Greece (Aḫḫijawa). In: Gernot Wilhelm (Ed.): Ḫattuša-Boğazköy. The Hittite Empire in the field of tension of the ancient Orient. 6th International Colloquium of the German Orient Society 22. – 24. March 2006, Würzburg. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2008, p. 323, note 232
  15. Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier : Ḫattusa and Aḫḫijawa in the conflict over Millawanda / Milet, The political and cultural role of the Mycenaean Greece in western Asia Minor. In: The Hittites and their empire. The people of 1000 gods. Catalog Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany GmbH, Bonn, 2002., p. 297, Fig. 4; P. 298.
  16. Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier: Ḫattusa and Aḫḫijawa in the conflict over Millawanda / Milet, The political and cultural role of the Mycenaean Greece in western Asia Minor. In: The Hittites and their empire. The people of 1000 gods. Catalog Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany GmbH, Bonn, 2002., p. 298; P. 299 Fig. 7.
  17. John Chadwick : The Mycenaean World. Stuttgart 1979, p. 109.
  18. ^ Sarah P. Morris: Potnia Aswiya: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion. I. Potnia Aswiya at Pylos. Retrieved June 28, 2017 (English).
  19. TH Fq 177 Fq 198, Fq 214, Fq 244 + 245, Fq 269 and Fq 276. See Assaf Yasur-Landau : The Philistines and Aegean Migration at the End of the Late Bronze Age. Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 40, table 2.1.
  20. Klaus Tausend: Comments on the identification of the Ahhijawa. In: Gustav Adolf Lehmann , Dorit Engster, Alexander Nuss (eds.): From the Bronze Age history to the modern reception of antiquities , Syngramma vol. 1, Universitätsverlag Göttingen 2012, p. 153 f. (It is not stated whether the tablets from the layer of destruction at the end of SH III B1 - approx. 1240/30 BC or from the time of destruction at the end of SH III B2 - approx. 1200 BC or a little later - come)
  21. ^ Mario Benzi: The Southeast Aegean in the Age of the Sea Peoples. In: Ann. E. Killebrew, Gunnar Lehmann: The Philistines and Other “Sea Peoples” in Text and Archeology (Society of Biblical Literature. Archelogy and Bilical Studies No. 15). Society of Biblical Literature , Atlanta 2013, p. 532; 540
  22. ^ Mario Benzi: The Southeast Aegean in the Age of the Sea Peoples. In: Ann. E. Killebrew, Gunnar Lehmann: The Philistines and Other “Sea Peoples” in Text and Archeology (Society of Biblical Literature. Archelogy and Bilical Studies No. 15). Society of Biblical Literature , Atlanta 2013, p. 532
  23. Penelope A. Mountjoy : Mycenaean Pottery. An Introduction , Oxford University School Of Archeology, 2nd ed. 2001, p. 176 (with further references in note 443)
  24. Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier: Miletus in the Bronze Age - a pulsating center between Orient and Occident. In: Ruperto Carola. Issue 2, 2000 ( online ).
  25. ^ Dally 2009.
  26. Harro Heuser : When the gods learned to laugh . Piper, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-492-22328-1 , pp. 43-103, in particular pp. 45, 61, 91, 100; Hans Joachim Störig : Small world history of philosophy . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-596-50832-0 , pp. 140-142.
  27. Milet Archive of the Ruhr University Bochum (last viewed on February 25, 2017)
  28. Ruhr University Bochum News from November 17, 2017: Archeology. Christof Berns directs excavations at Miletus , accessed on November 17, 2017
  29. Herodotus 1, 17-19.
  30. Alexander Herda: The Apollon Delphinios cult in Miletus and the New Year procession to Didyma. In: Milesian research. Volume 4, Zabern, Mainz 2006.
  31. The Humeitepe in Miletus on the side of the Ruhr-University Bochum, last seen on February 25, 2017

Coordinates: 37 ° 31 ′ 52 ″  N , 27 ° 16 ′ 32 ″  E