The Doric is an ancient Greek dialect of the tribe of the Dorians was spoken. The distribution area of the dialect included large parts of the Peloponnese (including Sparta , Argos , Corinth ), Crete , Rhodes , parts of the west coast of Asia Minor (including Knidos ) and the Doric colonies on the Black Sea , Sicily and southern Italy . Doric is often combined with the closely related Northwest Greek dialects spoken in Phokis ( Delphi ), Lokris and Elis ( Olympia ) to form Doric Northwest Greek .
The Doric dialect was divided into numerous local variants, most of which have been passed down through inscriptions . Representatives of Doric literature include the poets Pindar , Bacchylides and Alkman , the Syracusan comedy poets Sophron and Epicharmos , the Syracusan mathematician Archimedes and the Alexandrian poets Theokritos and Callimachus . Traditionally, Dorian was the language of choral poetry . In the Attic tragedy (e.g. Sophocles , Aeschylus , Euripides ) the dialogue is spoken in Attic , but the choral song is sung in the Doric dialect.
In the Hellenistic period, Doric, like the other Greek dialects, was replaced by the Koine , a common language largely based on the Attic . However, in remote parts of the Peloponnese, Tsakonian , a dialect based on ancient Doric, has survived to this day . The Cretan dialect of Modern Greek was also shaped by Doric.
Important differences between Doric and Attic , the classical form of ancient Greek:
- The original long ᾱ ā is always retained.
Example: Doric μάτηρ mātēr versus Attic μήτηρ mētēr or φάμα pháma (the customer, the call) to Attic φήμη phếmê .
- Use of double sigma / sigma ( σσ / σ ) instead of Attic double dew / tau / theta ( ττ and τ / θ ) in front of vowels
Example: Doric θάλασσα thálassa to Attic θάλαττα thalatta (sea), ánaσάνα / to Attic / νána / θά ionic Ἀθηνᾶ (from Ἀθηναία> * Ἀθηνάα> Ἀθηνᾶ ) / Ἀθήνη Athéne .
- Partial retention of the [
w ] -sound ( Ϝ, ϝ )
Example: Doric Ϝοῖκος woikos versus Attic οἶκος oikos .
- Original -τι -ti is retained.
Example: Doric φέροντι pheronti versus Attic φέρουσι pherousi .
- Equivalent elongation to η ē and ω ō instead of ει ei and ου ou .
- The cardinal number τέτορες tetores (four) instead of Attic τέτταρες tettares and Ionic / Koine τέσσαρες tessares .
- The ordinal number πρᾶτος prātos (first, the first) instead of Attic πρῶτος prōtos .
- The demonstrative pronoun τῆνος tēnos (this) for (ἐ) κεῖνος (e) keĩnos .
- The ending 3rd person plural aorist and imperfect is -n versus Attic -san
Example: Dorian ἔδον / ἐδίδον édon / edídon , aorist / imperfect from διδόναι / δίδωμιónai / dídômi (to give) versus att. ἔδοσαν / ἐδίδοσαν édosan / edídosan .
- The future tense -σ ε -ω -s e -ō for Attic -σ-ω -s-ō
Example medium / passive from Doric πράσσειν prássein , att. πράττειν práttein (to do): dor. πραξῆται prāxētai (from πραγ-σ-έ-εται prāg-sé-etai ) for att. πράξεται prāxetai (from πράγ-σ-εται prāg-s-etai ) - Doric future tense ( futurum Doricum ).
- Ending of the 1st person plural on -μες -mes instead of -μεν -men .
- In the nominative plural of the article and the demonstrative pronoun Doric τοί toi , ταί tai , τοῦτοι toutoi , ταῦται tautai versus Attic οἱ hoi , αἱ hai , οὗτοι houtoi , αὗται hautai .
- My vocabulary as the verbs λέειν / λείειν léein / leíein want ', δρᾶν off (from δράειν dráein to do') or πᾶσθαι pãsthai (from πάεσθαι páesthai acquire ') = κτᾶσθαι ktãsthai (from κτάεσθαι ktáesthai ).