Delphi ( Greek Δελφοί ( m. Pl. ), Ancient Greek Δελφοί Delphoí pronounced), originally called Pytho ( Πυθώ ), was a city in ancient Greece that was best known for its oracle . The Delphi excavations have been on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1987 .
To the west of the ruins of ancient Delphi is the modern small town of Delfi .
Delphi is located north of the Gulf of Corinth in what is now Central Greece on a semicircular mountain slope at a height of approx. 700 m at the foot of the Parnassus and above the valley of the Xeropotamos (Ξεροπόταμος 'dry river'), which in ancient times Pleistos (Πλειστός) was called. It is about 15 kilometers to the coast. Nearby are the places Galaxidi and Arachova and the monastery of Hosios Lukas .
The name Delphi is possibly derived from the Greek word δελφύς ( delphys ) for "womb" and could indicate an ancient worship of the earth goddess Gaia - a reference that was unknown in antiquity. Presumably a Zeus sanctuary was also located here. From the 8th century BC Then the veneration of Apollo prevailed in Delphi and the oracle developed. After the winged snake Python , which Apollo is said to have killed here according to the myth , Delphi was initially known under the name Pytho , a name that lived on in poetry, but otherwise from the 6th century BC. Was increasingly replaced by the name Delphi . After a fire in 548/47 BC A new temple for Apollon was built. When this 373 BC Was destroyed by a landslide , another new building was built. Soon treasure houses were also built, in which the numerous precious consecration gifts to the Delphic Apollo were kept. Not least because of these treasures, the control of the sanctuary was of considerable importance. At first, Delphi was under the rule of Krisa . In the First Holy War (600-590 BC) Krisa was subject to an alliance of Thessalians , Sikyons and Athenians , and Delphi came under the control of the Amphictyons , a union of Greek states that jointly oversaw Delphi. As a victory festival, Eurylochus founded around the year 582 BC The Pythian Games , which were the most important of the Panhellenic Games after those of Olympia. Amphictyony kept control of the Delphic sanctuary until the Macedonian conquest in the 4th century BC. BC, with which from about 500 BC BC also the minting of own coins was connected. From 277 B.C. The Aetolian League dominated Delphi for almost a century.
In Roman times the economic and cultic importance of Delphi gradually decreased. Some Roman emperors took measures in the 1st and 2nd centuries to stop Delphi's descent, and each caused short periods of bloom. Emperor Nero is said to have removed around 500 statues from Delphi to decorate his own buildings. At the beginning of the 2nd century, the writer and philosopher Plutarch was a priest in Delphi for around 20 years and also wrote several writings on the oracle. In the middle of the 2nd century Herodes Atticus donated a new stadium, the last major construction project in Delphi. The sanctuary remained a popular pilgrimage site until the Roman Emperor Theodosius I banned pagan cults in AD 392. The oracle activity seems to have ended a few years earlier.
However, the end of the oracle and the closure of the temple did not end the existence of the settlement, which had developed around the sanctuary beginning with modest buildings since classical times. The houses built in Roman times, which with baths and mosaics testify to a certain prosperity of their owners, gave way to more modest buildings and workshops in the 5th century. The now predominantly Christian population, who lived on handicraft production, built three basilicas from around 450 AD . While a basilica from the 6th century, preserved in foundations and equipped with mosaics, was located in the area of the modern village, another, built around 550 AD, was located in the area of the grammar school in the direction of the Kastalischer Quelle and there the place of the previously laid down palaestra occupied, the location of the third basilica, built in the late 5th century, can only be guessed at. Possibly it was located as a bishop's basilica on the Roman agora , which was still used in Christian times and kept free from residential development , which was located next to the southeast entrance to the sanctuary, or on the terrace north of the Temple of Apollo. A conversion of the temple itself into a Christian church was out of the question because at that time it was already largely dilapidated. The preserved structural members and sculptures of the basilica are evidence of a certain prosperity of the Christian population of Delphi.
In the last quarter of the 6th century there was a sudden decline in population, which was either linked to a first invasion by the Slavs or was caused by economic reasons. However, there are no signs of extensive invasion destruction, the little proven damage that could be related to the event has been repaired, and the settlement continued for several decades. The craft businesses also resumed production on a more modest level. The most recent coin find from Delphi is a mint from Phocas from the year 607/608, the most recent ceramic finds date from the first two decades of the 7th century. Then the settlement, which no longer offered an economic basis, seems to have been given up voluntarily. However, the area was not completely deserted, as a Byzantine coin find, a coinage by Johannes Tzimiskes from the 10th century, shows. In the Middle Ages , the village of Kastri emerged over the ruins.
In 1892, French archaeologists from the École française d'Athènes began excavating the ancient ruins, in the course of which the residents of Kastri were relocated to the site of the modern village of Delphi (Delfi).
Delphi was the man of antiquity as the center of the world. According to the myth, Zeus had two eagles soar from one end of the world, which met at Delphi. The exact location was indicated by the omphalos (Greek "navel").
The earth mother Gaia united with the mud that remained of the world after the end of the Golden Age , and gave birth to Python, a winged serpent often also referred to as a "dragon", which in older tradition was female, only later as male was thought. Python had clairvoyant abilities and lived in what would later be called Delphi.
Hera , the wife of Zeus, was a granddaughter of Gaia. Gaia prophesied to her jealous granddaughter that Leto , her rival and one of Zeus' lovers, would one day give birth to twins (Artemis and Apollon) who would be bigger and stronger than all of her children. Python prophesied to himself that Apollon would kill him, so he went to kill Leto but did not find her as she was hiding on the island of Delos . So Leto gave birth to her children and Apollon began to hunt python. He brought him to Delphi and killed him. Through the shed blood of pythons, their clairvoyant abilities were transferred to the place. Thus Delphi was wrested from Gaia's control and from then on was under the protection of Apollo.
The oracle of Delphi was dedicated to Apollo and is considered the most important oracle in ancient Greece.
Pythia , the only woman allowed to enter the Temple of Apollo, served as the god's medium . The office of priestess probably goes back to the old cult of the earth goddess Gaia. The Pythia probably put itself into a trance by inhaling gases containing ethylene that escaped from a crevice. Her words were interpreted by the chief priests of Apollo.
The oracle developed a considerable influence throughout Greece and was consulted before all important undertakings (e.g. wars, establishment of colonies). This made it an important political factor.
The historian Herodotus reports that the Lydian king Croesus consulted the oracle of Delphi before he spoke in 546 BC. BC against the Persian king Cyrus II . Encouraged by the answer that he was going to destroy a great empire, Croesus dared to attack, but failed. The prophecy was not related to the Persian Empire, but to its own.
The Pythian Games (also: Delphic Games or Pythias) were the second most important Panhellenic Games of antiquity after the Olympic Games . The games were initially all eight, from 586 BC onwards. Then held every four years in honor of the Pythian Apollo.
Originally the games consisted only of a competition, singing to the kithara . Further musical and gymnastic competitions as well as chariot and horse races were added later. The musical disciplines were played in the theater, the gymnastic in the Delphi stadium. The horse races took place in the neighboring plain of Krissa .
The Pythian Games were still being celebrated in the time of Emperor Julian and probably waned around the same time that the Olympic Games came to an end (around 394 AD).
The excavation site of Delphi extends over 300 meters on the slope and is attractive for visitors not least because of its scenic beauty. The most important finds (including the statue of the Charioteer of Delphi and the Omphalus) are now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Delphi, right next to the excavation site. A simple copy of the omphalos was erected on the area of the sanctuary.
Sanctuary of Apollo
The sanctuary of Apollon occupies a not quite regular rectangle of 130 × 180 meters, with the larger extension extending from south to north. This temenos is bordered by a post from the middle of the 6th century BC. And after 480 BC. Renewed, but not extended, Peribolos , which allowed access through a total of eight passages. Noticeably, there was no central entrance and no gate construction highlighted one of the passages. Remains of an older and a much smaller area enclosing wall from the beginning of the 6th century BC. Indicate that the original main entrance was in the southwest of the district, while after the expansion in the 6th century BC it was located. In the southeast. There you entered the Holy Street through a simple opening in the wall, via which you got to the Temple of Apollo. With its side paths and branches it opened up the holy area, which was roughly divided into three areas by partly mighty terrace walls: The lower area of the Holy Street, which was lined with treasure houses and votive gifts , while the central area was dominated by the temple terrace with the associated altar. The west side of the upper area was occupied by the theater, the east side housed the smaller sacred areas of Dionysus and Poseidon , the burial area of Neoptolemus and the Lesche der Knidier , the famous assembly building of the Knidier equipped with the pictures of Polygnotus .
Starting from the southeast corner, the Heilige Straße initially led to the west to another passage of the Temenos wall, but before that it turned north and reached the older path of the original holy district. From here it climbed northeast to the terrace of the temple , passed the dance floor below the temple and reached the temple terrace at its southeast corner. From there one got to the temple and altar of Apollo, in the immediate vicinity of which the serpent column , a consecration gift donated by the Greeks after their victory over the Persians, stood.
The Holy Street was lined with anathemes and the treasuries that the Greek cities and Poleis built to store their gifts. In contrast to the neatly lined up or grouped treasure houses of other sanctuaries such as Olympia or Delos , the treasure houses in Delphi were only loosely ordered. Most of them were located along the Holy Street, but they also filled open spaces off this path, occupied the available area unregulated, partly taking up special places for reasons of representation, partly responding to existing treasure houses with competing buildings. In between, larger and smaller gifts were interspersed until the shrinking space forced the remaining gaps to be filled.
Only 13 treasure houses named for Delphi in the ancient tradition - above all in Pausanias , but also in Herodotus , Plutarch , Appian and Strabo - are juxtaposed with the foundations and remains of 32 excavated treasure houses in the area of the Apollo sanctuary alone. They bear witness to the considerable effort involved in their foundation, which was expressed in materials and building jewelry. Identified with a certain degree of certainty, partly on the basis of the time, partly on the basis of the decorations or even, as in the case of Knidos, the preserved dedicatory inscription, ten of the buildings in the Apollon district are mostly from the 6th century BC. BC, some in the 5th century BC BC, the last the treasury of Thebes not until 346 BC. Built in BC.
Corinth Treasure House
The oldest such building (Plan No. XXIV) was built around 600 BC. It was donated to Delphi by the Corinthian tyrant Kypselos and hid the consecrated gifts made of gold and silver by the Lydian king Gyges , which according to Herodotus weighed 30 talents , i.e. approximately 800 kilograms. The building is identified with the 6.50 × 13.00 meter foundation east of the dance floor, it was rectangular in shape and oriented towards the altar of Apollo. Columns and ante , as they are usually characteristic of later treasure houses, the building of the Kypselos does not seem to have had as yet. After the fall of the tyranny in Corinth, the city itself acted as the donor of the treasury, as the surviving dedicatory inscription shows.
Treasure house of Knidos
According to the building inscription, the inhabitants of Knidos donated as free citizenship around 550 BC. A treasure house (plan no. XXV) and statues after Delphi. Here, for the first time, the floor plan of the temple of the Anten, which is typical for these small buildings, is encountered , but the columns between the antas have been replaced by female supporting figures, caryatids . The approximately 5.10 × 6.60 meter large building of the Ionic order is the oldest marble building on the Greek mainland and was made of Parian marble . The walls, built alternately from flat girders and high runners , were crowned by a frieze of figures .
Treasury of Siphnos
A very similarly designed treasure house (Plan No. IV), also provided with caryatids, was consecrated by the inhabitants of Siphnos around the year 525 BC. At the height of their prosperity, as Herodotus notes, from the tithe of their income, which they earned from silver and gold mines. The 5.95 × 8.37 meter and 6.74 meter high treasure house, located on the south side of the Holy Street on its lower part and thus directly above the steeply sloping terrain, rose on a high substructure that had to compensate for the terrain . This treasure house, which can be almost completely reconstructed on the basis of the preserved architectural parts, was built in Ionic order from marble and covered over and over with architectural ornaments . The attempt to exceed the specifications of the Knidischen treasure house can be clearly seen. The figure frieze is one of the few permanently dated evidence of Greek sculpture and forms an important fixed point for the dating of late Archaic art . A meeting of gods, the battle of the Greeks against the Trojans , the battle of the gods against the giants were the themes of the colored and painted frieze.
Sicyon Treasure House
Towards the end of the 5th century BC The city of Sikyon built a treasure house (Plan No. III) in the form of a small Doric temple of the Antennae measuring 6.34 × 8.48 meters in the lower part of the Holy Road . Until the end of antiquity, it was the first treasury to come across when walking up the Sacred Road from the southeast. Components of two older buildings were found built into its foundations: a small one, around 600 BC. Chr. Built Tholos and a v 560. Chr. Built prostyle treasure house with a porch of 4 × 2 columns. A triglyph - metope frieze with 20 metopes and triglyphs each ran around the 13 pillars of the Tholos, so the pillars and frieze were not in any correspondence, which is a unique circumstance in the well-known Doric architecture of ancient Greece. The twelve preserved metopes of the built-in prostylos were extraordinarily elongated and thus compensated for the missing triglyphs above the intercolumn . Subjects of Greek mythology were the content of the metopes, including the robbery of the Europa on the bull, the cattle robbery by the Dioscuri with the apharetids Lynkeus and Idas and the Argo , that legendary ship of the Argonauts saga . Its representation is distributed over two neighboring metopes and shows the ship from the side, but its heroes from the front. Among the heroes is the oldest known representation of Orpheus , who reveals himself through his kithara .
The now reconstructed Treasury of Athens (Plan No. XI) was built between 510 and 490 BC. Built in the form of an Ante temple in the Doric architectural style.
Hall of the Athenians
Athens was not only represented with a treasure house in Delphi. After the end of the Persian Wars in 478 BC, they erected one of the most prominent places in the sanctuary, the end of the Holy Street at the cultic dance floor. A pillared hall from the spoils of war , which leaned against the polygonal retaining wall of the temple terrace. The reason and purpose of the foundation were inscribed on the three-tiered substructure made of gray local stone: The hall was intended to accommodate the enemy's weapons, consecrated to Delphi. In the bright hall, between the side walls of which seven Ionic marble columns carried simple wooden beams, the pieces captured by the Persians were displayed on a podium in front of the back wall for all to see. With a yoke width of 3.58 meters, the columns, which are only 39 centimeters thick, rested for the first time on an early form of the Attic base , which was composed of two bulges with a third link inserted in between. If this third link in the classic solution was a hollow groove called a trochilus, it is designed as an S-shaped wave on the Athens Hall.
Temple of Apollo
The local legend in Delphi knew how to move the first temple buildings for Apollo far into the mythical prehistoric times. Their succession and their fate were passed down primarily in Pindar's eighth paian , which is only fragmentarily preserved, and based on this in Pausanias.
Accordingly, a first temple consisted of the branches of the laurel cut in the Thessali Tempe valley . This building was followed by a temple made of beeswax and feathers by bees, which the wind carried away into the land of the Hyperboreans . It was replaced by a bronze temple built by Hephaestus and Athena , but destroyed by earthquakes and fire.
With the first stone construction, the myth is half abandoned. In Homer's hymn to Apollo, the god prepared the foundation, while the mythical architects Trophonios and Agamedes carried out the “stone threshold” - possibly the orthostatic layer - of the building. According to Pausanias, this building was built in the first year of the 58th Olympiad, i.e. 548 BC. Destroyed by fire. With great care, a larger fragment of a Doric capital and two column drums up to 97 centimeters in diameter are placed on this 548 BC. Related to the burned down temple, which was considered hardly before 600 BC. Peripteros erected in BC is to be thought.
Now a large new building has been tackled with funds that flowed to Delphi from all over Greece. First the terrace with its mighty polygonal wall was laid out, then between 525 and 505 BC. Executed the temple. The peripteros of the Doric order, measuring around 21.70 × 58.20 meters in the stylobate , had 6 × 15 columns. The construction progressed from west to east and so after a change of plan the eastern front was made of Parian marble, while the other components were made of Poros . According to Herodotus, this change went back to the Alkmeonids Kleisthenes , who also took over the associated costs. After this Temple of Alkmeon in 373/72 BC. Chr. Was destroyed by an earthquake and a rock fall, the gable figures were buried with great care.
A new construction that had been started was delayed because the Phokers had stolen the funds made available in the run-up to the Third Holy War . Only after the end of the war in 346 BC The work, now financed by the Phokers' fines, could be continued and around 320 BC. To be completed. From this temple, the seat of the oracle, six of the originally 38 Doric columns were erected again after the excavations had ended. Its shape of 6 columns on the fronts and 15 on the long sides is unusually elongated for its time, which is evident from the adoption of the floor plan from the previous building from the 6th century BC. Declared. In the Adyton , the sanctuary of the temple, the Pythia sat on a tripod over a crevice from which gases containing ethylene were escaping . The vapors put the Pythia in a trance state , in which she proclaimed the oracles of the god, which were then transmitted by priests to the questioning believers.
At the top of the sanctuary is the theater, which seated around 5,000 spectators. In the construction from the 4th or 3rd century BC The musical part of the Pythian games took place. The sporting competitions were held in the stadium located further up the slope.
Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia
The sanctuary of Athena Pronaia , the “Athena in front of the temple”, is located in the somewhat remote and deeper area of the excavation site beyond the Castalian gorge . The terrace used for this and modernly called “Marmaria” is 150 meters wide but only 40 meters deep. All the buildings on it were oriented to the south, towards the valley. Under the oldest temple in the area, more than 200 clay figures of a female deity were found, who lived here as early as the 2nd millennium BC. Was worshiped. In the 8th or 7th century, this sacred area was first set with a neatly jointed quarry stone wall. The way from Marmaria to the Sanctuary of Apollo led past the Castalian spring , from which, according to ancient legend, drinking gave the gift of poetry.
Towards the end of the 7th century BC A first temple of Athena was built in the 2nd century BC, the remains of which were built into the foundations of his successor. Accordingly, it was a Peripteros Doric order, of which 12 capitals and 10 column drums from Poros were found. The very slender columns, which were only about 3.10 meters high, had 16 fluting and carried wide, flat Doric capitals. The temple lasted around 100 years before it was built in the late 6th century BC. And was probably replaced by a new building after the completion of the Alkmeonid temple. This second Athena temple measured 13.25 × 27.46 meters in the stylobate, so it was proportioned 1: 2 and accordingly had 6 × 12 columns. In contrast to other Doric peripteroi of his time, an opisthodom , an otherwise common rear hall, was dispensed with in its construction , which may be due to the cramped conditions on the terrace. The associated altar was on the eastern long side of the temple. In the 4th century BC The temple was badly damaged by a rock fall, but was preserved as a ruin that Pausanias could still see. Another rock fall in 1905 caused 12 of the 15 columns still standing at that time to collapse and the entire foundation moved. As a result, the remaining pillars were also laid down.
A third Athena temple has now been erected in a less endangered place in the west of the terrace and a previously unsuccessfully interpreted building with two cellae was built over it in this area. The late 4th century BC. The temple, which dates back to the 3rd century BC and was made of local limestone, was not a peripteros, but a prostylus with a six-columned front, behind which the pronaos opened across the full width . There was no closed door wall to the cella, rather two pillars connected to the walls and two half-columns were constructed and the side openings were closed with grids, while the middle opening accommodated a door. An exedra similar Statuenpostament took - well retrofitted - the rear wall of the Cella and continued with brief resume along the longitudinal walls in the room.
To the east of the third temple stood the Tholos , a building by the architect Theodoros von Phokaia around 380 BC. The rotunda was designed in BC and on which Theodoros also wrote a theoretical work mentioned by Vitruvius . The round building, unusual for its time, made entirely of Pentelic marble , only the cella floor and the base under the inner column position were made of dark, Eleusinian limestone, had a diameter of 13.50 meters in the stylobate. The diameter of the cylindrical structure of the cella was 8.60 meters. Twenty columns of Doric order with 20 fluting each formed its peristasis. Inside, they answered nine columns of Corinthian order , a tenth column position was dropped because the door opened. In the radially symmetrical design, the Corinthian columns corresponded to every second intercolumn of the peristasis. Its almost 6 meter high columns carried a triglyph metope frieze, of which only a few remains with representations of centaurs and amazons have survived. The cella wall was also crowned by a triglyphone with 40 metopes. As a special feature, the tholos had a double sima as the end of the entablature . The building opened a small group of particularly precious sanctuaries, all based on the principle of the rotunda and built in the 4th century BC. BC, which found two other extraordinary representatives with the Tholos of Epidaurus and the Philippeion in Olympia. The function of the tholos in Delphi is unclear. Three of the once 20 Doric columns were put up again in 1938.
The foundations of two treasure houses in the form of small Ante temples, one Ionic and one Doric, are located between the Temple of Athena II and the Tholos. The older western treasure house is associated with the city of Massilia because of its Ionic construction . The walls of the small building made of Parian marble rested on a bulge-like, horizontally fluted cushion. The two columns between the ante were on Ephesian bases and carried Aeolian capitals formed from a wreath of 22 overhanging narrow leaves. The entablature had a figure frieze. Lotus palmette friezes adorned the underside of the geison and the sima. According to the forms of construction, the treasury was built around 525 BC. Built in BC.
The Doric treasury to the east is also connected to Athens due to its great resemblance to the treasure house of the Athenians in the Sanctuary of Apollo. Its designs suggest that it was built in the early 5th century BC. BC, because the building with its shortened ante-yokes and especially the more balanced triglyph-metope frieze has more advanced elements.
The "Riddles of Marmaria"
An archaeological problem that has not yet been resolved is connected with the description of the Athena shrine by Pausanias and is referred to as the "riddle of Marmaria". Pausanias begins his tour as follows:
" Ὲσελθόντι δὲ ἐς τὴν πόλιν εἰσὶν ἐφεξῆς ναοί: καὶ ὁ μὲν πρῶτος αὐτῶν ἐρείπια ἦν, ὁ ἐπὶ τούτῳ δὲ κενὸς καὶ ἀγαλμάτων καὶ ἀνδριάντων : ὁ δὲ αὐτῶν τρίτος καὶ ὁ τέταρτος, ὁ μὲν τῶν ἐν Ῥώμῃ βασιλευσάντων εἶχεν οὐ πολλῶν τινῶν εἰκόνας , ὁ τέταρτος δὲ Ἀθηνᾶς καλεῖται Προνοίας . "
“When you enter the city, there are temples in a row. The first has fallen into ruin, the following one is empty of idols and human statues. This is followed by the third and fourth, one of which has some portraits of Roman rulers, the fourth is called that of Athena Pronoia ['Athena the foreseeing']. "
Pausanias does not mention any other buildings in connection with the Marmaria.
These four buildings of the Pausanias are now at least five prominent buildings in the archaeological evidence, if one includes the building in the west, which could possibly be regarded as a priestly apartment, even six. Which buildings did Pausanias see and which ones did he not know? Does he mention the tholos? Does he combine the treasure houses into one building, did he only know one or none of the treasure houses? And did he come to Marmaria from the east, or rather from the west? Can you read his description from west to east? Proposals were made for all approaches without an accepted solution to the riddle being available. The names of the various buildings in Marmaria must therefore be viewed with appropriate caution, and in his monograph on the so-called Temple of Athena III, Jean-Pierre Michaud refrains from referring to the western "temple en calcaire" as the Temple of Athena.
Serpent column (replica) in front of the Temple of Apollo
- Jean-François Bommelaer: Guide de Delphes. Le site. Boccard, Paris 1991, ISBN 2-86958-037-1 .
- Michael Maaß : Ancient Delphi. Oracles, treasures and monuments. Theiss, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-8062-1321-6 .
- Marion Giebel : The Oracle of Delphi. History and texts. Reclam, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-15-018122-4 .
- Josef Wiesehöfer : The secrets of Pythia. Oracle and the knowledge of the traveling sages. In: Karl-Joachim Hölkeskamp , Elke Stein-Hölkeskamp (ed.): Places of remembrance of antiquity. The Greek world. CH Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60496-6 , pp. 336-352.
- Jean-Marc Luce (Ed.): Delphes, sa cité, sa région, ses relations internationales. Presses Universitaires du Mirail, Toulouse 2012, ISBN 978-2-8107-0192-6 .
- Delphi at Livius.org ( Memento of December 24, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Entry on the UNESCO World Heritage Center website ( English and French ).
- SC Woodhouse's English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language. Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, 1950 ( digitized )
- Michael Maaß: Delphi 'monumental' - processional street, treasure houses, temples. In: Elke Stein-Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim Hölkeskamp (ed.): The Greek world. Places of remembrance from antiquity. Munich 2010, pp. 61–78, here: p. 65.
- Giovanna Daverio Rocchi: Delphoi. II. Organization and history. In: Der Neue Pauly online (accessed December 8, 2015).
- Dion Chrysostom 31,148; Pausanias 10,7,1. Cf. Michael Maaß: Delphi 'monumental' - processional street, treasure houses, temples. In: Elke Stein-Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim Hölkeskamp (ed.): The Greek world. Places of remembrance from antiquity. Munich 2010, p. 66.
- On Delphi in Christian times, see, although out of date, Joseph Laurent: Delphes chrétien. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 23, 1899, pp. 206-279 ( online ).
- Vincent Deroche: Delphes: la christianisation d'un sanctuaire païen. In: Noël Duval (ed.): Actes du XIe congrès international d'archéologie chrétienne (= Publications de l'École française de Rome. Volume 123). École Française de Rome, Rome 1989, pp. 2713-2723 ( online ); Platon Pétridis: Delphes dans l'Antiquité tardive: première approche topographique et céramologique. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique . Volume 121, 1997, pp. 681-695 ( online ).
- Vincent Deroche: Delphes: la christianisation d'un sanctuaire païen. In: Noël Duval (ed.): Actes du XIe congrès international d'archéologie chrétienne. École Française de Rome, Rome 1989, pp. 2713-2715; Platon Pétridis: Delphes dans l'Antiquité tardive: première approche topographique et céramologique. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 121, 1997, pp. 684, 687.
- Vincent Deroche: Delphes: la christianisation d'un sanctuaire païen. In: Noël Duval (ed.): Actes du XIe congrès international d'archéologie chrétienne. École Française de Rome, Rome 1989, pp. 2715-2717; Platon Pétridis: Delphes dans l'Antiquité tardive: première approche topographique et céramologique. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 121, 1997, p. 687.
- Vincent Deroche: Delphes: la christianisation d'un sanctuaire païen. In: Noël Duval (ed.): Actes du XIe congrès international d'archéologie chrétienne. École Française de Rome, Rome 1989, pp. 2717-2718.
- Platon Petridis: Delphes dans l'Antiquité tardive: première approche topographique et céramologique. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 121, 1997, p. 686 f.
- Michael Scott: Delphi - A History of the Center of the Ancient World. Princeton 2014, p. 247.
- Vincent Deroche: Delphes: la christianisation d'un sanctuaire païen. In: Noël Duval (ed.): Actes du XIe congrès international d'archéologie chrétienne. École Française de Rome, Rome 1989, p. 2720.
- Michael Maaß: The ancient Delphi. Oracles, treasures and monuments. Theiss, Stuttgart 1997, p. 29.
- Platon Petridis: Delphes dans l'Antiquité tardive: première approche topographique et céramologique. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 121, 1997, p. 681 with note 1. 688.
- Platon Petridis: Delphes dans l'Antiquité tardive: première approche topographique et céramologique. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 121, 1997, p. 688.
- Joseph Laurent: Delphes Chrétien. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 23, 1899, p. 279 notes; Platon Pétridis: Delphes dans l'Antiquité tardive: première approche topographique et céramologique. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 121, 1997, p. 695.
- Gottfried Gruben : The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 71 f.
- A summary of the treasuries in Delphi Elena C. Partida: The Treasuries at Delphi. An Architectural Study. Paul Åström Förlag, Jonsered 2000; Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 81.
- Herodotus 1:14, 2. ; see. also Pausanias 10,13,5 .
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 86 f.
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, pp. 82-85.
- Herodotus 3,57,2 .
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 85 f.
- Werner Fuchs : The sculpture of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1983, pp. 426-430.
- Marie-Dominique Nenna, Didier Laroche: Le trésor de Sicyone et ses fondations. In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 114, 1990, pp. 241-284 ( digitized version ).
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 87. 98.
- Werner Fuchs: The sculpture of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1983, pp. 401-404.
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 89 f.
- Christiane Sourvinou-Inwood : The Myth of the First Temples at Delphi. In: dies .: 'Reading' Greek culture. Texts and images, rituals and myths. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1991, pp. 192-216.
- On Pindar's 8th Paian, see Ian Rutherford : Pindar's Paeans: A Reading of the Fragments with a Survey of the Genre. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001, pp. 210-232.
- Pausanias 10,5,9-13 .
- The myth of the temple made of wax and feathers is also familiar to Aristotle , de philosophia frg. 3 Rose in Stobaios 21,26 ( digitized version ), Philostratos , vita Apollonii 6,11 and Strabo 9,3,9.
- Besides Pindar and Pausanias also by Aristoteles, de philosophia frg. 3 Rose is mentioned as a bronze temple in Stobaius 21:26.
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 74.
- Homeric Hymns 3, 294-299; Strabon 9,3,9; Pausanias 10: 5, 13.
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 74.
- Herodotus 5:62; see. also Pindar, Pythische Oden 7,8 f.
- To the temple of the 4th century BC Chr. Pierre Amandry : Le temple d'Apollon du IVe siècle. In: Fouilles de Delphes, 2. Topographie et architecture. E. de Boccard, Paris 2010.
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, pp. 93-95.
- Pausanias 10,8,6.
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 95.
- Jean-Pierre Michaud: Le temple en calcaire. In: Fouilles de Delphes, 2. Topographie et architecture. E. de Boccard, Paris 1977; Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 95 f.
- Vitruvius 7 praefatio 12 : Theodorus Phocaeus de tholo qui est Delphis.
- Jean Charbonneaux , Kaj Gottlob: La Tholos, 2: Relevés et restaurations. In: Fouilles de Delphes, 2. Topographie et architecture. E. de Boccard, Paris 1925; Florian Seiler : The Greek Tholos. Investigations into the development, typology and function of artistic round buildings. von Zabern, Mainz 1986, pp. 57-71; Georges Roux : La tholos d'Athéna Pronaia dans son sanctuaire de Delphes. In: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres Année. Volume 132, 1988, pp. 290-309 ( digitized version ).
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 99.
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 82.
- Gottfried Gruben: The temples of the Greeks. 3. Edition. Hirmer, Munich 1980, p. 96 f.
- Pausanias 10,8,6
- With the older literature see Lucien Lerat: Les «énigmes de Marmaria». In: Bulletin de correspondance hellénique . Volume 109, 1985, pp. 255-264 ( digitized version ); see also Jean-François Bommelaer: Guide de Delphes. Le site. Boccard, Paris 1991, p. 51.
- Jean-Pierre Michaud: Le temple en calcaire. In: Fouilles de Delphes, 2. Topographie et architecture. E. de Boccard, Paris 1977.