Trojan war

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The Trojan War is a central event in Greek and Roman mythology . Homer's Iliad depicts decisive war scenes during the siege of the city of Troy (Ilion) by the army of the Greeks, who in the Iliad are usually called Achaeans , more rarely Danaers or Argives . In total, however, only 51 days of the ten-year siege are reported. Other events are narrated through other epics within the so-called epic cycle .

The mythical trigger of the Trojan War was the kidnapping of Helena , the wife of Menelaus , by Paris , the son of the Trojan king Priam (see section The judgment of Paris ). Thereupon the united Greeks marched against Troy to get revenge. Despite ten years of siege, it was not possible to conquer the heavily fortified city. On the advice of Odysseus , the Greeks finally built a large wooden horse in which the bravest warriors hid and faked the departure of their ships. Contrary to the warnings of Kassandra and the priest Laocoon, the Trojans brought the horse into the city. During the night the Greeks climbed out of their hiding place, opened the gates and were able to overpower the Trojans. The term Trojan horse , which is still used today, arose from this incident . In another version it is said that the Greeks built the horse so large that it would not have passed through Troy's gates. So the Trojans would have torn down their own walls to bring the wooden horse into the city.

Battle of the ships off Troy, Attic sarcophagus, Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki , second quarter of the 3rd century
The Fire of Troy ( Adam Elsheimer ca.1600 )

Historicity of the Trojan War

In ancient times , the Iliad was understood as an authentic account of a historical event. The fall of Troy was suggested by ancient authors between 1334 and 1135 BC. Most of the dates from the end of the 13th century to the early 12th century BC. Move. In today's research, the Trojan War, if one does not consider it fictional, is mostly in the 13th or 12th century BC. Dated. According to the information in the Iliad , the city ​​of Troy was part of the Dardanelles . Heinrich Schliemann began excavations on the Hisarlık Tepe hill in the north-west of today's Turkey in 1871 and identified the ruins he found there as the Troy described by Homer. The historicity of the Trojan War, i.e. the question of whether it actually took place or is just a fictional narrative, was also the subject of the Troy debate .

Dating the war

Since the Trojan War is an important, relatively late event in Greek mythology, attempts have been made to date the war as early as ancient times. Usually these approaches were based on the genealogies of kings. So Ephorus gives 1135 BC. BC, Sosibios 1172 BC BC, Eratosthenes 1184 or 1183 BC BC, Timaeus 1193 BC BC, the Parish Chronicle 1209/1208 BC BC, Dikaiarchos 1212 BC BC, Herodotus around 1230 BC BC, Eretes 1291 BC BC and Duris 1334 BC For the end of the war. Ephorus gives the exact day 23/24. Thargelion (May 6/7) and Hellanikos date Thargelion 12 (May 26), while others date Skirophorion 23 (July 7) or Pyanepsion 23 (October 7).

Homer describes the destruction of Troy by an earthquake some time before the war. Some researchers identify this event with the end of Troy VIh , which according to the research of Carl Blegen around 1300 BC. Was destroyed by an earthquake. According to previous knowledge, the successor Troy VIIa was a somewhat poorer city and was probably built around the middle of the 12th century BC. Destroyed by fire. However, the exact dating is debatable.

Myth of the Trojan War

In addition to Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, there are other ancient sources that complement Homer's presentation. Among them are the epic cycle , which contains the stories before and after the Trojan War, the Aeneid of Virgil and the two late Latin reporters Dictys Cretensis with his Ephemeris belli Trojani (4th century) and Dares Phrygius with his Acta diurna belli Trojani ( 5th century). From the Middle Ages to Shakespeare , the latter three texts were the foundation of all literary adaptations of the Trojan War. Even Goethe used it in his plan for an Achilles .


Aphrodite directs Helena's abduction through Paris ( Francesco Primaticcio , 1530/39)

The preliminary phase of the Trojan War up to the first fighting was told in the now- preserved epic Kypria .

The judgment of Paris

The goddesses Hera , Athena and Aphrodite were invited along with the other Olympian gods to the wedding of the mortal hero Peleus with the goddess Thetis (the parents of Achilles). Eris , the goddess of discord, was the only goddess not invited. She then threw a golden apple with the inscription καλλίστῃ ("for the most beautiful") into the group and thus triggered a dispute between Hera, Athene and Aphrodite, because each of the goddesses claimed the apple for themselves. The three asked Zeus to decide which of them was the most beautiful. The latter, however, wisely wanted to avoid making this choice, since Aphrodite and Athene were his daughters and Hera his wife and sister. So he sent for Hermes and told him to bring the goddesses to Paris , Troy, the beautiful, albeit outcast, royal son, so that he might decide.

All three goddesses tried to gain Paris' favor through bribery: Hera promised political power and dominance in Asia, Athene promised wisdom and the art of war . Aphrodite, however, read Paris' wishes most clearly when she promised him the most beautiful woman on earth, namely Helena . However, she was already the wife of King Menelaus of Sparta . Finally Paris awarded the apple to Aphrodite, incurring the wrath of the other two goddesses. They tried now to harm him wherever they could.

In the sober Dares , who tried to be skeptical and demythologized , the “judgment of Paris” is reduced to a motivating dream of the same.

The escape of Paris and Helena

Before Helena became the wife of Menelaus, many of the Greek kings had courted her. In order to preserve peace in Greece after the choice of her bridegroom, Odysseus had advised that all applicants should take an oath to recognize Helena's election and to defend Helena's marriage. When Paris met Helena, Aphrodite kept her promise and made sure that Helena fell in love with Paris. Both fled to Troy together. The oaths called under the Greeks by Menelaus now marched under the general Agamemnon , his brother and - u. a. according to the Iliad - King of Mycenae , against Troy, much to the delight of Hera and Athena.

Episodes of the campaign

Recruiting an army

With the kidnapping of Helena's family, Paris brought shame to Menelaus. In order to restore the dignity and glory of the Atrids to new splendor, the latter immediately began to mobilize an army that should be strong enough to overcome the massive gates of Troy. The loyalty oath of his former competitors, who had asked for the hand of the beautiful Helena, came to his aid in this task. On the advice of Odysseus, Helena's father Tyndareos had all those who sought Helena's hand swear before the decision that they would support the chosen one against any opponent in the future. Since Helena had many recruits from all over Greece, Menelaus did not find it particularly difficult to raise a powerful force .

Achilles takes part in the war

Thetis gives her son Achilles of Hephaestus forged weapons
Achilles at the court of King Lycomedes ( Louvre )

The Achaeans besieged Troy for nine years. This part of the war is less mentioned, traditional sources preferring to talk about the events of the last year of the war. After the first landing, the army in its entirety was not gathered again until the tenth year. Thucydides concludes: Due to lack of money and insufficient food, they first attacked Trojan allies and spent some time farming on the Thracian peninsula.

The seer Kalchas had predicted that the Greeks would not defeat Troy without the participation of Achilles in the war. Thetis , Achilles' mother, however, knew that Achilles would fall before Troy. So she did some things to protect her son. So she hid him, disguised as a young girl, at the court of Lykomedes in Skyros . There he had a relationship with Deidameia , who gave birth to his son Neoptolemus .

Odysseus and Diomedes exposed his disguise by coming to the court, acting as traders, and recognizing him as he admired their weapons on sale. Another story reports that when a trumpet sounded he grabbed a spear for defense instead of fleeing. Accompanied by his advisor (educator) Phoinix and his best friend Patroklos , he then set off for Troy. For Achilles the only thing that was important was that his name should never be forgotten.

The "wrath of Achilles" (his quarrel with Agamemnon) is the central motif in the epic epic " Iliad " by Homer, who picked out an episode of fifty-one days.

Agamemnon and Iphigenia

The Sacrifice of Iphigenia ( Giovanni Battista Tiepolo , 1757)

Artemis punished Agamemnon for killing a sacred doe in a grove dedicated to her and for boasting that he was superior to the goddess in hunting. It prevented the departure of Agamemnon's fleet at Aulis in Boeotia by causing a calm. The oracle of the priest Kalchas prophesied that Agamemnon would have to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia to the goddess in atonement in order to begin the journey.

Some versions of the story confirm that he sacrificed his daughter. Others report that Artemis raptured her to Tauris and that a doe was sacrificed in her place. Iphigenia served the Taurians there in the Crimea as the priestess of the goddess (see also the Euripides tragedies Iphigenia in Aulis and Iphigenia among the Taurians ). After Hesiod , Iphigenia became the goddess Hecate .

Chryseis and Briseis

Achilles had kidnapped Briseis and made him his lover. When Agamemnon was asked to obey the oracle of Kalchas and to return his own conquered bed companion Chryseis , daughter of the Apollo priest Chryses from Chryse , to her father and so appease the anger of Apollo (the plague in the Greek army), he insisted on a replacement. Since Kalchas had asked Achilles for protection before the prophecy, knowing that Agamemnon would not be pleased with his spell, Agamemnon, full of hatred for Achilles, took away this Briseis. Achilles then, furiously and successfully, asked his mother Thetis to persuade Zeus to let the Trojans win in all battles until he was given satisfaction, and from then on he refused to take part in the fight against the Trojans and their allies.

Hector and Patroclus' death

When Achilles no longer took part in the fighting and the Greeks were therefore in dire straits, his friend Patroclus put on Achilles' armor and went into battle. Hector killed him in a duel and captured Achilles' armor. The latter swore not to bury the dead Patroclus until he had killed Hector. Equipped by his mother Thetis with new armor made by Hephaestus (in the description of the shield decoration, Homer brings a cross-section of Greek life), he went into a duel with Hector. This had already been injured by Aias the Great (Ajax); Achilles chased him three times around the walls of Troy, caught him and killed him. The victor dragged the dead man's body around Troy on the chariot three times, but allowed King Priam, Hector's father, to walk in the night - moved by pity and under the encouragement of his mother Thetis, who also brought him Zeus' wishes for the release of the body had come to him under divine protection with a wagon full of ransom gifts to buy his son's body for burial. An eleven-day truce was agreed for the time of the burial and the funeral service.

The first word of the Iliad (menin) means "the grudge". When Achilles finally showed compassion and released Hector's corpse, the arc described in the Iliad was completed. The last song of the epic brings (in a double sense of the word) the "solution" (lysis).

Achilles' death

Thetis weeps for the dead Achilles ( Johann Heinrich Füssli 1780)

Shortly after Hector's fall, Achilles defeated Memnon from Ethiopia , Cyknos from Kolonai and the Amazon queen Penthesilea , with whom he fell in love in her agony (according to some versions, it was even said that Achilles had violated her after her death ). Shortly afterwards he was killed by Paris in front of the Skaean Gate: With the help of Apollo , he shot him a poisoned arrow in his heel (the Achilles heel was his only vulnerable place, see Thetis ). In another version he died by a knife stab when he visited the Trojan king's daughter Polyxena during a truce . His bones were united with those of Patroclus, and just like Ajax, according to legend, he lived after his death on the island of Leuke at the mouth of the Danube .

Achilles' armor and the death of Ajax

Ajax of Salamis plunges into his sword, Eurytios crater (around 600 BC)

After Achilles 'death, Odysseus and the Great Ajax , who was now the first hero of the Greeks, fought over Achilles' arms and armor. Odysseus won the advertised competition (with the help of the goddess Athena), and Ajax went into a frenzy and attacked a flock of sheep (which in his madness he thought to be Greeks, the greatest ram to be Odysseus). When he regained his senses, he threw himself on his own sword out of shame at what he had done.


The Greeks captured Helenus , a seer and son of Priam, when they had been near Troy for almost 10 years. They tortured him until he revealed the conditions for conquering Troy. The Greeks would have to be in possession of the arrows of Heracles (which Philoctetes owned), steal the Trojan Palladion , a holy idol of Pallas Athena, and have the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus , in their ranks.

Another oracle's prediction that the first Greek to go ashore from the ships would also be the first to perish was fulfilled by Protesilaos , the leader of the Phylakers .


Philoctetes had been Heracles ' friend and armor-bearer and after his death received his deadly arrows (poisoned with the bile of the Hydra ) and the bow because he lit the funeral pyre when no one else was willing to do so. As one of the leaders on the side of the Greeks, he sailed with seven ships to Troy. On the way, however, he was bitten by a snake, probably an adder, while resting on Chryse Island . Since the Greeks no longer wanted to endure his cries of pain and the stinking wound that did not heal, Odysseus took it over to abandon him on the island of Lemnos .

Medon took command of Philoctetes' men; the latter was left alone with his weapons for ten years. Philoctetes was angry because he had been abandoned like a sick animal in his distress and was only remembered of him now that his services were needed. Odysseus knew that Philoctetes would by no means follow him into the battle against Troy of his own free will. Therefore, he secretly stole Heracles' weapons and went back to the field camp of Agamemnon. This roused Philoctetes and he followed Odysseus to Troy. When he arrived on the battlefield his wounds were healed by Asklepios or his son Machaon and a little later he was involved in the first battles with the Trojans, in which he killed Paris with the poisoned arrows of Heracles .

The robbery of the Palladium

Odysseus' risky task of stealing the Palladion (a wooden idol of Athena that protected the Trojans) was one of his most difficult missions. It was hidden in a sanctuary behind the walls of Troy. One night, disguised as a beggar, he managed to invade Troy unnoticed. Only Helena , who had meanwhile been married to one of Priam's other sons, recognized Odysseus . She longed for her home, Sparta, and so it happened that she described Odysseus the exact way to the Palladion and gave him information about the number of guards. He crept on to the sanctuary and silently took the guards by surprise. When the Palladion was securely stowed away, he started back to the camp. In future the Trojans had to defend themselves without this divine assistance.


"Diomedes", copy of a statue of Kresilas (?) (430 BC, Glyptothek Munich)

Diomedes almost managed to kill Aeneas in battle. However, Aphrodite , his mother, saved him by carrying him out of battle. In a frenzy of rage, Diomedes injured her wrist, whereupon Aphrodite dropped her son and fled, crying, to Mount Olympus to be comforted by her mother Dione . Aeneas was then wrapped in a cloud by Apollo and brought to Pergamum , a sacred place in Asia Minor. There Artemis healed and strengthened Aeneas supernaturally. When Diomedes found himself in a duel with Hector later in the war, he saw the god of war, Ares, who was fighting on the side of the Trojans . Diomedes asked his soldiers to withdraw in an orderly manner. Hera , the mother of Ares, saw his interference and asked Zeus ' permission to drive him off the battlefield with the help of his sister Athena . Then she told Diomedes to attack Ares directly. Athena steered his spear and wounded Ares on the switch . This then fled the battle, let himself be comforted by Aphrodite and tended to his wound and his injured vanity. Under the rage of Diomedes, the Trojans then fell back, missing divine support. Diomedes was the only mortal Greek who ever managed to wound two of the Olympian gods.


The Lycian Glaukos , a grandson of Bellerophon , and the Tydide Diomedes met with lust for battle on the battlefield. Diomedes did not know who his opponent was, while Glaucus knew very well who he was dealing with. So he said, “Diomedes, my grandfather Bellerophon was already a guest of yours, Öneus .” Diomedes then thrust his lance into the ground, renewed the friendship between the sexes and exchanged Glaukos' golden armor for his own brazen .

The Trojan horse

The siege of the Greeks entered the tenth year when Odysseus devised the ruse that would decide the war. Apparently giving up the siege, the Greeks left behind a huge wooden horse built by Epeios , in whose belly some Greeks were hidden under the command of Odysseus. The Greeks left Sinon behind, who convinced the Trojans of the authenticity of the gift. Although the seer Kassandra, who was the sister of Hector and Paris, warned her, the Trojans pulled the horse in front of the city walls and broke a breach in their impassable wall because the horse was too high for the city gates. After the Trojans' victory celebration, the Greeks hidden in the horse were able to open the city gate unnoticed and let the returned army into the city. Troy was burned down and few residents were able to escape.

After the war

Ajax the Lokrer harassed Kassandra in the Temple of Pallas Athene , Louvre
Aeneas flees Troy ( Federico Barocci 1598)

The spirit of his father Achilles appeared to Neoptolemus and demanded that his lover Polyxena be sacrificed to him before his return. The Greeks drove them to the altar; there she killed herself. Priam's wife, Hecabe , became a slave. Lycaon had already been enslaved by Achilles and killed while trying to escape. Antenor, Priam's brother-in-law and advisor, was spared, as he had always advised Helena's return to the Greeks. Kassandra was raped by Ajax the Little ; she then became a concubine of Agamemnon and murdered with him in Mycenae . (She had predicted everything, but no one believed her; according to a curse of Apollo she had refused to accept.) Neoptolemus enslaved Andromache , the widow of Hector (and Helenus); later he married her.

Krëusa was killed while fleeing Troy. Her husband Aeneas was able to escape together with his herald Misenus, his father Anchises , the healer Iapyx and his son Askanios . According to more recent Roman legends (epics), especially Virgil's Aeneid , after long wanderings he landed on the Italian coast, where his descendants founded Rome . Since Aeneas was of divine descent (mother Aphrodite), Gaius Julius Caesar could still boast of her.

Editing of the topic

Roman de Troie by Benoît de Sainte-Maure with the kidnapping of Helen, the siege and the fire of Troy, manuscript from the 14th century

The Trojan War inspired a number of works. Ancient adaptations of the subject (partially) independent of Homer's Iliad include the works of the Epic Cycle, which have only survived in fragments :

Above all Dictys and Dares were the sources for the medieval arrangements. Since the Greek text of Homer was no longer available and the Iliad was only available in Latin excerpts, these two were considered the oldest and most reliable sources, since they are alleged "eyewitness accounts" of the Trojan War, in which the intervention of gods is completely dispensed with. The tradition of Byzantine historiography presented in the Chronographia of Johannes Malalas (6th century) and the Epitome Historion by Johannes Zonaras (12th century) was of course no longer accessible to authors of the Latin Middle Ages. The medieval adaptations of the material, which were dependent on Dictys and Dares, include the Roman de Troie by Benoît de Sainte-Maure from 1161.

Derived from this, there were multiple further adaptations of the material in Latin, French, English, German, Italian, Spanish and other languages, which are referred to as Troy novels and were widely distributed, finally printed and read into modern times. To be mentioned here is above all

But there were also epic versions, such as the Trojan War of Konrad von Würzburg with over 40,000 verses. Georg Gotthart provided a dramatization with the destruction of the great vnd ​​fortress royal place Troia or Jlio , which was performed in Solothurn in 1598 .

Further arrangements are to be mentioned in the late Middle Ages Troilus & Criseyde by Geoffrey Chaucer , then in the modern era Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida , Les Troyens by Hector Berlioz and The Trojan War Doesn't Take Place by Jean Giraudoux .

There are various translations of these legends into German, just compare Friedrich Schiller's melancholy poem Das Siegesfest . The best-known comes from the 19th century by Gustav Schwab ( Schwab's classic legends of antiquity ) , a house book of the German bourgeoisie until the 1950s - until then, every high school graduate was expected to have a fairly precise knowledge of the Trojan War. A translation written especially for children comes from Franz Fühmann (The wooden horse) . Mention should also be made of Christa Wolf's story, which was written in 1983 in the GDR, Kassandra (Christa Wolf) , in which she uses the feminine, matriarchal view of Kassandra as an example of female writing and ultimately of herself on the events of the Trojan War and finally also portrays the present. Troy thus becomes a parable for the downfall of socialist Europe.

Modern adaptations often come from the field of fantasy or historical speculation, as in Gisbert Haefs ' implementation of Troy from 1999, which comes up with some very idiosyncratic, but often convincing, realistic interpretations of the legends that have been handed down.

In 2002, the German metal band Blind Guardian released a 14-minute musical retelling of the subject under the title And Then There Was Silence .

The story also became the basis of the television film Helena von Troja from 2003 and the film Troja by Wolfgang Petersen from 2004. However, the film deviates from the ancient tradition in many points with regard to the plot.

In 2004, the American writer Dan Simmons implemented the events of the Iliad in his science fiction novel Ilium .

Important people from the Iliad

Map of Greece according to Homer

On the Greek side

On the Trojan side

  • Aeneas , son of Anchises with the goddess Aphrodite and cousin of Priam, escapes from the burning Troy.
  • Agenor , son of Antenor (falls at the hand of Neoptolemus)
  • Ainia
  • Akastus (falls by the hand of Merione / Ajax the great)
  • Anchises the blind father of Aeneas
  • Andromache ♀Wife of Hector, after the fall of Troy, Neoptolemus's slave.
  • Antiphus (falls by Agamemnon's hand)
  • Asios king of Arisbe (falls at the hand of Idomeneus)
  • Askanios or Iulus , son of Aeneas, mythical progenitor of Julier
  • Astyanax the son of Hector and his wife Andromache (murdered by Neoptolemus as a small child)
  • Deiphobos brother of Hector (falls by Menelaus' hand)
  • Dolon is captured, interrogated and killed by Odysseus and Diomedes.
  • Euphorbos falls through Menelaus 'hand during the tumult over Patroclus' body
  • Eurypylos (the Mysier falls at the hand of Neoptolemus)
  • Eurytion
  • Glaukos King of the Lycians , grandson of Bellerophon , exchanges armor with Diomedes , is slain by Ajax the Telamonian .
  • Hector son of Priam and Hecuba (falls by Achilles' hand)
  • Hecabe ♀ wife of Priam, mother of Hector, Paris, Deiphobos, Helenos, Troilos, Kassandra, Polydoros
  • Helenos the seer , twin brother of Kassandra, brother of Hector, captured and tortured by Odysseus.
  • Hiketaon
  • Kassandra ♀ ( murdered by Agamemnon's wife Klytaimnestra )
  • Kebriones (half-brother and charioteer of Hector, falls at the hand of Patroclus)
  • Koroibos A candidate for the hand of Kassandra, killed by Diomedes.
  • Cyknos (falls by Achilles' hand)
  • Iapyx
  • Laocoon the seer (dies in agony with his sons (see also Laocoon group ))
  • Memnon , the Ethiopian (falls by Achilles' hand)
  • Mygdon
  • Pandarus (falls at Diomedes' hand)
  • Paris (= Alexandros ), who had kidnapped Helena and thus triggered the Trojan War, fell through Philoctetes' arrow.
  • Penthesilea ♀, Queen of the Amazons , (falls by Achilles' hand)
  • Phorkys (falls by the hand of Ajax the Great)
  • Polites (falls at the hand of Neoptolemus)
  • Polydamas
  • Polyxena ♀ (falls by Neoptolemus' hand)
  • Priam, King of Troy, father of u. a. Hector and Paris (slain by Neoptolemus, Achilles' son)
  • Rhesus (falls by Diomedes' hand)
  • Sarpedon the son of Zeus and Europa (falls at the hand of Patroclus)
  • Troilo's brother of Hector and Paris (falls at Achilles' hand)
  • Amphios and Adrastos, two sons of Merops Perkosios (fall by Diomedes' hand)

Gods and goddesses

  • Eris (started the war)

On the Greek side

On the Trojan side

Allied Greeks

  1. Achaeans (in Homer this is the name for the Greeks in general, he has not yet used the word "Hellenes")
  2. Abantes
  3. Aiginetes
  4. Aitoler
  5. Arcadians
  6. Athenians and Salaminians
  7. Argiver and Tiryns
  8. Boibeer ( Thessaly )
  9. Booter
  10. Dulichion
  11. Eleer
  12. Elone ( Thessaly )
  13. Enienes
  14. Iolker ( Thessaly )
  15. Ithaker
  16. Cretans
  17. Lokrer
  18. Magnets
  19. Meliboia
  20. Minyer
  21. Mycenae and Corinth
  22. Myrmidons
  23. Oichalier
  24. Ormenion ( Thessaly )
  25. Pheraier
  26. Phylakia
  27. Phoker
  28. Pylier
  29. Rhodians
  30. Spartans
  31. Symer

Allies of the Trojans

Map of the Troas
  1. Ethiopians
  2. Amazons
  3. Adrasteia
  4. Halo zones
  5. Dardaner
  6. Kikonen ( Thrace )
  7. Colonians
  8. Lycia
  9. Maeonia
  10. Miletus
  11. Mysians (Thrace)
  12. Paionier ( Illyria )
  13. Pelasger
  14. Perkote ( Troas )
  15. Phrygians ( Troas )
  16. Thracian ( Thrace )
  17. Zeleia ( Troas )

Other participants


Web links

Commons : Trojan War  - collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. Such as that of the kings of Sparta ( Diodorus 1: 5).
  2. FGrHist 70 F 223
  3. FGrHist 595 F 1
  4. Chronographiai FGrHist 241 F 1d
  5. FGrHist 566 F 125
  6. FGrHist 239, §24
  7. Bios Hellados
  8. Histories 2,145.
  9. FGrHist 242 F 1
  10. FGrHist 76 F 41
  11. ↑ See information on the tutorial on the Project Troia website ( memento from June 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) of the University of Tübingen
  12. S. overview table in Dietrich Koppenhöfer, Troja VII - attempt at a synopsis including the results of 1995 , in: Studia Troica 7 (1997), pp. 341–346, especially p. 346, tab. 4. The after Blegens meanwhile as Estimates made for the end of Troy VIIa out of date (1260 BC) lie between 1185 and 1140 BC. BC, or - as an outlier downwards - at the end of level SH III C (early 11th century). Koppenhöfer himself takes 1180 BC. And follows Sandars and Hansel.
  13. Apollodorus Epitome E.3.2
  14. Thucydides 1.11.