After Aeschylus and Sophocles, Euripides is the youngest of the three great Greek tragedy poets . Of around 90 tragedies, 18 have survived. In addition, one of his satyr games has come down to us. With his plays, especially Medea , Iphigenie in Aulis , Elektra and Die Bacchen , Euripides is one of the most played dramatists in world literature.
Little is known about the life of Euripides. Some information can be found in a preface to Byzantine Euripides manuscripts. Accordingly, he was the son of Mnisarchos and the Kleito from the inland demos Phlya of the Attic Phyle Kekropis . During the second Persian War , his parents fled in 480 BC. To Salamis , and so he was born here. He is said to have returned to Salamis again and again to compose his dramas in a secluded cave. The cave of Euripides was identified in 1997 in the south of the island. He is also said to have been a torchbearer at the rites of Apollon Zosterios . He is also said to have heard lectures from the natural philosopher Anaxagoras and the sophists Prodikos and Protagoras .
Important life dates arise above all from his participation in the tragedy competitions that were organized in Athens on the occasion of Dionysia (a city cult event for the theater god Dionysus). Between 455 and 408 BC BC Euripides regularly brought tetralogies (consisting of three tragedies and a satyr play of a rather grotesque character) to the stage in the tragic agon . With his first competition entry Die Peliaden (lost), he took third place. His first victory falls in the year 441 BC. In the year 428 BC He won with the surviving The wreathed Hippolytos , which was the arrangement of another Hippolytos piece listed and heavily criticized a few years earlier. Overall, he won four times during his lifetime and with a posthumous tetralogy, to which the famous play The Bakchen belongs.
Shortly after Dionysia in 408 BC BC Euripides accepted the invitation of the Macedonian king Archelaos I , in whose capital Pella he visited at the beginning of spring 406 BC. Chr. Died. According to legend, he was torn apart by wild dogs in Bromiskos ; However, this legend is to be understood more symbolically as a description of his work, in which the Dionysian eruptive ecstasy plays a central role.
List of lost, preserved or fragmentarily transmitted pieces by Euripides with the performance dates that have survived or have been made accessible.
|Aiolos||423, before||mentioned by Aristophanes, lost|
|Alexandros||415||first piece of the tetralogy, fragmentary|
|Alcestis||438||represents satyr play in tetralogy|
|Alkmaion in Corinth||406, after||second part of the tetralogy, lost|
|Alkmaion in Psophis||438||second part of the tetralogy, lost|
|Andromeda||412||first piece of the tetralogy, lost|
|Archelaus||407 approx.||Festival for King Archelaus I of Macedonia, lost|
|Autolycus||-||Satyr game, lost|
|Bellerophontes||425, before||mentioned by Aristophanes, lost|
|Busiris||-||Satyr game, lost|
|Chrysippus||410/409||second part of the tetralogy, lost|
|The Cyclops||412–408 approx.||Satyr game|
|The Bacchae||406, after||third piece of the tetralogy|
|The incarcerated melanoma||-||Get cutouts|
|The supplicants ( Hiketides )||421 approx.|
|The Heraclids||430 approx.|
|The clever Melanippe||-||lost|
|The Cretans||438||first piece of the tetralogy, lost|
|The people from Skyros||-||lost|
|The Phoenicians||410/409||third piece of the tetralogy|
|The reapers||431||Satyr game, lost in antiquity|
|The daughters of Pelias||455||first piece, third place, lost|
|The Trojans||415||third piece of the tetralogy|
|Dictations||431||third piece of the tetralogy, lost|
|Eurystheus||-||Satyr game, lost|
|The wreathed Hippolytus||428||first place|
|The veiled Hippolytus||434 approx.||lost, probably third place|
|Hypsipyle||408 approx.||extensive fragments preserved on papyrus|
|Iphigenia among the Taurians||414-412 approx.|
|Iphigenia in Aulis||406, after||first piece of the tetralogy|
|Medea||431||first piece of the tetralogy|
|Oinomaos||410/409||first piece of the tetralogy, lost|
|Palamedes||415||second part of the tetralogy, lost|
|Philoctetes||431||second part of the tetralogy, lost|
|Pleisthenes||-||Satyr game, lost|
|Rhesos||-||Attributed to Euripides, but authorship is disputed; but a lost piece of rhesus is attested for Euripides.|
|Sisyphus||415||Satyr game, lost|
|Skiron||-||Satyr game, lost|
|Syleus||-||Satyr game, lost|
|Telephos||438||third piece of the tetralogy, lost|
Sophocles is said to have put on mourning robes on the news of the death of Euripides; its actors and choristers appeared without a wreath. In Athens, a cenotaph - an (empty) memorial tomb - was erected in his honor and three of his left behind were crowned posthumously.
Soon after the death of Euripides, his paramount importance was recognized, which was reflected, among other things, in the fact that he was the most frequently performed and read tragedy throughout ancient times. Of particular importance is his influence on the new comedy, especially its main representative Menander .
Of the grand masters of the Athenian tragedy, Euripides was the most problematic and modern, which earned him criticism.
Aristophanes is responsible for a picture of Euripides characterized by the grotesque distortions of the old comedy, which has been decisive up to the modern age.
A critical discussion between Christoph Martin Wieland and Euripides led Johann Wolfgang Goethe to his farce Götter, Helden und Wieland . Although made ridiculous by Goethe in it, Wieland showed understanding for Goethe's Sturm und Drang and even recommended the farce to the readers of his magazine as a good read.
Euripidis fabulae . Edited by Gilbert Murray , Oxford 1901–1909, three volumes:
- Volume 1 (1902): Cyclops, Alcestis, Medea, Heraclidae, Hippolytus, Andromacha, Hecuba.
- Volume 2 (3rd ed., 1913): Supplices, Hercules, Ion, Troades, Electra, Iphigenia in Tauris.
- Volume 3 (2nd ed., 1913): Helena, Phoenissae, Orestes, Bacchae, Iphigenia Aulidensis, Rhesus.
- Euripides: Tragedies and Fragments . Part 1 (no longer published), trans. by Ludwig Wolde, Wiesbaden 1949.
Euripides: Tragedies and Fragments . Translated by Hans von Arnim and Franz Stoeßl , Zurich 1958–1968, two volumes:
- Volume 1 (1958): The Cretan Women, Alkmeon in Psophis, Telephos, Alkestis, Medea, Philoctet, Diktys, The Heraclids, Andromache, Hippolytos, Hecabe.
- Volume 2 (1968): Hiketiden, Herakles, Elektra, Alexandros, Palamedes, Troerinnen, Sisyphus, Iphigenie with the Taurern, Cyclops, Helena, Andromeda.
Euripides: The Complete Tragedies and Fragments. Greek-German, transl. by Ernst Buschor , ed. by Gustav Adolf Seeck , Munich 1972–1981, six volumes:
- Volume 1: Alkestis. Medeia. Hippolytus.
- Volume 2: The Children of Heracles. Hecabe. Andromache.
- Volume 3: The supplicating mothers. The madness of Heracles. The Trojans. Elektra.
- Volume 4: Iphigenia in the Taurerland. Helena. Ion. The Phoenicians.
- Volume 5: Orestes. Iphigenia in Aulis. The maenads.
- Volume 6: Fragments. The Cyclops. Rhesos. (Translated by Gustav Adolf Seeck , Johann Jacob Christian Donner , Wilhelm Binder)
- Euripides: works in three volumes . Ed. And transl. by Dietrich Ebener , 2nd edition, revised and supplemented by the fragments, Berlin a. Weimar 1979.
Euripidis fabulae. Edited by James Diggle , Oxford 1981–1994, three volumes:
- Volume 1 (1984): Cyclops, Alcestis, Medea, Heraclidae, Hippolytus, Andromacha, Hecuba.
- Volume 2 (1981): Supplices, Electra, Hercules, Troades, Iphigenia in Tauris, Ion.
- Volume 3 (1994): Helena, Phoenissae, Orestes, Bacchae, Iphigenia Aulidensis, Rhesus.
Euripides: tragedies . Greek-German, ed. by Dietrich Ebener , 2nd, revised and expanded edition, Berlin 1990, six volumes:
- Volume 1: Medeia.
- Volume 2: Alcestis, Hippolytus, Hekabe, Andromache.
- Volume 3: Heracles, The children of Heracles, The supplicants.
- Volume 4: Elektra, Helena, Iphigenie in the land of the Taurians, Ion.
- Volume 5: The Trojans, The Phoinists, Orestes.
- Volume 6: Iphigenia in Aulis, The Bacchae, The Cyclops.
- Euripides: Selected Tragedies in Two Volumes . Greek-German, transl. by Dietrich Ebener, ed. by Bernhard Zimmermann , Mannheim 2010.
- Euripides: The dramas . Translated by Johann Jacob Christian Donner , ed. by Bernhard Zimmermann , 3rd, thoroughly revised and newly introduced edition, Stuttgart 2016, two volumes.
- Bernhard Zimmermann : The Attic Tragedy . In: Bernhard Zimmermann (Hrsg.): Handbook of the Greek literature of antiquity , Volume 1: The literature of the archaic and classical times . CH Beck, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-406-57673-7 , pp. 484–610, here: 586–606 (see also pp. 650–658)
- Albrecht Dieterich : Euripides 4 . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume VI, 1, Stuttgart 1907, Col. 1242-1281. - Outdated state of research
Introductions and investigations
- William Nickerson Bates: Euripides. A Student of Human Nature. Pennsylvania Univ. Press, Pennsylvania 2016 (first 1930).
- Martin Hose : Euripides. The poet of passions. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57236-4 .
- Laura K. McClure (Ed.): A Companion to Euripides. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester 2017.
- Kjeld Matthiessen : Euripides and his century (= Zetemata . Volume 119). Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51744-7 .
- Kjeld Matthiessen: The tragedies of Euripides (= Zetemata. Volume 114). Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-50310-1 .
- Christian Mueller-Goldingen : Euripides. In: Kai Brodersen (ed.): Great figures of the Greek antiquity. 58 historical portraits. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-44893-3 , pp. 146-156.
- Rebecca Laemmle: Euripides. In: Peter von Möllendorff , Annette Simonis, Linda Simonis (ed.): Historical figures of antiquity. Reception in literature, art and music (= Der Neue Pauly . Supplements. Volume 8). Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2013, ISBN 978-3-476-02468-8 , Sp. 439–452.
- Literature by and about Euripides in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Euripides in the German Digital Library
- Works by Euripides at Zeno.org .
- Works by Euripides in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Overview of the contents of the fragments
- The Maenads (Hans Zimmermann)
- On the Byzantine Vita including an English translation see: Mary R. Lefkowitz : The Euripides Vita. In: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. Volume 20, 1979, pp. 187-210, here: p. 189 ( PDF ).
- Ernst Meyer : Phlya. In: The Little Pauly (KlP). Volume 4, Stuttgart 1972, Col. 793.
- So in Vita 62-65, see for example Anton Westermann : Delectus vitarum graece scriptarum. In: Archives for Philology and Education. Volume 9, 1843, pp. 485-532, here: pp. 517-525 for the Greek edition ( online ); Mary R. Lefkowitz: The Euripides Vita. In: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. Volume 20, 1979, pp. 187-210, here: p. 191 for the English translation.
- Aelian , Varia historia 2.13; William James Durant : Cultural History of Mankind . Volume 3 Classical Greece , Southwest, Munich 1978, page 178.
- Laaths: History of World Literature. Vol. 1, p. 93.
- Papyrus collection of the Berlin Egyptian Museum Inv.Nr. P 5014
- P.Oxy VI 852
- Harenberg: Lexicon of world literature. P. 89.
- Laaths: History of World Literature. Vol. 1, p. 94.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Εὐριπίδης (Greek)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||classical Greek poet|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 480 BC Chr.|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Salamis|
|DATE OF DEATH||406 BC Chr.|
|Place of death||Pella|