Ernst Buschor (archaeologist)

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Ernst Heinrich Buschor (born June 2, 1886 in Hürben [district of Krumbach (Swabia) since 1902 ]; † December 11, 1961 in Munich ) was a German classical archaeologist . Buschor was one of the most influential archaeologists of his time. The examination of his work determined large parts not only of the German-speaking classical archeology long after his death.

Live and act

Ernst Buschor attended the Melanchthon High School in Nuremberg from 1895 to 1904 . From 1904 to 1912 he studied Classical Studies at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich , where he was significantly influenced by the archaeologist Adolf Furtwängler . Buschor received his doctorate from Paul Wolters in 1912. From 1912 to 1914 he had a travel grant from the German Archaeological Institute . From 1915 to 1918 he took part in the First World War. He was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class in 1917 and the Bavarian Military Merit Order in 1918. Buschor became associate professor in Erlangen in 1919 and full professor in Freiburg in 1920 . From 1922 to 1929 he was the first director of the Athens Department of the German Archaeological Institute , where he carried out excavations in Athens , Olympia and in Amyklai near Sparta . He then taught from 1929 to 1959 as a professor of archeology at the University of Munich. From 1929 he was also director of the Munich Museum for Casts of Classical Sculptures . From 1925 until 1961 he led the excavations on Samos . Buschor was not a member of the NSDAP . He belonged to the National Socialist Teachers' Association from 1934 and was a member of the National Socialist People's Welfare Association from 1938 . From spring 1946 to autumn 1947 he was suspended as a professor by the American military government .

Buschor made important contributions to the understanding of Greek archaic and austere art . The peculiarity of objects of art, to work out their meaning for the contemporary and his way of seeing, was just as important to him as to make their value fruitful for the modern observer. It was important to realize that the art of the archaic period and the high classical period are structurally closer to each other than that of the high and late classical periods. He , Martin Heidegger's friend, tried to use the terms form of existence and appearance to grasp the difference in language. While a work of art of the high classic is related to itself and does not know anything about the viewer, the art of the late classic includes the viewer, appears, as it were, in their perception space.

What was so special about Buschors came to light as early as 1913 in his book “Greek Vase Painting”. He laid out the theoretical foundations of his research in “Concept and Method of Archeology” - a contribution he had written in 1932 for the first volume of the Handbook of Archeology , published in 1939 . This text was adopted unchanged in the 1969 edition and formed one of the foundations in the training of generations of young archaeologists. Transferred to the art of late antiquity , his contribution “Technischessehen”, published in 1952, illustrated his approach, which recognized the workings of a higher order behind the change of style and followed fundamentally different premises than Alois Riegl with his concept of artistic will . He brought the art of antiquity to a wider audience in works such as “The Sculpture of the Greeks” or “Phidias the Man” without becoming popular science. The history of the portrait from the beginnings in the art of ancient Egypt to Pablo Picasso was devoted to Buschor's “Portrait Steps”. He also translated all 31 preserved Greek tragedies by Aeschylus , Sophocles and Euripides .

Buschor had a decisive influence on German Classical Archeology, both in West and East after World War II , through his students in particular: In the 1960s, over 50% of the chairs for Classical Archeology were held by Buschor students. Among them were Roland Hampe , Gerhard Kleiner , Frank Brommer , Ernst Berger and Friedrich Hiller . The building researcher Gottfried Gruben was strongly influenced by Ernst Buschor. The bus choir student Ludger Alscher had a lasting impact on classical archeology in the German Democratic Republic . With Nikolaus Himmelmann , the influence of the bus choir school on German classical archeology continued to this day. At the same time, Nikolaus Himmelmann was one of the first to take a critical look at Buschor's concept of style.

Buschor has been awarded numerous scientific honors and memberships for its research. In 1937 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Athens . In 1959 he was awarded the order Pour le Mérite . Buschor was a member of the German Archaeological Institute (from 1921), the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (from 1931), the Prussian Academy of Sciences (from 1943) and the Austrian Archaeological Institute (from 1930).

Fonts (selection)

  • Greek vase painting (= Classical Illustrators. Volume 5, ZDB -ID 514662-8 ). Piper, Munich 1913.
  • Contributions to the history of Greek textile art. The beginnings and the oriental import. Kastner & Callwey, Munich 1912 (Munich, university, phil. Dissertation, January 26, 1912).
  • The clay roofs of the Acropolis. Two volumes. De Gruyter, Berlin 1929–1933.
  • The sculpture of the Greeks. Rembrandt publishing house, Berlin 1936.
  • Grave of an Attic girl. F. Bruckmann, Munich 1939.
  • Ancient Sami statues. Five volumes. Mann, Berlin 1934–1962.
  • From the meaning of the Greek statues. Mann, Berlin 1942.
  • Portrait steps. Münchner Verlag, Munich 1947.
  • Phidias the man. Münchner Verlag, Munich 1948.
  • Early Greek youths. Piper, Munich 1950.
  • Euripides: Orestes. Iphigenia in Aulis. The maenades. 3 tragedies. Beck, Munich 1960.
  • Wave for Acropolis pilgrims. Beck, Munich 1960.
  • Complete edition of the Greek tragedies. 10 volumes. Artemis Verlag, Zurich et al. 1979, ISBN 3-7608-3657-7 .


Web links


  1. ^ Mathias René Hofter: Ernst Buschor (1886–1961). In: Gunnar Brands, Martin Maischberger (Hrsg.): Life pictures - Classical archaeologists and National Socialism. Rahden / Westfalen 2012, pp. 129–140, here: p. 131.
  2. ^ Mathias René Hofter: Ernst Buschor (1886–1961). In: Gunnar Brands, Martin Maischberger (Hrsg.): Life pictures - Classical archaeologists and National Socialism. Rahden / Westfalen 2012, pp. 129–140, here: p. 130.
  3. Ernst Buschor: Concept and Method of Archeology [1932]. In: Ulrich Hausmann (Ed.): General principles of archeology. Concept and method, history, problem of form, written evidence. Munich 1969, pp. 3–10.
  4. ^ Ernst Buschor: Technical seeing. On the phenomenology of Roman and late antique art. Munich 1952.
  5. ^ Paul Zanker : Ernst Buschor, 1886–1961. Archaeologist, educator, interpreter of the world. In: umbits. Journal of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich. Volume 5, 1986, p. 16.
  6. Nikolaus Himmelmann: The concept of development of modern archeology. In: Marburg Wickelmann Program. 1960, pp. 13-40.