|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 49 ° 36 ' N , 11 ° 0' E
|Administrative region :||Middle Franconia|
|Height :||279 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||76.95 km 2|
|Residents:||112,528 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1462 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||91052, 91054, 91056, 91058|
|Primaries :||09131, 0911 , 09132 , 09135|
|License plate :||HE|
|Community key :||09 5 62 000|
|LOCODE :||DE ERL|
|City structure:||9 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Florian Janik ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Erlangen in Bavaria|
Erlangen is a Franconian city in the administrative region of Middle Franconia in the Free State of Bavaria . The independent city is a university town , the seat of the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt and with 112,528 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) the smallest of the eight large cities in Bavaria . The population exceeded 100,000 for the first time in 1974, making Erlangen a major city. Erlangen is currently (as of May 2020) the 72nd largest city in Germany .
With Nuremberg , Fürth and Schwabach , Erlangen forms one of the three metropolises in Bavaria . Together with the surrounding area, these cities form the European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg , one of 11 metropolitan regions in Germany. Erlangen, together with the cities of Nuremberg and Fürth, also forms a city triangle that represents the heartland of the Nuremberg conurbation .
An element of the city that goes back a long way in history, but is still noticeable, is the settlement of Huguenots after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 . Today the city is mainly shaped by the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg and the technology group Siemens .
Erlangen is located on the outskirts of the Central Franconian Basin at the flood plain of the Regnitz , which divides the city from south to north in two approximately equal halves. The Main-Danube Canal runs parallel to the Regnitz in the west of the city . To the north of the city center , the Schwabach , coming from the east, flows into the Regnitz , in the south of the city, the Middle Aurach, coming from the west .
Location and distances * of the closest larger cities to Erlangen:
|Schweinfurt (100 km)||Bamberg (40 km)||Bayreuth (90 km)|
Frankfurt am Main (220 km)
Würzburg (100 km)
|Czech Republic border
Waidhaus (140 km)
|Rothenburg ob der Tauber . (80 km)||
Nuremberg (20 km)
Ingolstadt (120 km)
Munich (190 km)
|Regensburg (120 km)|
* Distances are rounded road kilometers to the town center.
The following communities and / or community-free areas border the city of Erlangen, they are named in a clockwise direction, starting in the north:
The community-free area of Mark , the communities Möhrendorf , Bubenreuth , Marloffstein , Spardorf and Buckenhof as well as the forest area Buckenhofer Forst (all belonging to the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt ), the independent cities of Nuremberg and Fürth , the community of Obermichelbach ( district of Fürth ) and the city of Herzogenaurach and the municipality of Heßdorf (both districts of Erlangen-Höchstadt).
Erlangen officially consists of nine districts and 40 statistical districts . In addition, the urban area is divided into twelve land registry and land surveying law relevant districts , the boundaries of which largely differ from those of the statistical districts. The municipalities and statistical districts are partly formerly independent municipalities. On the other hand, there are newer settlements, the names of which have also been memorized as district names . The traditional and subjectively perceived boundaries of the city districts, however, often deviate from the officially established ones.
City districts and statistical districts
The city of Erlangen consists of the following districts :
Some names of historical locations that are still in use have not been taken into account in the official designations. Examples are:
- Brucker Werksiedlung (in the Bruck district)
- Erba-Siedlung (in the district of Bruck, am Anger)
- Essenbach (on the Burgberg, north of the Schwabach)
- Heusteg (in the Großdechsendorf district)
- Königsmühle (in the Eltersdorf district)
- Paprika settlement (in the Frauenaurach district, on the former Hutweide near Schallershof)
- Schallershof (in the Frauenaurach district)
- Sonnenblick settlement (in the Büchenbach district)
- Outskirts settlement (in the Büchenbach district)
- St. Johann (in the statistical district Alterlangen)
- Werker (on Burgberg, east of the Regnitz)
- Zollhaus (eastern city center)
Erlangen is located in a transition zone from a maritime to a continental climate : the city is, as usual in a continental climate, relatively poor in rainfall (annual amount 650 mm), but with an annual mean of 8.5 ° C, it is relatively warm. The castle hill in particular protects the core city area from the cold polar air. In contrast, the Regnitzgrund causes frequent fog .
General history of the city
Prehistory and early history
In the prehistory of Bavaria , the Regnitz valley played a role as a passage in north-south direction from an early stage. In Spardorf , a blade scratch was found in loess deposits, which is attributed to Gravettien and is therefore around 25,000 years old. Due to the relatively barren soils in the Erlangen area , arable farming and associated settlements can only be proven at the end of the Neolithic Age ( end Neolithic , around 2800–2200 BC). The “Erlanger character stones” in the Mark Forest north of the city ( sandstone slabs with petroglyphs ) originate from this time horizon and were used as grave borders during the urn field period (1200–800 BC).
The burial mound in the Kosbach district, examined in 1913, contained finds from the Urnfield period as well as from the Hallstatt and Latène periods . The foot of the hill meets the so-called Kosbach Altar from the more recent Hallstatt period (around 500 BC), a unique square stone setting with four upright, figural pillars at the corners and one in the middle. The reconstruction of the facility can be viewed on site, the central guard figure is exhibited in the Erlangen city museum.
From the Villa Erlangen to the Thirty Years War
Erlangen is first mentioned by name in a document from 1002. The origin of the place name Erlangen is not clear. Attempts in local research to derive the name from alder (tree species) and anger (meadow ground) do not stand up to place name research .
As early as 976, Emperor Otto II donated the St. Martin Church in Forchheim and its accessories to the diocese of Würzburg (MGH, DO II., 132). King Heinrich II. Confirmed this donation in 1002 (MGH, DH II., 3) and approved its transfer from the diocese to the newly founded Haug Abbey . In contrast to Otto II's certificate, the accessories are described in more detail here. The "villa [village] erlangon" in Radenzgau also belonged to him . At that time the Bavarian Nordgau extended in the west to the Regnitz, in the north to the Schwabach. Villa Erlangon must therefore have been outside these limits and therefore not in the area of today's Erlangen old town. Since the place name Erlangen does not exist a second time in Germany, except for the village of Alt-Erlangen, which is now incorporated, west of the Regnitz, the description "erlangon [...] in pago Ratintzgouui" can only mean that age. The document provides additional evidence for this: In 1002 Heinrich II gave further areas east of the Regnitz (“partim superaddimus”): one mile from the Schwabach estuary to the east and one mile each from this estuary upwards and downwards. These two mile squares are only described in the document by the length information and the two river names. There is no reference to a place. They are unrelated to the St. Martin accessories that included the villa Erlangon. For this reason, too, it must have been spatially separated from the area of the mile squares. The size and extent of the two mile squares correspond roughly to the space required by a village at that time. This supports the assumption that at the time of the notarization east of the Regnitz a clearing settlement was in the making, which was to be legitimized by this donation and which later, as in comparable cases, took over the name of the mother settlement. The new settlement was built on the flood-free sand dune that was pushed to the west in a triangle that is now bordered by Hauptstraße, Schulstraße and Lazarettstraße.
Only 15 years later, in 1017, Heinrich II confirmed an exchange contract (MGH, DH II., 372) through which St. Martin and its accessories (including Erlangen) fell to the newly founded diocese of Bamberg , which it remained until 1361. In these centuries the place name appears only sporadically in the sources.
On August 20, 1063, King Heinrich IV issued two "actum Erlangen" documents (MGH, DH IV., 109 and 110) on a campaign. Local research concluded that "Erlangen had already grown so significantly that [...] Heinrich IV. Stayed there for some time in 1063 [...] with many princes and bishops" and was therefore the seat of a royal court . It was even believed that this royal court could be located in the property at Bayreuther Strasse 8. The royal estate would then have been located in the southern mile square (see above) and would have been given away without being mentioned in the document from 1002. Otherwise there is no documentary evidence for such a system. Heinrich IV probably did not document in the "new" Erlangen, but in the older "villa erlangon", because "[t] he north-south valley road [...] changed to the left bank of the Regnitz near Bruck and then ran in the direction of Alterlangen, Kleinseebach -Baiersdorf to the north, in order to save a leader to overcome the Erlanger Burgberg ”.
Otherwise Erlangen was usually only mentioned if the bishop pawned it because of lack of money. How the village developed is not known. The name “grozzenerlang” in a bishop's surbar from 1348 alone can be an indication that the episcopal village outstripped the original villa Erlangon.
In December 1361 bought Emperor Charles IV. From Bamberg Bishop lupold of bebenburg for 2,225 pounds Heller "daz village to Erlangen with all right, vnd Zugehorungen use the dorzu belong" and incorporated it to the as Bohemian Palatinate region indicated that a fief of the Kingdom of Bohemia was . The village developed rapidly under the crown of Bohemia. In 1367 the emperor spent three days in Erlangen and granted the “burgers and people of Erlang” grazing rights in the Reichswald. In 1374 Charles IV granted "the burgers [...] of Erlanngen" seven years of tax exemption, "for which our city of Erlanngen has to improve". At the same time he granted market rights. Probably soon after 1361 the new sovereign built the fortress of Erlangen west of the town to manage the acquired property , on which a bailiff resided. King Wenceslas set up a mint and in 1398 elevated Erlangen to the rank of city. To this end, he granted the usual privileges: collection of road tolls, construction of a department store with a bread and meat bank and the erection of a city wall .
Two years later, in 1400 , the Electors voted out Wenceslaus. In 1402 he sold the Frankish possessions, including Erlangen, to his brother-in-law, the Nuremberg burgrave Johann III , due to lack of money . When the castle counts property was divided up in Franconia , Erlangen became part of the Upper Mountain Principality, later the Principality of Bayreuth . The Erlanger Mint ceased operations because the mint master was executed in Nuremberg for counterfeiting .
When the Hussites invaded in 1431, the town was completely destroyed for the first time. The declaration of war of the Margrave Albrecht Achilles to the city of Nuremberg led in 1449 to the First Markgräfler War . Since Albrecht's army could not completely enclose the imperial city, Nuremberg troops broke out again and again and devastated the margravial towns and villages. They “… burned the market on Maisten zu Erlang and broke a big robbery” , reports a Nuremberg chronicler. The city had hardly recovered when Duke Ludwig the Rich of Bavaria-Landshut attacked the margrave in 1459. Erlangen was attacked and looted again, this time by Bavarian troops. In the period that followed, the city recovered. Erlangen was spared the peasant wars of 1525. The introduction of the Reformation in 1528 was also peaceful. However, when Margrave Albrecht Alkibiades triggered the Second Margravial War in 1552 , Erlangen was again attacked by the Nuremberg people and partially destroyed. They even considered razing the city completely. Since Emperor Charles V via Albrecht imperial ban imposed, the Nuremberg Erlangen annexed into their territory. Albrecht died in January 1557. His successor, Georg Friedrich I , applied to lift the imperial sequestration over the Principality of Kulmbach and was able to take over the government again just a month later. Under his rule, the city recovered from the war damage and remained undisturbed until well into the Thirty Years' War .
Little has been known about the place itself and the people who lived here from this period.
From 1129 on, members of a noble family "von Erlangen" appear as witnesses in notarial documents, including 1288 . They were probably Ministeriale von Gründlach's . The family had numerous estates in and around Erlangen as an after-fief of the von Gründlach'sche Reichslehen . A regular series is no longer be set up despite several nominations in documents. At the beginning of the 15th century, the family died out.
In a deed of foundation from 1328 an estate is mentioned on which “Heinrich der Alt Smit” sits, and twenty years later, in the episcopal land register from 1348 (see above), seven landowners who are obliged to pay interest are named. For the first time in the register of the common penny of 1497, the entire city is recorded: 92 households with 212 adults (over 15 years). Assuming 1.5 children under the age of 15 per household, the population works out at around 350 people. This number is unlikely to have changed in the period that followed. The land register of 1528 names 83 house owners who are subject to tax and the Turkish tax list of 1567 names 97 heads of household, plus five children under guardianship. The old town pastor Hans Heilig compiled a complete directory of all households, including the tenants, sorted by street in 1616: At the beginning of the Thirty Years War the town had 118 households with around 500 people.
The old town of Erlangen has been completely destroyed several times, most recently in the great fire in 1706. Only parts of the city wall in Nördliche Stadtmauerstraße and the rear ground floor of the former bathhouse (Westliche Stadtmauerstraße 31) date back to the late medieval period. After the fire of 1706, the cityscape with its street layout had to be rigorously adapted to the regular street scheme of the newly built "Christian-Erlang", which had its own administration (judicial and chamber council) until the administrative reform in 1797. Only Schulstrasse, Lazarettstrasse and Adlerstrasse were spared. However, the deep cellars have survived all destruction and fires mostly unscathed. The buildings have been rebuilt above them. That is why two Erlangen architects have been measuring the cellars of the old town on behalf of the Heimat- und Geschichtsverein since 1988. At the same time, the city archeology of Erlangen carried out excavations in the courtyard of the city museum. Both measures give an approximate picture of the late medieval and early modern place: the parish road ran north, the north main road a little east. The western houses on Martin-Luther-Platz protruded differently into today's area, on its east side the buildings ran diagonally from today's Neue Strasse to the “Oberen Tor” (between Hauptstrasse 90 and 91). The eastern city wall initially led south from Lazarettstrasse. It then turned slightly southwest from Vierzigmannstrasse and cut the area of today's old town church on the northeast corner of the nave. The foundations of this wall, which run exactly in the direction described, were discovered during the excavations in the courtyard of the city museum. The Obere Vorstadt settled outside the Upper Gate (from Hauptstrasse 88 and 89 to the Engelstrasse intersection). In front of the Bayreuther Tor was the lower suburb (Bayreuther Straße to Essenbacher Straße) with the mill on the Schwabach. The fortress rose to the west of the city.
The foundation of the new town in 1686
After the Thirty Years' War , the town was rebuilt relatively quickly. As early as December 2, 1655, the parish church was consecrated to the title Holy Trinity. The situation changed in 1685 when the French King Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes , which had granted the Calvinist subjects - called Huguenots by their opponents - freedom of belief since 1598. The revocation triggered a wave of refugees of around 180,000 Huguenots, who mainly settled in the United Netherlands, the British Isles, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden and some German principalities. A small number of religious refugees later went to Russia and the Dutch and British colonies.
Margrave Christian Ernst also took advantage of this situation and offered the refugees the right to settle in his principality, which was still suffering from the consequences of the Thirty Years' War, in order to promote its economy in the sense of mercantilism by setting up modern businesses. He was one of the first Lutheran princes in Germany to accept Calvinists in his country and even guarantee them free religious practice. The first six Huguenots reached Erlangen on May 17, 1686, around 1500 followed in several waves. In addition, a few hundred Waldensians came , but they could not hold on and moved on in 1688. Before it could be foreseen how many refugees could be expected, the margrave decided to found the new town of Erlangen as a legally independent settlement south of the little town that has since been known as the old town of Erlangen. With the rational motive of promoting the economy of one's own country, the hope of fame as the founder of a city was connected in a manner typical of absolutism.
The new city was very conveniently located on one of the most important trade and long-distance routes to and from Nuremberg. From the nearby Regnitz one wanted to divert water for a canal necessary for certain trades, but this failed because of the sandy soil. The margravial chief architect Johann Moritz Richter designed the plan town, which at first glance seemed simple, but actually extremely differentiated and extremely demanding, using the “golden section” according to ideal aspects . The rectangular complex is characterized by the main street, designed as an axis of symmetry, on which there are two squares of different sizes, and the “Grande Rue” that surrounds the inner core, the closed corners of which, designed as right angles, act like hinges, giving the entire complex a solid and unified structure . As the plan shows, it was not the individual design of the individual building that mattered, but the overall uniformity of the entire city. Even today, the historical core is characterized by the uniform, relatively unadorned facades of the two- and three-storey houses standing in dead straight rows with the eaves facing the street. The construction of the city began on July 14th, 1686 with the laying of the foundation stone for the temple , the Huguenot church. In the first year around 50 of the planned 200 houses were completed. Since the arrival of the Huguenots did not meet expectations, because their refugee mentality only changed into an immigrant mentality from 1715, when the peace treaties after the War of Spanish Succession excluded a return to France, but also because the margrave, as a general from 1688 to 1697, opposed the Palatinate War of Succession France was committed, further expansion stagnated. It only received new impulses from 1700 through the construction of the margravial castle and the development of Erlangen into a residential city and one of the six provincial capitals. After a major fire destroyed almost the entire old town of Erlangen on August 14, 1706, it was rebuilt based on the model of the new town with straightened street and square fronts and a two-storey, somewhat more individually designed house type. In Erlangen there was a special case, probably unique in the history of the ideal European cities, of two neighboring planned cities, of which the actually older, the old town of Erlangen, which was still independently administered until 1812, is younger in terms of construction than the new town of Erlangen.
The new town, named after its founder Christian-Erlang from 1701 onwards , was not only a destination for the Huguenots, but also for Lutherans and German Reformed , who were each granted the same privileges as the Huguenots. In 1698, 1,000 Huguenots and 317 Germans lived in Erlangen. However, due to immigration, the Huguenots soon became a French-speaking minority in a German city. The French influence continued to decline in the following period. In 1822, for the last time, a service was held in French in the Huguenot Church.
The French religious refugee Paul du Vivier received one of the first drafting licenses for wine and beer in Christian-Erlang. His tavern was "located in the main street towards the old town between Mr. Martels (3 fermented) and Mr. Jean Trinques half house". In Christian-Erlang, by decree of August 29, 1718, Jean Trinques was granted the right to be the sole “Maitre au Caffé” in the city and was thus the first coffee house operator in Erlangen. In 1731 the wigmaker André Grenard , who also lives in Christian-Erlang , received a concession to serve beer, wine, liqueur, tea, chocolate and coffee, which was approved by Margrave Georg Friedrich Karl in August 1730, as did du Vivier before . The "mouth cook" of the widowed Margravine Sophia , Johann Albrecht Grunauer, was the innkeeper of the "black eagle in Christian-Erlangen " and became known nationwide through a cookbook he wrote and printed and published in Nuremberg in 1733. In the summer of 1732 Grunauer had also received permission to work as a coffee maker in the Schwarzer Adler .
Erlangen in the Kingdom of Bavaria
In 1792 Erlangen and the Principality of Bayreuth became part of the Kingdom of Prussia and in 1806, with Napoleon's victory in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt, a province came under French rule. In 1810 the Principality of Bayreuth was sold to the allied Kingdom of Bavaria for 15 million francs . In 1812 the old town and the new town - until then still called Christian-Erlang - were combined into one town, which was given the name Erlangen. In the following period there was a rapid expansion of the city and infrastructure. In particular, the opening of the Ludwig-Danube-Main Canal and the railway connections as well as the garrison and the university gave important impetus to urban development.
As early as the Bavarian municipal reform of 1818 , the city received its own administration, which was later referred to as "district-free". In 1862 the Erlangen District Office was formed, from which the Erlangen District emerged.
High inflation, reparations payments and the global economic crisis brought the anti-democratic parties NSDAP, DNVP and KPD after the defeat in World War I (more than 700 residents of Erlangen were killed in this war) in Erlangen as well. A two-class society was established, which was reinforced by the settlement of industries. In the city council, state parliament and Reichstag elections, the SPD was initially able to hold a relatively stable majority of 40%. In contrast, there were the parties of the center and the right, whose supporters came from the middle class, the university and the civil servants. The NSDAP was represented in the city council from 1924. From 1929 onwards, it was the first in the German university landscape to dominate the university's student body. At that time it was a center of nationalist and anti-democratic sentiments. Many students and professors became intellectual trailblazers of National Socialism.
From 1930 the political situation escalated, fueled by the mass unemployment triggered by the global economic crisis. There were marches and street fights between the right and left units. Despite the strong popularity of the NSDAP, the SPD was able to win 34% of the votes in the Reichstag election in 1933 (nationwide: 18.3%).
After the seizure of power of the NSDAP also occurred in Erlangen boycotts of Jewish businesses, the desecration and destruction of the Jewish professor and Erlanger honorary citizen Jakob Heart monument dedicated to the Hugenottenplatz and book burnings . The city council, ruled by the NSDAP, appointed Chancellor Hitler , President von Hindenburg and Gauleiter Streicher as honorary citizens, the main street was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Strasse. During the Reichspogromnacht , the Jewish families from Erlangen (between 42 and 48 people), Baiersdorf (three people) and Forth (seven people) were rounded up and humiliated in the courtyard of the then town hall (Palais Stutterheim ), their apartments and shops were partially destroyed and looted, then the women and children in the Wöhrmühle, the men in the local court prison and then in prison in Nuremberg. Those who were unable to leave Germany in the ensuing wave of emigration were deported to concentration camps , where most of them perished. In 1944 the city was declared “ free of Jews ”, although a “half-Jew” protected by the police chief stayed here until the end of the war.
The academic community largely supported Nazi politics; there was no active resistance from the university. In the sanatorium and nursing home (today part of the clinic on the Europakanal) there were forced sterilizations and the selection of sick people for the National Socialist " euthanasia murders (Action T4) ".
From 1940 prisoners of war and forced laborers were used in the Erlangen armaments factories. In 1944 these made up 10% of the Erlangen population. The accommodation in barracks camps and the treatment were inhuman.
Erlangen was one of the first cities in Bavaria to begin working on its history under National Socialism in an exhibition in the city museum in 1983. In the same year, Adolf Hitler and Julius Streicher were officially revoked as a symbolic gesture of distancing themselves from their honorary citizenship, which automatically expired upon death.
Erlangen after the Second World War
During the Second World War , 4.8% of Erlangen was destroyed by bombing; 445 apartments were completely destroyed. When the superior American troops approached on April 16, 1945, the local commander of the German troops, Lieutenant Colonel Werner Lorleberg , surrendered the city without a fight, thus avoiding a house-to-house war that was as hopeless as it was costly. Lorleberg himself, who was considered a supporter of the National Socialist regime to the end, was killed at the Thalermühle on the same day. Whether he was shot by German soldiers when he tried to persuade a dispersed combat group to give up or whether he committed suicide there after delivering the surrender message has not been conclusively clarified. The Lorlebergplatz named after him in Erlangen is a reminder of him. The note on Lorleberg, which is attached to the square, indicates his “death for it”, which saved Erlangen from destruction.
After the city was handed over, American tanks initially severely damaged the last remaining city gate (the Nuremberg Gate, built in 1717), and shortly afterwards it was blown up. This probably happened at the instigation of business owners based in the main street, who, like the passing American troops, perceived the baroque gate as a traffic obstacle because of its relatively narrow passage. The other city gates had already been torn down in the 19th century.
During the district and territorial reform in 1972, the Erlangen district was merged with the Höchstadt an der Aisch district . Erlangen itself remained an independent city and became the seat of the new district. The city was enlarged considerably through the incorporation of surrounding communities, so that in 1974 it exceeded the 100,000-inhabitant limit and thus became a large city. Due to its extremely successful policy of creating a balance between economy and ecology, Erlangen received the title of “Federal Capital for Nature and Environmental Protection” in 1990 and 1991. In 1990 it was the first German award winner and the first regional authority to be included in the honorary list of the United Nations Environment Agency. Due to the above-average proportion of medical and medical technology facilities and companies in relation to the number of residents, Lord Mayor Siegfried Balleis developed the vision when he took office in 1996 to develop Erlangen into the “federal capital of medical research, production and services” by 2010.
In 2002 Erlangen celebrated its millennium. On May 25, 2009, the city received the 2007 program from the Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth, the Federal Ministry of the Interior and the Federal Government Commissioner for Migration, Refugees and Integration to strengthen the communities' commitment to cultural diversity The initiative called “ Place of Diversity ” was awarded by the federal government . In 2015, the 10th Franconian Day took place in Erlangen , with the motto “Strangers in Franconia”. A comprehensive exhibition showed how immigrants came to Franconia at all times and made their home here.
The history of the Erlangen garrison
Until the 18th century, the margrave's soldiers were quartered with private individuals on missions in the Erlangen area. After the transition to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1810, the city tried several times to set up a garrison , primarily for economic reasons , but initially without success. When general conscription was introduced in 1868 with the option of doing military service and studying at the same time, the garrison became a vital location factor for the city and, above all, for the university. Another request was successful, so that on March 12, 1868 the 6th Jäger Battalion moved into Erlangen. The Bavarian Army was housed in various city buildings and used u. a. today's theater place for their exercises. In addition, a shooting range was set up in the Meilwald .
In 1877 the first barracks (Jägerkaserne) were completed in Bismarckstrasse. A year later, the Jäger Battalion was by the III. Battalion of the Royal Bavarian 5th Infantry Regiment Grand Duke of Hesse relieved. In 1890 the entire 19th Infantry Regiment was stationed , which resulted in the construction of the infantry barracks and the parade ground . In 1893 a "barracks barracks element" was set up in the northwest corner of the parade ground and from 1897 it was used as a garrison hospital. On October 1, 1901, the 10th field artillery regiment moved into the city, for which the artillery barracks were built. At that time, the city had around 24,600 inhabitants, 1160 students and now a total of 2200 soldiers, whom the population held in high esteem, especially after the military successes against France in 1870/71.
During the First World War , both Erlangen regiments, which were subordinate to the 5th Bavarian Infantry Division , fought exclusively on the western front . Over 3,000 soldiers lost their lives. After the war, Erlangen retained its status as a garrison town. Since the Versailles Peace Treaty stipulated that the army should be reduced to 100,000 soldiers, only the training battalion of the 21st (Bavarian) Infantry Regiment of the newly established Reichswehr remained in the city.
In the time of National Socialism , the reintroduction of general conscription in 1935 and the armament of the Wehrmacht also led to a massive expansion of the military facilities in Erlangen. So were the Rhineland barracks , in succession various infantry units were stationed, the tank barracks where the armored regiment 25 was in October 1937, a Board office, an ammunition and equipment storage and a training area in the Reichswald built at Tennenlohe.
The invasion of troops of the 7th US Army on April 16, 1945 not only meant the end of World War II for Erlangen, but also the end of the location for German troops. Instead, US units now moved into the undestroyed military facilities, which have even been considerably expanded since the reactivation of the 7th US Army in 1950/51: The area of the now Ferris Barracks (named after Lt. Geoffrey Ferris, who fell in Tunisia in 1943 ) was expanded to 128 hectares, the living area for the soldiers and their relatives to 8.5 hectares and the training area in Tennenlohe to 3240 hectares. On average, around 2500 soldiers and 1500 relatives were stationed in Erlangen in the 1980s.
Right from the start, the population of Erlangen had mixed feelings about the presence of the Americans. Although their protective function in the Cold War and the jobs associated with the stationing were welcomed , the frequent conflicts between soldiers and the civilian population and numerous maneuvers were a constant stumbling block. The first open protests occurred during the Vietnam War . These were directed against the practice area and the firing range in Tennenlohe, where nuclear weapons were also suspected, and against the ammunition bunkers in the Reichswald. Helmut Horneber, who had been responsible for the American training ground for many years as forest director, pointed out in 1993 how exemplary the American troops had protected the forest areas.
Due to the numerous problems, there were already considerations in the mid-1980s to relocate the garrison from the city area. After the opening of the inner-German border in 1989, the signs of an imminent withdrawal intensified. In 1990/91 the troops stationed in Erlangen (as part of the VII US Corps ) were assigned to the Gulf War . After its end, the liquidation of the site began, which was completed by July 1993. On June 28, 1994, the properties were officially handed over to the federal government. This ended the 126-year history of Erlangen as a garrison town.
The history of Erlangen University
The second decisive event for the development of Erlangen was, besides the foundation of the new town, the foundation of the university. Corresponding plans already existed at the time of the Reformation, but it was not until 1742 that Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg Bayreuth founded a university for the royal seat of Bayreuth , which was relocated to Erlangen in 1743. The facility, which was equipped with modest resources, did not initially meet with a positive response. Only when Margrave Karl Alexander von Brandenburg-Ansbach-Bayreuth put it on a broader economic basis did the number of students slowly increase. Nevertheless, it remained below 200 and fell to around 80 when the margraviate was incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria. The impending closure was only averted because Erlangen had the only Lutheran theological faculty in the kingdom.
As with other German universities, the upswing came at the beginning of the 1880s. The number of students rose from 374 at the end of the winter semester of 1869/70 to 1000 in 1890. While law students were ahead in the early years, the theological faculty was the most popular at the beginning of the Bavarian period. This was only overtaken by the Medical Faculty in 1890. The number of full professors rose from 20 in 1796 to 42 in 1900, almost half of whom were employed by the Philosophical Faculty, which also included the natural sciences. These did not form their own faculty until 1928. There are currently 38,494 students, 261 courses and 585 professors (as of winter semester 2019/2020). FAU is the third largest university in Bavaria and the twelfth largest in Germany .
The first women were admitted to university in 1897, and a woman's first doctorate took place in 1904. The university was named Friedrich-Alexander-Universität after its founder, Margrave Friedrich, and after its sponsor, Margrave Alexander.
In 1818 the margravial castle with the castle garden came into the possession of the university. From the second half of the 19th century, several larger university buildings were erected on the edges of the palace garden, such as the college house and the university hospital.
The university survived the world wars relatively unscathed. The denazification carried out by the American occupation forces led to the impeachment of numerous university teachers after the end of the war. These were u. a. replaced by the admission of professors from the former Eastern Territories, which led to a change from a predominantly Protestant faculty to a predominantly Catholic one.
The post-war period led to further expansion, not only in student numbers but also in chairs. Above all, the cooperation with Siemens AG, which has moved to Erlangen, gave decisive impetus to the further expansion and a. for the construction of the southern area for the technical and natural science faculties. In 1961 the Hindenburg University in Nuremberg was integrated as the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences and in 1972 the University of Education was integrated as the Faculty of Education. The name of the university was then changed to Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg .
The student revolt of the 1960s came to Erlangen with a slight delay and significantly weakened.
Formerly independent communities and districts that were incorporated into the city of Erlangen:
- May 1, 1919: Sieglitzhof (municipality of Spardorf)
- April 1, 1920: Alterlangen (Kosbach municipality)
- August 1, 1923: Büchenbach and Weiler Neumühle
- September 15, 1924: Bruck
- 1960: parts of Eltersdorf
- January 1, 1967: Kosbach including Häusling and Steudach
- July 1, 1972: Eltersdorf, Frauenaurach, Großdechsendorf, Hüttendorf, Kriegenbrunn, Tennenlohe
- July 1, 1977: Königsmühle (City of Fürth)
Above all, the incorporation during the municipal reform in 1972 made a major contribution to the fact that Erlangen exceeded the 100,000 population limit in 1974 and thus officially became a large city .
In the Middle Ages and at the beginning of the modern era , only a few hundred people lived in Erlangen. Due to numerous wars, epidemics and famine, the population rose only slowly. As a result of the destruction in the Thirty Years War, the place was completely deserted in 1634. It was not until 1655 that there were 500 inhabitants in Erlangen again as there were before the war. On March 8, 1708 Erlangen was raised to the sixth state capital. By 1760 the population rose to over 8,000. Due to the famines from 1770 to 1772, the population fell to 7,724 by 1774. After an increase by 1,800 to 10,000, the population of Erlangen fell to 8,592 by 1812 as a result of the Napoleonic wars.
In the course of the 19th century, this number doubled to 17,559 by 1890. Due to numerous incorporations, the city's population rose to 30,000 by 1925 and doubled to 60,000 by 1956. As a result of the district and territorial reform in 1972, the city's population exceeded the limit of 100,000 for the first time in 1974, making it a major city . After a slight population decline in the 1980s, Erlangen has been a major city without interruption since 1990.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Until 1820 it is mostly an estimate, then census results (¹) or official updates from the State Statistical Office. From 1871, the information relates to the “local population”, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the location of the main residence”. Before 1871, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey procedures.
¹ census result
According to the 2011 census , 33.1% of the population were Protestant , 31.0% Roman Catholic and 35.8% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. In Erlangen, Protestant and Roman Catholic Christians are now roughly equally represented. At the end of 2019, 26.6% were Protestant, 26.2% Roman Catholic and 47.2% had any other or no denomination affiliation. The number of Protestants and Catholics has therefore decreased in the observed period.
The population of Erlangen initially belonged to the diocese of Würzburg , from 1017 to the diocese of Bamberg . In 1528, the mayor and the council signed the first Lutheran pastor and thus the Reformation was introduced, so that Erlangen remained a Protestant city for many years. In the new town founded by Margrave Christian Ernst in 1686 for the French religious refugees, there were only Reformed communities. The French-Reformed community existed from 1686 and after the settlement of Reformed refugees from German-speaking Switzerland and the Palatinate, a German-Reformed community was founded in 1693.
In 1802 the Protestant parishes of Erlangen were subordinated to the royal Prussian consistory in Ansbach and after the city passed to Bavaria they became part of the Protestant Church of the Kingdom of Bavaria , which initially comprised Lutheran and Reformed parishes. At the same time, Erlangen became the seat of a deanery that united all parishes.
In 1853 the Reformed parishes of Bavaria received their own synod and in 1919 they formally separated from the Evangelical Church of Bavaria. Since then there have been two Protestant regional churches in Bavaria, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria and the “Reformed Synod in Bavaria on the right of the Rhine”, which since 1949 has called itself the “ Evangelical Reformed Church in Bavaria ”. The latter had the seat of her fashion name in Erlangen for many years. As a result of the unification of the German Reformed and the former French Reformed congregations, there was only one Reformed congregation in Erlangen since 1920, but several Lutheran congregations. The Lutheran congregations are still part of the Erlangen dean's office, which was founded as a dean's office for both denominations and has only looked after the Lutheran congregations since 1919. It is part of the Nuremberg Church District.
The Reformed congregation Erlangen is now part of the Evangelical Reformed Church - Synod of Evangelical Reformed Churches in Bavaria and Northwest Germany . Here she belongs to Synodal Association XI.
The regional church communities with their own church services and offers exist as special forms of congregation in the Lutheran church. The ELIA congregation has existed since 1993. This arose from a conflict in the community in Bruck about the charismatic movement . Initially, the abbreviation ELIA stood for “Erlanger lay people on the move”, today the community interprets ELIA as “committed, close to life, innovative, contagious”. The congregation is bound by an agreement to the regional church, but finances and organizes itself like the communities themselves. For the divine service project LebensArt, ELIA was recognized by the EKD in the “Fantasy of Faith” sponsorship award in 2002.
In addition, there has been a Free Evangelical Church on Fuchsengarten and the Evangelical Free Church Church ( Baptists ) on Äußere Brucker Straße in Erlangen for decades . In 1984 the " Congregation at the Wetterkreuz" was established in Tennenlohe and belongs to the Bund Freikirchlicher Pentecostal congregations and thus to the Pentecostal movement . The Erlangen tribe of the Christian scouting body “ Royal Rangers ” belongs to the “community at the Wetterkreuz ”.
Before the Reformation
For a long time, local research believed that the oldest church in Erlangen was built on Martinsbühl - centuries before the town was first mentioned in a document in 1002. This assumption cannot be substantiated by any sources. In contrast, the church of the royal court in Büchenbach is documented as the first church in today's urban area.
In Erlangen itself, a real estate business from 1288 gives the first indication of church life, because it was notarized “in cimiterio”, ie in a cemetery. Back then, cemeteries were always laid out around churches ( churchyard ), and this church - this follows from later sources - stood where the old town church on Martin-Luther-Platz is today. Bones found during civil engineering work - most recently in 2003 when the Martin-Luther-Platz was redesigned - confirm this layout of the medieval churchyard. In the period that followed, numerous foundations for this church were attested to the “Heil und nucz” of souls. We learn of their patronage , "frawenkirchen" (Church of Our Lady, thus consecrated to St. Mary) from a donation from 1424.
In 1435 the church - until then a subsidiary church of St. Martin in Forchheim - was raised to a separate parish . The main task of the Erlangen pastor was pastoral care in the city of Erlangen and the now first mentioned St. Martins Chapel on Martinsbühl. The survey document also determines the pastoral care of the surrounding villages of Bubenreuth , Bräuningshof , Marloffstein , Spardorf and Sieglitzhof, whose inhabitants “from antiquo”, that is, from time immemorial, used to visit the Marienkapelle, to receive pastoral care from there and to be given the sacraments . This addition confirms that there was at least one vicar at the Frauenkirche even before it was elevated to parish church . Church life was developed and varied according to the time. In addition to the pastor, there were two vicars for the early and middle mass. It is not known whether the poorly financed measurement deficits were always filled. With the introduction of the Reformation by Margrave George the Pious died out in 1528 completely in Erlangen the Church Catholic life and for long years. Very little has come to our day from this time: five figures of saints from the former Marienkirche, which are now placed on the north altar wall in the Old Town Trinity Church, a measuring cup and the equestrian statue of Saint Martin, which is held annually on November 11th in the Martinsbühler Church is issued.
From the Thirty Years War to the first Mass
According to the agreements of the Peace of Westphalia , Erlangen remained Protestant territory after the end of the Thirty Years' War . Only with the establishment of “Christian Erlang”, i.e. the new town, were Catholics allowed to move in as long as they contributed to the development of the new town. In 1711 the margrave only granted them the minimum religious denomination guaranteed in the Peace of Westphalia, freedom of conscience . Baptisms, marriages and funerals were to be performed according to the evangelical rite, and children were brought up in the evangelical religion. With increasing numbers, Catholics have been pushing for more religious rights since around 1730. The construction of a prayer house, which Margrave Friedrich had suggested several times, always failed due to bitter resistance from the magistrate and the Protestant or French Reformed clergy.
With Frederick the Great's accession to the throne , the age of enlightened absolutism began . Under the influence of Frederick's policy of tolerance, the standpoint of the margravial rule also gradually changed. When in 1781 the administration of the Franconian Knight Circle was relocated to Erlangen, Margrave Alexander granted the Catholic aristocracy permission for private services. Their servants also claimed this right. On January 16, 1783, Alexander decided to set up a private Catholic church service in Erlangen. On April 11, 1784, another mass was celebrated in the great hall of the Old Town Hall, the first in over 250 years. In the same year permission to build a house of prayer followed.
From the house of prayer to the parish Herz Jesu
The permission to build a church was subject to heavy conditions: only a simple prayer house without a tower, bells and organ was permitted. The church services were only allowed to be held with the doors closed, baptisms, weddings and funerals continued to be open to the evangelical clergy alone. The house of prayer was built far outside the city - on today's Catholic Church Square - and ceremoniously opened on Peter and Paul Day in 1790.
The Catholic community, which was soon expanded by French emigrants who had fled the turmoil of the revolution, found itself in an economic emergency because of the constantly changing political conditions. The Archdiocese of Bamberg had belonged to the Electorate of Bavaria since 1803 , Erlangen was Prussian until 1806, then French for four years. As subjects employed abroad, the Erlangen clergy from Bamberg received no salary. This problem was only solved with the integration of Erlangen into Bavaria.
The previous Kuratie Erlangen was elevated to a parish in 1813. During this time the relationship between the denominations had relaxed completely. When the Catholic priest Rebhahn was buried in 1843, the entire evangelical and reformed clergy followed the procession. Under his successor, Pastor Dinkel , who later became the bishop of Augsburg, the nave (now the transept) was given its current shape in 1850, and a tower was built in front of the west facade. In the second half of the 19th century - also due to the new garrison - the number of Catholics soon grew to 6,000. Another new building was therefore required, which was built perpendicular to the old floor plan. This gave the church its current appearance in 1895. With the renovation, the patronage changed from Sorrowful Mother to Sacred Heart . The interior of the Herz-Jesu-Kirche has undergone major changes since then, most recently in 2008. Only the baptismal font and a wooden statue of the Good Shepherd still remind of the former house of prayer.
The development in the 20th century
With the renovation in 1895, the expansion possibilities of the old prayer house were exhausted. The number of Erlangen Catholics grew through immigration and incorporation, especially after the Second World War, so that today there is only a slight preponderance in favor of Protestants. Beginning in 1928, the number of Erlangen parishes rose from one to twelve within 70 years.
- 1928 St. Bonifaz in what was then the southeast of the city
- 1967 Holy Cross in Bruck
- 1968 St. Sebald in the Sebaldussiedlung and parts of the Röthelheimpark
- 1970 St. Heinrich in Alterlangen
- 1973 St. Theresia in Sieglitzhof
- 1979 Holy Family in Tennenlohe
- 1998 To the holy apostles in Büchenbach
The following parishes were incorporated:
- 1923 St. Xystus in Büchenbach (with branch community Albertus Magnus in Frauenaurach)
- 1924 St. Peter and Paul in Bruck
- 1972 St. Kunigund in Eltersdorf
- 1972 Our Lady in Dechsendorf
Erlangen has been the seat of a deanery since 1937, which was reorganized on November 1, 1974 as part of the state territorial reform. In addition to the Erlangen parishes, it also includes neighboring parishes from the districts of Erlangen-Höchstadt and Forchheim.
In 1408 Jews were first mentioned in Erlangen, in 1478 a rabbi was also mentioned . On March 26, 1515, the margravial state parliament decided to expel the Jews. This presumably ended the existence of the Erlangen Jewish community. In 1711, Margrave Christian Ernst assured the Huguenot residents of Neustadt that Jews would be banned from settling in or doing business. As a result, Jewish life was limited to Erlangen's neighboring communities, Bruck, Baiersdorf and Büchenbach.
- Jews have lived in Bruck since 1431, and in 1604 a “Judenhaus” is mentioned, which probably served as a synagogue for the still small Jewish community of six families (1619). After this quickly grew to 37 families (1763), a new synagogue was built in 1707. In 1811 the community had 184 inhabitants (approx. 15% of the population at that time), in 1859 there were 108.
- A Jewish community was first mentioned in a document in Baiersdorf in 1473. Its existence is assumed to have existed for an earlier time, especially because the oldest gravestones in the Jewish cemetery are dated to the early 14th century. This cemetery had a wide catchment area as far as Forchheim and Fürth. A synagogue existed as early as 1530, although after the decision to expel the Jews from the margraviate in 1515, only one Jewish family lived in Baiersdorf. After it was destroyed in the Thirty Years War, the synagogue was rebuilt in 1651, and the community had grown from nine families in 1619 to 83 families in 1771. As the second largest Jewish community in the Markgraftum Brandenburg-Bayreuth, it was also the seat of the state rabbinate. In 1827 the Jewish community reached its largest number of members with 440 members (30% of the population).
- The Bamberg cathedral provost allowed Jews to settle in Büchenbach in 1681. The result was a Jewish community which in 1811 had 74 members and in 1813 built a synagogue. In 1833 103 Jews lived in the village.
In 1861 the Bavarian state parliament introduced general freedom of movement for Jews in Bavaria. This made it possible for Jews to settle in Erlangen. Many Jewish families from the surrounding communities moved to Erlangen because of the better prospects, at the same time the communities in Bruck, Baiersdorf and Büchenbach shrank, where the community was dissolved as early as 1874. In 1867 the new Erlangen congregation already had 67 members, which on March 15, 1873 became an independent religious congregation. The Bruck community was absorbed into it. In 1891 the community inaugurated its own cemetery . In contrast, the rabbinate of Baiersdorf was dissolved in 1894, and after 1900 there were no more Jews living in Bruck. The Erlangen community, on the other hand, included prominent personalities such as the doctor and honorary citizen Jakob Herz and the mathematician Emmy Noether . A memorial to the former was erected on May 5, 1875, and destroyed on September 15, 1933. A stele has been commemorating this process since 1983 with the inscription: We are thinking of Jakob Herz, who erected a monument to the citizen of this city and destroyed it.
During the National Socialist dictatorship, the number of Erlangen Jews initially decreased from 120 to 44 people by 1938. The prayer room in Erlangen was destroyed during the Reichspogromnacht and the synagogue in Baiersdorf was torn down. On October 20, 1943, the last Jewish resident of Erlangen was deported to Auschwitz . 77 members of the Jewish community in Erlangen were murdered by the Nazis.
From the original Jewish residents, Rosa Loewi and her daughter Marga returned to Erlangen on August 16, 1945, before they both emigrated to the United States a year later. In 1980 Lotte Ansbacher († December 19, 2010) returned permanently to her hometown as the last Erlangen survivor of the Holocaust, presumably to inherit from her aunt Helene Aufseeser. A special feature of Erlangen was the position created in 1980 as a voluntary “Commissioner for Former Jewish Citizens”. In this position, Ilse Sponsel (1924-2010) worked tirelessly to establish and maintain contacts with the surviving Erlangen Jews and their families and to research the history and fate of the Jews who perished in the Holocaust in Erlangen, Baiersdorf and the surrounding area. Until the 1970s, the number of Jews grew so much that the publisher Shlomo Lewin planned to found a new community. On December 19, 1980, he was murdered with his partner, presumably by a member of the right-wing extremist military sports group Hoffmann . However, there was never a conviction because the alleged perpetrator committed suicide. After this crime, the establishment of the Israelite religious community failed to materialize. This idea only gained new impetus with the arrival of Jewish emigrants from the former Soviet Union. On December 1, 1997, another Israelite religious community was established in Erlangen, to which 300 members belonged in 2000. On April 2, 2000, the congregation dedicated a new prayer room on Hauptstrasse. After the on March 9, 2008 in the Hindenburgstr. 38 synagogue had to be abandoned due to problems with the landlady of the house, a building was rented at Rathsberger Str. 8b and the new synagogue was opened here on June 13, 2010.
The Turkish-Islamic Cultural Association Erlangen (DITIB) has existed in Erlangen since 1980 . Since then, other associations such as the Islamic Student Association Erlangen (1984) and the Islamic Faith Community (1995) have emerged. Since December 1999, these three have formed the Islamic Religious Community Erlangen e. V. which takes care of the implementation of Islamic religious instruction in state schools. The subject “Islamic religious instruction in German” was introduced at a state school for the first time in Bavaria in 2001 at the Pestalozzi primary school in Erlangen. Correct “Islamic teaching” as a subject was introduced for the first time in all of Germany at the Brucker Lache primary school .
In addition to the three associations mentioned, the Turkish Association for Social Services has also existed since 1993 .
Seventh-day Adventists have been represented in Erlangen since at least 1903. In 1995 they moved into the new community center in Bruck. In 2003 another congregation (ERlebt) was founded, which gathered in Hindenburgstrasse; The latter inaugurated a new parish hall in Bruck in October 2007 . There is good cooperation between the two communities. The Adventists take an active part in Erlangen's city life. Your social commitment shows a. in the scout work (tribe "Erlanger Margraves") or in public blood donation campaigns that are carried out in the community rooms. Both communities carry out the annual “Children help children” campaign, in which Christmas parcels are sent to children in need all over Eastern Europe. The association “Christians for Culture e. V. “was founded in 1999 by Adventists from Erlangen.
The Jehovah's Witnesses registered their first meeting in Erlangen on March 22, 1923, but the police did not approve it. After the ban in April 1933, there was increased repression, which led to the murder of Erlanger member Gustav Heyer in the Nazi killing center in Hartheim on January 20, 1942. Gustav-Heyer-Straße in Bruck has been commemorating this since 2000. In 1948 the congregation was reorganized, which in 1975 was divided into two assemblies. In 1980 the Jehovah's Witnesses built their own assembly room (“ Kingdom Hall ”) in Bruck .
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is also represented in Erlangen with its own congregation and a local bishop. The ward is a member of the Nuremberg Stake. The Mormon Community Center is in Alterlangen.
In addition to the above-mentioned religious communities, there are other free churches and religious communities in Erlangen.
There is evidence of a council in Erlangen's old town since the 14th century. At the head of the city were two mayors who changed every four weeks. From 1715 there were even four mayors.
In the new town the administration was initially in the Reformed presbytery. In 1697 there were four mayors who held office for one year, three of them French and one German. From 1701 there were four mayors and eight councilors who held office for two years. After that the administration was redesigned several times.
After the unification of the old town and new town in 1812, the Bavarian municipal edict was introduced. From 1818 the city was headed by a first mayor, who from 1918 was usually awarded the title of mayor. Since 1952, the First Mayor has always had the title of Lord Mayor in accordance with the Bavarian municipal code.
In addition, from 1818 there was a city magistrate with ten, from 1900 twelve magistrates' councils and, as a second chamber, the municipal representatives with 30 and from 1900 36 members. After the Second World War there was only one city council. In 1978, Wolfgang Lederer from the Green List was the first green politician to join a Bavarian city council.
In the districts of Eltersdorf, Frauenaurach, Großdechsendorf, Hüttendorf, Kosbach (with Steudach and Häusling), Kriegenbrunn and Tennenlohe, which were incorporated into Erlangen in 1967 and 1972, a local advisory council was set up. The number of members of the local council depends on the population of the area concerned and ranges between five and seven. The local councils are appointed by the political parties according to the last local election results and elect a chairman from among their number. The local councils are to be heard on important matters affecting the district.
In addition, there is a youth parliament in Erlangen that is elected every two years by the 12-18 year olds . The seniors are represented by a senior citizens' advisory board (the first in Bavaria), people with a migration background by the foreigners and integration advisory board. In addition, there are a number of other advisory boards that advise the city council on certain topics.
In addition to the political parties and municipal bodies, various organizations in Erlangen are active in local politics. This includes initiatives that are founded on the occasion of specific topics (see in particular referendums ) and then dissolved again. The "Altstadtforum" is a non-partisan alliance of 19 organizations (including all parties, citizens' initiatives and associations represented in the city council). It is committed to an attractive, livable and sustainable old town in Erlangen.
The Lord Mayor of Erlangen is directly elected. Florian Janik has been in office since 2014 . The city council elects at least a second mayor as a deputy; it can also elect a third mayor. Currently these are Susanne Lender-Cassens (Green List) and Elisabeth Preuss (FDP).
The first mayors and mayors since 1818 were:
The city council consists of the mayor and 50 other members. He was last elected in 2020. As the strongest parliamentary group, the CSU has 15 seats, the SPD 11 (and also the Lord Mayor), the joint election proposal of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and Green List has 11, the ÖDP has 3, the FDP , the Erlangen Left , the Free Voting community , the AFD and the Erlangen climate list each have 2 seats.
The population in Erlangen is politically relatively active and in particular uses the opportunity for direct democracy , as the high number of referendums in recent years shows, all of which have achieved the voter turnout necessary to be effective:
- 1998: Sale of Erlanger Stadtwerke (result: Contra sale)
- 1998: Röthelheimpark thoroughfare (result: per thoroughfare)
- 2000: Theaterplatz underground car park (result: against underground car park)
- 2004: Erlangen Arcaden (request for advice, construction of a shopping center) (result: Pro Arcaden)
- 2005: Privatization of Erlangen Bäder (Result: Contra privatization)
- 2005: Relocation of the taxi stand in the old town (result: Pro relocation)
- 2005: Erlangen Arcaden (citizens' petition and council petition, result: Pro council petition)
- 2011: Commercial area G6 Tennenlohe (Council request, result: Against commercial area)
- 2016: Stadt-Umland-Bahn (StUB) (citizens' petition, result: Against exit from the StUB project)
- 2017: State Garden Show 2024, result: rejected; Demolition of ERBA , result: accepted
- 2018: Preliminary investigation of residential area West II continued (result: rejected)
Bundestag, Landtag and District Parliament
Erlangen forms for parliamentary elections together with the Erlangen-Höchstadt the constituency Erlangen . The directly elected MP is Stefan Müller (CSU). In addition, part of Martina root Fibich (SPD) the German Parliament on. Both MPs do not live in the Erlangen city area.
For the state elections , the district of Erlangen-Stadt includes the city of Erlangen as well as Möhrendorf and Heroldsberg from the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt. The directly elected MP is Joachim Herrmann (CSU). In addition, Christian Zwanziger (Greens) from Erlangen , who was elected via the Central Franconian district list, is represented in the state parliament.
The constituency for the district assembly of Middle Franconia is identical to the state assembly. The directly elected MP is Max Hubmann (CSU). In addition, Gisela Niclas (SPD) from the city of Erlangen is a member of the district assembly, she was elected from her party's list. Susanne Lender-Cassens (Greens), who was also elected in 2013, resigned after her election as second mayor.
coat of arms
Blazon : “Divided and split above; in front in silver a golden crowned and reinforced, red-tongued red eagle with golden clover stems and a breastplate embroidered in silver and black; behind, in silver, a gold crowned and armored, red-tongued black eagle with a gold neck crown, clover stems and the gold capital letters E and S on the chest; below, growing in blue over a silver battlement wall, a double-tailed, golden crowned, red-tongued golden lion. "
This is the small city coat of arms. If the three parts of the coat of arms are shown on separate shields, above which the Zolleric brackish head with black and silver helmet covers can be seen, then it is the large city coat of arms.
Reasons for the coat of arms: The lion in the lower part of the coat of arms stands for the old town of Erlangen. This is the Luxembourg-Bohemian lion, which has been found in the city seals since 1389. In the upper half are the Brandenburg and Prussian eagles, which symbolize the new town of Erlangen. They have adorned the Neustädter coat of arms since 1707. The letters E and S stand for Elisabeth Sophie, the wife of Margrave Christian Ernst.
The city flag is white and red.
Since 1977, the city of Erlangen has been using a signet with the words City of Erlangen , designed in 1976 by the Munich designer Walter Tafelmaier, as a distinctive sign next to the city coat of arms , which graphically translated the motto “Erlangen - open from tradition”. On a square floor plan, 24 individual squares are arranged in five vertical and horizontal rows so that a free space is left out in the middle of the right-hand side. The city logo symbolizes the layout of the planned baroque city, the missing square stands for the city's openness. The motto was found in a competition in 1974. According to the city encyclopedia, the signet and motto recall "the repeated admission of refugees and immigrants from home and abroad as well as their great importance for the development of the community" ()
In 2007, at the suggestion of the Lord Mayor, there were considerations to replace the signet with the city coat of arms. However, following online surveys, this was rejected by the majority of citizens and subsequently no longer pursued.
Erlangen maintains city partnerships with the following cities:
- Eskilstuna ( Sweden ), since 1961
- Rennes ( France ), since 1964
- Vladimir ( Russia ), since 1983 and 1987 respectively
- Jena ( Thuringia ), since 1987
- Stoke-on-Trent ( England ), since 1989
- San Carlos ( Nicaragua ), since 1989
- Beşiktaş (Municipality of Istanbul , Turkey ), since 2003
- Riverside ( California , USA ), since 2013
- Bolzano ( Italy ), since 2018
There are also other partnerships:
- Venzone ( Italy )
- Shenzhen ( People's Republic of China ), regional partnership since 1997
- Richmond ( Virginia , USA ), cooperation agreement since 1998
- Cumiana (Italy), friendship city since 2001
- Ajman ( United Arab Emirates ), cooperation agreement since 2005
- Umhausen ( Austria ), partnership agreement since 2006
- In 1949 the sponsorship for the expelled Sudeten Germans from the city and the district of Brüx was taken over.
- 1951 the sponsorship for the expelled Sudeten Germans from the city and the Komotau district was taken over.
The home rooms of the two areas were until 2006 in the “Stutterheim-Palais” on the market square. Since then they have been housed in the "Frankenhof".
In 2016, Erlangen achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 10.003 billion within the city limits, making it 36th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 91,531 (Bavaria: € 44,215 / Germany € 38,180) and was the fourth highest among all urban districts in Germany. In 2016 there were around 113,200 employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 3.4% and thus above the Bavarian average of 2.7%.
The economy in Erlangen is largely shaped by the activities of Siemens AG and its affiliated companies, as well as the Friedrich-Alexander University. The business location is one of the most attractive in all of Germany. In the analysis of the competitiveness of all 402 German independent cities and districts carried out by the Swiss company Prognos in 2016 , the city took 6th place (2013: 3rd place). In terms of growth in particular, the city achieved above-average values.
The economy before the Huguenot city was founded in 1686
Until the founding of the Neustadt in 1686 by Margrave Christian Ernst , the economy in Erlangen consisted almost exclusively of agriculture. The floodplains of Regnitz and Schwabach offered good locations for fields and meadows that were irrigated by water pumps. The rivers themselves offered fishing opportunities. The forest east of the Regnitz, including the quarries located there, formed an essential livelihood for the early citizens of Erlangen for centuries. The castle hill favored the cultivation of fruit and wine due to its climate. A forest beekeeping was operated on Zeidelweiden .
In addition to agriculture, there was a small business that produced local needs. So in 1619 a bath, a butcher, a glazier, a locksmith, a blacksmith, a carpenter, a wagner, a brickworker, two butchers, two millers, two shoemakers, three carpenters, five bakers, five tailors, five stone masons, eight cloth makers and several innkeepers and master brewers in Erlangen.
The recurring military events turned out to be devastating for economic development. Erlangen was completely destroyed in the Thirty Years' War, and the population wiped out or driven out.
The development of trades from 1686 to 1812
After the disastrous aftermath of the Thirty Years' War, Margrave Christian Ernst tried to revive the economy, which was completely devastated. To this end, he had wealthy or economically capable Huguenots recruited (who were not accepted on their flight, for example in Neustadt an der Aisch ) and settled in the Huguenot town (Neustadt), which was newly founded in 1686. This active economic policy initially established the hosiery trade , a technically advanced branch of the economy that was almost unknown in Germany. In addition, hat manufacture , glove manufacture and white tannery developed important branches of industry.
Initially almost exclusively in French hands, these industries became increasingly German as a result of German immigration. In 1775 there were only 19 of a total of 277 stocking knitters of French origin. Only the glove and white tannery remained French monopolies until 1811. With the German immigration, other branches of industry came to Erlangen, such as calico printing , which also gained supra-regional importance and was one of the largest companies in Erlangen at the end of the 18th century.
Due to the export-oriented economy of the Huguenot city, Erlangen was considered a “factory town”, a type that was only represented in Franconia by Fürth and Schwabach .
The reorganization of Central Europe after the Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent protectionist customs policy led to the loss of traditional sales markets and thus to the decline of Erlangen's businesses. In 1887 the hosiery was practically no longer available. Likewise, the calico factories and hat manufacturers disappeared. Only white tanners and glove makers could survive into the 20th century.
In the middle of the 19th century, the Erlangen economy was able to slowly consolidate at a low level. In addition to agriculture, the other businesses and local handicrafts, industry increasingly appeared as the fourth branch of the economy. Mainly beer was produced. The cellars in the Burgberg were ideally suited for the maturation and storage of the beers, resulting in a high-quality product that was in demand worldwide. At the end of 1860, Erlangen exported three times as much beer as Munich. The invention of the cooling machine at the beginning of the 1880s brought this soaring to an abrupt end. Today there are only two breweries left in Erlangen.
In addition to the production of beer, the manufacture of combs became very important. With the help of the first Erlangen steam engine, the entrepreneur Johann Georg Bücking produced around 1.2 million combs in 1845. The family business thus dominated the entire German, European and North American market. Emil Kränzlein was also internationally active with his brush factory in the Ostliche Stadtmauerstraße, which before the First World War employed more than 400 people and sold its products worldwide.
The establishment of the cotton spinning company in 1880 opened a new branch of industry in Erlangen. The Erlangen-Bamberg (ERBA) cotton industry was established through several mergers in 1927 and employed over 5000 people before the Second World War.
Another company that was essential for the future economic development of Erlangen was the workshop of the university mechanic Erwin Moritz Reiniger , in which he manufactured optical and precision mechanical devices from 1876. In 1886 the company Reiniger, Gebbert & Schall was founded, which had already successfully cooperated with the university's medical faculty. After Wilhelm Röntgen had developed the X-ray machine in Würzburg in 1895 , Reiniger immediately got in touch and agreed to manufacture X-ray machines in his Erlangen plant. Siemens & Halske AG acquired the company in 1925 and incorporated its own department for medical technology. Before the Second World War, more than 2000 employees worked at the Erlangen location of Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG , whose central administration was relocated from Berlin to Erlangen in 1943. From 1947 the city was also the seat of the company from which today's Siemens Sector Healthcare (until the end of 2007 Siemens Medical Solutions ) of Siemens AG emerged.
The pencil sharpener industry , which at times served 80% of the world market, also achieved global importance from 1908 .
In 1919 the entrepreneur Paul Gossen founded the Paul Gossen Co. K.-G., factory of electrical measuring devices in Baiersdorf , which relocated its headquarters to Erlangen in the following year. The company mainly manufactured measuring instruments such as the world's first photoelectric exposure meter OMBRUX from 1933. The company building on Nägelsbachstrasse, which still exists today, was built between 1939 and 1943. In 1963 the company joined Siemens AG. Today the Gossen company no longer exists.
The development to the Siemens city from 1945
The end of the Second World War had far-reaching consequences for the Erlangen economy: the two Berlin-based Siemens companies Siemens & Halske (S&H) and Siemens-Schuckertwerke (SSW) had already taken measures for a fresh start before the foreseeable collapse. Special teams (so-called group leaders) should prepare the move to Munich (S&H) and Hof (SSW). Due to the proximity to the Soviet zone, however, the Hofer group around Günther Scharowsky was soon looking for a new location, which was found in undamaged Erlangen after a number of probes. The fact that a Siemens location in Erlangen already existed with the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke played an important role.
The start was on June 25, 1945 with an advance team of two men. At the beginning of 1946 there were already 200 SSW employees who were spread across 15 locations due to the lack of space. In order to remedy this, the new Siemens administration building was built in 1948–1953 according to plans by Hans Hertlein on what was then the largest construction site in southern Germany, which is also known as the “Raspberry Palace” because of its color. Large housing estates were built south of it for the employees. In the years that followed, additional office buildings were built: the Bingelhaus (1956–1958), the “ Glaspalast ” administration tower designed by Hans Maurer (1959–1962) and the Siemens Research Center (1959–1968). In no other Bavarian city was so much built and so long as in Erlangen after the Second World War.
In 1956 SSW employed over 6,000 people, in 1966 already over 10,000. The merger of the three Siemens companies SSW, SRW and S&H to form Siemens AG in 1966 caused another economic boost. In the period from 1985 to 1995 alone, the group invested DM 1 billion in the Erlangen location. The number of employees reached its highest level in 1986 at 31,000. Due to relocations to Nürnberg-Moorenbrunn and Forchheim, it is around 24,000 today (as of September 30, 2011). In addition to the Siemens Healthcare Sector (medical technology), the Industry (automation and drive technology), Energy (power generation, power transmission and distribution) and Infrastructure & Cities (mobility, rail technology, smart grid technology) sectors as well as numerous staff departments are represented in Erlangen. In the 1970s there was a 900 m long magnetic levitation train on the research site , on which the Erlangen test vehicle (EET 01) drove. After the withdrawal of the American troops, the new Röthelheimpark district was built on the vacated site , in which Siemens medical technology built additional production facilities and office buildings. The Reiniger und Schall building, which housed the core of the medical technology division (UB Med) after the Second World War, was donated to the city of Erlangen at the end of 2000 on the occasion of the city's upcoming anniversary. In addition to city presentations, the “Siemens Company Archive for Medical Technology” has been located there since March 2012, which historically visualises this Siemens division in an exhibition area (opening 2013). The residential area “Im Museumswinkel” has been located on the remaining area of the former UB Med since 2008.
Numerous Siemens subsidiaries and Siemens holdings are also located in Erlangen.
Erlangen is one of the economically strongest cities in Germany.
Other international companies
By merging the nuclear division of Siemens with the nuclear division of Areva , the subsequent exit of Siemens AG and the extensive concentration of Areva on the nuclear business, Erlangen became the headquarters of AREVA GmbH with 3,350 employees at the site.
In addition, Solar Millennium , another globally active company in the energy sector, established itself in Erlangen. Solar Millennium was founded in 1998 and planned and built solar power plants based on parabolic trough technology. The company has been insolvent since 2011.
The Publicis Groupe is a multinational advertising service provider headquartered in France and is one of the four most important advertising service providers worldwide. The Erlangen branch is the largest in Germany.
The KUM GmbH & Co KG was the second oldest manufacturer of Bleistiftanspitzern and is now internationally recognized as a manufacturer of school and office products business.
Valeo Siemens eAutomotive , a manufacturer of components for electric cars, was founded in 2016 and is based in Erlangen.
Main focus of current economic policy
Promotion of business start-ups and innovative technologies
The promotion of progress and innovation as well as the creation of an investment-friendly environment have a long tradition in Erlangen. In 1985/86 the innovation and start-up center Nürnberg-Fürth-Erlangen GmbH (IGZ) was founded in Tennenlohe together with the cities of Fürth and Nuremberg . From this start-up center, new companies emerged, which set new impulses for economic life and were later successfully placed on the stock exchange. They include u. a. the WaveLight AG and the November AG.
The IGZ was supplemented in 2003 by the Innovation Center for Medical Technology and Pharma (IZMP), which supports start-ups and innovative companies in the fields of medical technology, pharmaceutical research, and biotechnology and genetic engineering in particular. The foundation stone for the first expansion of the IZMP was laid in March 2006.
In addition, the "Erlangen AG" was founded as an amalgamation of science and industry with the aim of systematically and consistently developing new knowledge resources, showing ways into new markets and marketing the positive differentiating features of the location internationally.
As a result of many years of efforts to promote new, innovative technologies, Erlangen was awarded the title of the most economically friendly municipality by the Bavarian government in 1998 as the first large Bavarian city .
Medicine and medical technology
A competence center for medicine, medical technology and the pharmaceutical industry was established as a cooperation between the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, the Waldkrankenhaus, the Klinikum am Europakanal, the Siemens Healthcare division and over 100 medium-sized companies. Almost every fourth employee is employed in the medical technology and health sectors. This location advantage is to be expanded further in the future. The city has set itself the goal of becoming the federal capital of medical research, production and services . In order to include the surrounding region in these efforts, the Medical Valley European Metropolitan Region Nuremberg was founded.
Infrastructure and traffic
Erlangen's location on the Nuremberg-Bamberg connecting road had a positive influence on the city's development from early on. As early as 1653, a post office was set up for the riding and messenger mail of the Princes Thurn and Taxis . The establishment of the Neustadt in 1686 caused the traffic to increase significantly, so that the paving of the city streets began as early as 1708. Motorized traffic began its triumphant advance in Erlangen after 1900: in 1905 eight motorcycles and two cars were registered. In 1912 the first bus route to Nuremberg was opened. In 1925 there was one car per 100 inhabitants, in 1939 there were already 20. After the Second World War, mass motorization began, which decisively changed the cityscape: the Ludwig-Danube-Main Canal was filled in and the Frankenschnellweg (A 73) was built in its place. The branch lines disappeared to make room for the expansion of the road network.
A turning point was reached with the onset of the environmental movement and some construction projects that had already been planned, such as the crossing of the Regnitzgrund through the Kosbacher Damm, were no longer carried out. Instead, local public transport and bicycle traffic were expanded and the city center was freed from car traffic by setting up a pedestrian zone.
Nevertheless, there have been road construction projects since then, which have led or still lead to sometimes considerable discussions and protests. These include a .:
- Allee am Röthelheimpark: The question of whether this central street in the new Röthelheimpark district should be expanded to include two or four lanes was a very controversial issue. Opponents of the four-lane expansion argued that the expansion would lead to a significant increase in through traffic, especially in the east-west direction. A referendum in 1998 finally made the decision to upgrade to four lanes.
- Southern bypass: The closure of the secondary railway Erlangen – Graefenberg in 1963 meant that the east of Erlangen can only be accessed by buses using local public transport. During rush hour traffic there are frequent traffic jams along Kurt-Schumacher-Straße and especially in the local area of Buckenhof . In order to relieve the pressure here, the building authority in Nuremberg planned a connection between Kurt-Schumacher-Strasse and Staatsstrasse 2243 south of Buckenhof and Uttenreuth (southern bypass). This road should have led through the Buckenhofer Forest , a popular local recreation area. Additional problems arose from the fact that a bird sanctuary and a water sanctuary should have been crossed. As an alternative, the opponents of the southern bypass propagated the expansion of local public transport by implementing the city-surrounding railway. Due to the discontinuation of the planning approval procedure for environmental reasons in June 2012, the decision against the southern bypass was finally made.
Today Erlangen is conveniently located on two federal motorways and one federal road:
- A 3 ( Arnhem ) - Emmerich am Rhein - Düsseldorf - Cologne - Frankfurt am Main - Würzburg - Erlangen - Nuremberg - Regensburg - Passau - ( Linz )
- A 73 Nuremberg - Fürth - Erlangen - Bamberg - Lichtenfels - Coburg - Suhl
- B 4 Bad Bramstedt - Hamburg - Braunschweig - Erfurt - Ilmenau - Coburg - Bamberg - (further as A 73 ) - Erlangen - Nuremberg - Fischbach
With the opening of the Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn section from Nuremberg to Bamberg on August 25, 1844, the railway came to Erlangen. Access to supra-regional rail traffic led to a leap in traffic development. On November 17, 1886, the Erlangen – Graefenberg secondary line and on April 16, 1894 the Erlangen-Bruck – Herzogenaurach local line opened. The traffic on the Nuremberg – Bamberg railway increased rapidly after reunification and Erlangen gained access to the ICE network. At the end of 2010, the S-Bahn connection between Bamberg and Nuremberg via Erlangen went into operation, which is served from Nuremberg to Erlangen every 20/40 minutes. The S1 line serves the following train stations and stops in the city of Erlangen: Erlangen, Erlangen-Bruck, Erlangen-Eltersdorf and Erlangen-Paul-Gossen-Straße. The latter was put into operation as part of the S-Bahn expansion for the timetable change in December 2015. Erlangen was also connected to the ICE high-speed line from Munich to Berlin, which was completed at the end of 2017, as part of the German Unity No. 8 transport project .
In contrast, the two branch lines could not compete with road traffic: On February 16, 1963, the last journey on the route to Graefenberg took place, on September 28, 1984, passenger traffic to Herzogenaurach was stopped, and freight traffic to the large power station in Franconia ceased after the coal traffic was closed II only takes place via the Frauenaurach train station to the grounds of the port of Erlangen (waste transfer facility).
Although Erlangen is located on the Regnitz , no shipping traffic could develop there due to the numerous weirs set up for the mills and the water pumping wheels. It was not until the opening of a section of Ludwig canal in 1843 brought the waterway to Erlangen, which thus became the port city. There was the trade port of Erlangen for the handling of goods, which was south of the cemetery of honor .
After initial success, the canal ( towing traffic ) with its over 100 locks , which was designed for small horse-drawn barges, soon lost market share to the emerging railroad and from 1863 was only making losses. After damage in the Second World War , operations were finally shut down in the 1950s. The section between Nuremberg and Erlangen was filled in at the beginning of the 1960s and built over as a route for the Frankenschnellweg , later extended to the north as federal motorway 73 . Only a monument and a few 100 m long, largely dry remnants of the route (north of today's sewage treatment plant) still remind of the former facilities of the Ludwig-Danube-Main Canal . The former trading port on the Ludwig Canal, which, thanks to its rail connection , offered trimodal cargo handling by ship / rail / road as early as 1844 , is now built over with the Erlangen fire brigade .
The idea of connecting the Main and Danube with a canal and thus creating a waterway from the North Sea to the Black Sea was not abandoned. Work on the new, much larger and more powerful Main-Danube Canal (European Canal ) began as early as 1959 . The canal reached Erlangen on October 30, 1970; In the following years, a trimodal freight transport center for ship / rail / road transhipment was built on the Erlangen site. In 1992, the full length of the canal was opened up to the Danube . In 2006 about 82,000 tons of goods were handled in Erlangen.
The nearest commercial airport is the Herzogenaurach Airport ten kilometers west. Nuremberg Airport, 12 km south, is conveniently located for freight and scheduled flights .
Local public transport
The public transport supply several city and intercity bus lines of the Erlanger Stadtwerke AG (CBI) and the Omnibus Franken (OVF), all in the regional transport system Nuremberg are integrated. Most of the bus routes run through the city center. Most of the intercity bus routes start at the central bus station west of the station. To the east of the train station are the Hauptbahnhof and Hugenottenplatz stops, where mainly the city bus routes stop. Another important junction is at the crossing Güterhallenstrasse / Güterbahnhofstrasse. The main post stop was renamed Arcaden on September 8, 2007 after the shopping center built at this point.
H-Bahn (rejected planning)
A revival of local rail transport was initially discussed in 1977 when Siemens AG proposed to connect the most important Siemens locations with the train station via an approximately 7.5 km long H-Bahn line. The H-Bahn, a construction similar to the Wuppertal suspension railway , has been running successfully on a test facility on the Siemens research site in Erlangen since 1976. The route was to lead from the Erlangen equipment factory via Büchenbach-Nord to the large car park and from there through a tunnel to Schuhstrasse and then above ground to the Siemens headquarters. The additional routes requested by the city administration would have made it necessary to demolish entire rows of houses due to the limited space available. In November 1978 the city council decided against the implementation of the project with a narrow majority.
City-suburban railway (planning)
The idea of a rail-bound transport system for Erlangen was taken up again a little later. Already after the closure of the railway line to Herzogenaurach in 1984 and in view of the discontinuation of train traffic to Neunkirchen am Brand in 1961, there were considerations in Erlangen to create an environmentally friendly transport connection to the surrounding area since the mid-1980s (study by the Franken-Plan - Kinski / Schmidt / Berthold - 1985: “A city railway for Erlangen”). At the beginning of the 1990s, the model of a light rail was further developed into a regional light rail concept supported by all political groups, which is locally known as the city-surrounding railway or StUB for short . From 1992 onwards, Siemens Transportation Systems participated in the project both technically and financially. In 1995 the city of Erlangen as well as the districts of Erlangen-Höchstadt and Forchheim decided to build and operate the StUB basic network on the basis of previous cost-benefit analyzes and feasibility studies. The basic network comprises three connections to Nürnberg-Thon , Herzogenaurach and Eckental via Neunkirchen am Brand in the form of a T-shaped network oriented to the south, west and east . The start of the route would be in Erlangen city center. In Thon, passengers would have a connection to the Nuremberg tram network , in Eckental to the Graefenbergbahn , in Erlangen city center to the Nuremberg S-Bahn as well as regional and long-distance traffic. Possible extensions lead u. a. from Erlangen to Hemhofen , where there would be a connection to the Aischgrundbahn from Forchheim to Höchstadt an der Aisch . The railway in Wiesenttal from Forchheim to Ebermannstadt is also part of the maximal network.
In a feasibility study from 1993, the total costs for the StUB project were estimated at almost 1 billion D-Marks, of which around 413 million DM for the routes of the basic network alone. In 1997, the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs refused to include the project in state and federal funding programs from. Without this co-financing , there was no prospect of the city-suburban railway being realized . Nevertheless, the topic regularly remained part of the public and political debate in Erlangen and the surrounding area. A citizens' initiative for environmentally friendly mobility in the Schwabach valley has repeatedly addressed the project, as have leading politicians from the districts involved. From the beginning of 2008, a new cost-benefit study was drawn up for the StUB basic network.
Since around 2010, especially on the initiative of the cities of Herzogenaurach and Nuremberg, the plans for a city-surrounding railway have been pursued more intensively again. A standardized assessment and comparison with a regionally optimized bus network (RoBus) was carried out by spring 2012 . The expansion of the infrastructure for the StUB refers to the so-called T-Netz with a north-south connection from Erlangen Bahnhof to Nürnberg-Wegfeld and from Erlangen Bahnhof with a branch to the west over the new Kosbacher Bridge to Herzogenaurach and to East only to Uttenreuth. The latter would mean breaking the bus traffic between Erlangen and Eschenau, which is now free of transfers. With the regionally optimized bus network, additional bus lanes and stops as well as the new Kosbach bridge are assumed.
According to this, the investments in the infrastructure at the StUB amount to around 281 million euros, at RoBus to around 12.4 million euros. Both measures could expect high government grants, up to 80 percent of eligible shares. Other sources speak of 365 and 407 million euros for the StUB.
The follow-up costs, which are to be borne by the three local authorities concerned (the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg and the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt) as the responsible public transport authorities, are also decisive for the political decision-makers. At around eleven million euros, the StUB is around ten times as high as with the bus variant. The implementation of the StUB would result in a shift of 10,930 passenger journeys per day and a new induction of a further 2260 passenger journeys, with RoBus the shift would amount to 6610 passenger journeys and a new induction of 835 passenger journeys per day.
On September 21, 2012, the district council of the Erlangen-Höchstadt district passed the resolution with a clear majority to submit a funding application for the city-surrounding railway with the Nuremberg-Am Wegfeld - Erlangen - Herzogenaurach / Uttenreuth network. On September 27, 2012, this was also decided by the Erlangen city council. The cities of Nuremberg and Herzogenaurach had each made corresponding resolutions earlier. At the same time, the plans for the project are to be concretized. After the decision on the funding, a final decision should be made as to whether the project will be implemented.
Long-distance bus transport
The Erlangen long-distance bus station is centrally located in the parking lot street directly behind the main station. From Erlangen there are over 20 destinations, primarily in southern Germany.
Erlangen municipal utilities and municipal companies
The Erlanger Stadtwerke AG (CBI) have their origin in the 1858 founded Erlanger Gas Company Ltd , which ensured its own gas plant, the gas supply to the city. In 1915 the company was renamed to Städtische Technische Werke Erlangen . In 1939 it became a company owned by the city of Erlangen under the name Stadtwerke Erlangen , and in 1967 an own company under the name ESTW - Erlanger Stadtwerke AG . The city of Erlangen is the sole shareholder of the company.
The Stadtwerke supply Erlangen with electricity, heat, natural gas and water, operate the Erlangen swimming pools, build and maintain the street lighting and traffic signal systems and are responsible for the implementation of city traffic in Erlangen.
In addition to the municipal utilities, the city of Erlangen operates a number of municipal companies for the construction and maintenance of infrastructure objects. These include a .:
- the drainage company EBE, which u. a. operates the Erlangen sewage treatment plant. In the past, it was repeatedly discussed to assign this operation to the Erlangen municipal utility, but so far without result,
- the operation of urban greenery, waste management and street cleaning is u. a. responsible for garbage collection and urban green spaces.
Erlangen has its own slaughterhouse, which is operated by the city's own Erlanger Schlachthof GmbH.
Since autumn 2007, the retail landscape of Erlangen city center has been characterized by the covered shopping arcade Erlangen Arcaden with around 100 retail stores on three floors. In two petitions (2004 and 2005), the population of Erlangen voted in favor of building the passage on the site of the former main post office.
The main shopping street runs through Erlangen as a north-south axis. In the northern area between Wasserturmstrasse via Schloß- and Marktplatz and Hugenottenplatz to Henkestrasse, it is a real pedestrian zone under the name Hauptstrasse . In the southern area between Henkestrasse and Rathausplatz it runs under the name Nürnberger Strasse. There it is not designated as a pedestrian zone, but car-free and only used by cyclists during the day . The Erlangen Arcaden are connected to this main shopping street with entrances in the Henkestraße / Nürnberger Straße area and on Nürnberger Straße at about the level of the Galeria Kaufhof department store / Neuer Markt .
Education and culture
16 elementary schools are distributed over the city of Erlangen ; There are also four secondary schools , two secondary schools , a municipal business school , a school for the sick, two special schools , four private schools (including a Montessori and a Waldorf school ), four vocational schools (including the state technical college and vocational college in Erlangen ) and six grammar schools . The oldest grammar school is the grammar school Fridericianum , founded in 1745 as grammar school Illustre . In 1833 the agricultural and trade school opened on the Holzmarkt (today's Hugenottenplatz), which later became the Ohm-Gymnasium . From the Vömelschen private daughters institute founded by Rosa († 1919) and Maria Vömel (1840–1886) in 1873 , both the Christian-Ernst-Gymnasium and the Marie-Therese-Gymnasium emerged. The Albert-Schweitzer-Gymnasium (1965 as Oberrealschule Erlangen-West ) and the Emmy-Noether-Gymnasium (1974 as Gymnasium Südwest ) were newly established in the second half of the 20th century due to population growth .
The fifth private school is the Franconian International School (FIS) . Since the completion in the 2008/2009 school year, there has been a comprehensive range from kindergarten to elementary school to middle and high school . Teaching should be in English according to international curricula ; after the twelfth grade, the International Baccalaureate , recognized worldwide as a university admission , can be acquired.
Science and Research
Erlangen has been a university town since 1743 . With around 40,000 students, the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg is the third largest university in Bavaria after the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich and the Technical University in Munich .
Numerous research institutes have settled in the city near the university, so
- the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits (IIS), where the MP3 file format was developed, among other things,
- the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology (IISB),
- the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light ,
- the research center of Siemens AG ,
- the Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) department of thermal sensors and photovoltaics and
- the Bavarian Laser Center (BLZ) .
With the topic of “Material Future”, Erlangen, along with Nuremberg and Fürth, was one of the ten German cities that were the meeting point of science in the 2009 Science Year. Erlangen continues to be a "corporate sponsoring member" of the Max Planck Society .
Theaters and cinemas
- The city of Erlangen operates Das Theater Erlangen as its own city theater . The main venue is the Markgrafentheater , the oldest baroque theater in southern Germany.
- The “theater in the garage” is also part of the city theater.
- Other theaters are the private cabaret “ Fifty-Fifty ” and the “Studiobühne Erlangen” theater association.
- There is also the experimental theater of the University's Institute for Theater and Media Studies.
- The independent theater scene has joined forces in the “Free Theater Erlangen” working group, which represents its interests in relation to urban cultural policy.
- Erlangen is the location of the annual international theater festival ARENA of the young arts .
- There are four cinemas in Erlangen: The CineStar cinema on Neuer Markt, the Lammlichtspiele in Hauptstraße, the E-Werk cultural center and the Manhattan cinema.
From 1997 to 2011 the baroque Markgrafentheater became a cinema palace once a year. The program offered a wide range of classic (and sometimes current) silent film productions . In contrast to other silent film festivals, the films here were shown almost exclusively with an ensemble or orchestra. In addition to the few original compositions that have survived, top-class new compositions by contemporary composers could be heard.
The four-day festival is conceived as a biennial , but offers its audience a one-day “interlude” with silent film classics in the “years in between”. The regular festival program also includes exhibitions, audience discussions with musicians, composers and film experts as well as the film café, which is open around the clock with live music. The Silent Film Music Days have been taking place in Nuremberg since 2012
The city administration operates a city museum in the old town hall on Martin-Luther-Platz , which shows Erlangen's history. The ancient, prehistoric and early historical collections of the Friedrich Alexander University are also of historical interest.
There are also two art museums in the city: the Kunstpalais Erlangen (formerly the Städtische Galerie ) is located in the baroque Palais Stutterheim on the market square (in 2007 the museum was temporarily relocated to the so-called Museumswinkel for renovation; in 2010 the return to the Palais and the Renaming). The director of the Kunstpalais and the Erlangen Municipal Collection, Amely Deiss, since 2015 . The second art museum is the museum in the Loewenich'schen Palais, right next to the newly built Erlangen Arcaden.
New since 2014: The Siemens Healthineers MedMuseum ( Siemens Company Museum for Medical Technology ) on the former site of Siemens UB-Med in the so-called Museum corner on Gebbertstraße / corner of Luitpoldstraße. Doris-Maria Vittinghoff is the director of the Siemens Med Museum. The story of Siemens medical technology is told there, from Erwin-Moritz Reiniger's workshop on Schloßplatz (1877) to Siemens Healthcare (2014).
As a daily newspaper , the Erlanger Nachrichten is unrivaled. The supraregional cover is provided by the Nürnberger Nachrichten , whose publishing house Nürnberger Presse Druckhaus Nürnberg publishes both newspapers. The Erlangen local section is managed by its own local editorial office in Erlangen, but has been printed entirely in Nuremberg since 1998. The Franconian Day leads only a niche existence, the local part of which regularly includes the section “Erlangen” on the district of Erlangen-Höchstadt, but is only available in the urban area through retailers or postal sales.
With the monthly Was Lefft - later the subtitle words instead of deeds - there was a left-wing city magazine since January 1976, which deals with local and international issues. At the beginning of the new millennium, the sponsoring association decided to found raumzeit as the new left-wing monthly newspaper for the greater Nuremberg-Fürth-Erlangen area. However, it has only appeared on the Internet since 2005 and was discontinued at the end of the same year.
There are also a number of magazines , most of which are aimed at a limited audience. Depending on who is behind these magazines, the content, presentation, frequency of publication and distribution can be very different. The spectrum ranges from the official gazette of the city of Erlangen to district newspapers and newsletters of the parishes. Examples of different district newspapers are the “Altstadtzeitung” of the Altstadtforum Erlangen and the puzzle from Büchenbach, which consists of printed loose sheets .
As scene information distributed free of charge with event tips, v. a. in bars and facilities of the hugo! as well as the Erlangen editions of the city magazines Doppelpunkt and curt, which appear in the greater Nuremberg area .
The quarterly magazine Herbst-Zeitlose is aimed primarily at seniors .
The street cruiser is a homeless magazine for the greater Nuremberg-Fürth-Erlangen area, which is distributed on the street.
With Radio Downtown there was a separate radio station for Erlangen from February 1, 1987, which established itself with an initially nine-hour program, which was later expanded to 16 hours. Radio Downtown shared the frequency VHF 95.8 with the free radio station Radio Z from Nuremberg. Was popular Radio Downtown especially because of the wide space for bands from Franconia. Bands and musicians such as Fiddler's Green , Throw That Beat in the Garbagecan , Merlons of Nehemiah (since 2001 Merlons Lichter ) , JBO , the Wellucken Allstars or Kevin Coyne were able to tap into a wider audience via the regional charts . The frequency was finally taken over on December 3, 1995 by the NRJ Group for the radio station Energy Nuremberg .
The city's musical life is mainly shaped by the non-profit theater and concert association Erlangen (gVe) as well as the many musical activities of the parishes and university music (from which, for example, the Young Philharmonic Erlangen emerged ).
In 1945 amateur musicians founded the Erlangen Chamber Orchestra .
The Siemens Orchestra Erlangen exists in Erlangen . The lovers orchestra has been giving two to three concerts a year since 1950, although it also performs outside the city limits.
Franz Seeberger, the owner of the Starclub music bar at the time, had a hit in 1978 as Marc Seaberg with the song Looking for Freedom , which, in a version by David Hasselhoff, topped the German charts in 1989 .
Michael Holm had several German top hits in the 1970s and was later nominated several times for a Grammy with his music project Cusco .
The fun metal band JBO was founded in 1989 by four Erlangers, and the beer from the Kitzmann brewery was sold with its own pink labels at concerts .
With Fiddler's Green , Feuerschwanz and Bülbül Manush there are three other Erlangen bands that perform throughout Germany.
The composer, pianist and conductor Werner Heider lives in Erlangen, as does the jazz and experimental musician and composer Klaus Treuheit .
Erlangen was themed in Facts About Erlangen , a song by the Berlin band Foyer des Arts from 1982, which is assigned to the Neue Deutsche Welle.
Guitarist and music producer Chris Mike , at that time still a DJ in the Black Lady discotheque at Dechsendorfer Weiher , founded the band "Midnight Shadows" in Erlangen in 1981, which shortly thereafter, renamed "Thunder", had several record successes until 1985. "Thunder The Legend" have been successful again in the Country / Rockabilly sector since their reunion in 1997.
Dance & Folk Festival
After the city of Erlangen was very well known in the 1970s and 1880s for its folk festivals organized by the municipal leisure department, this series of events has finally disappeared completely. Since 1998 there has been an international folk dance festival every two years, which continues the tradition of folk festivals in Erlangen. This folk dance festival is one of the few festivals in Germany at which the "dances of the peoples" (e.g. dances from Ireland , Brittany , Bulgaria , Greece , Israel etc.) are learned in workshops and accompanied by live music ( Bal Folk , Céilí , Fest-noz ) can be danced. It always takes place at the end of April / beginning of May and thus also includes a “ dance into May ”. Since the beginning there has always been a focus topic (e.g. country special Africa or Germany, children, seniors) that is considered from different sides.
The three to five day festival is run on a voluntary basis by the members and friends of the “Erlanger Tanzhaus e. V. ”as well as the student union Erlangen-Nürnberg organized and carried out and attracts visitors from all over Germany. On the one hand, it offers its guests the opportunity to find out more about different dance styles and, on the other hand, to deepen their own knowledge in the relevant areas. In 2002 the Tanz- & Folkfest took place as part of the celebrations for “1000 Years of Erlangen” and for the first time brought the dance styles of all Erlangen twin cities on a common stage.
From 1962 to 1991 and again since 2006, the City of Erlangen's Culture Prize is awarded.
Erlangen has a large number of sports clubs that are united in the Erlangen Sports Association. The largest are the Turnverein (TV) 1848, the Turnerbund (TB) 1888, the Sportgemeinschaft Siemens (SGS), the Spielvereinigung (SpVgg) 1904 , the football and sports club (FSV) Erlangen-Bruck and the Allgemeine Turn- und Sport- Association (ATSV) 1898 Erlangen .
The Erlangen Swimming Association of 1981 ( SSG 81 Erlangen ), a merger of the swimming departments of TB 1888 and SGS with the Erlangen swimming club, has long provided the basis for sporting success. The twin brothers Björn and Bengt Zikarsky won bronze at the 1996 Olympic Games. Hannah Stockbauer from Nuremberg was three-time swimming world champion in 2003. Teresa Rohmann has won several international medals and national championship titles, Daniela Götz has already won several international medals with the DSV relay, but is still waiting for an international individual title. The youngsters also keep winning German youth titles. The indoor swimming pool in the Röthelheimbad was christened “Hannah-Stockbauer-Halle” in 2004 at the instigation of the Lord Mayor Siegfried Balleis. However, not only did many citizens and city council members find this exaggerated, Stockbauer himself could not really get used to it either.
Before the bloom of the swimmers was v. a. the athletics of the TB 1888 very successful. The hurdler Florian Schwarthoff, who won bronze over 110 m hurdles at the 1992 Olympic Games, grew up here.
Erlangen has a long tradition in handball. In the 1990s, two clubs played at times in the Second Bundesliga South (indoor handball): The Christian Sports Community (CSG) Erlangen (from the 1989/90 season) and the handball community (HG) Erlangen (from the 1996/97 season), a merger the handball departments of TB 1888 and TV 1848. After the 2000/01 season, the HG withdrew from the second division. In 2001, CSG and HG Erlangen merged to form the handball club (HC) Erlangen , which was relegated to the Regionalliga Süd after the 2003/04 season. In the 2007/08 season, the club was promoted to the second Bundesliga, and in 2014 was promoted to the handball Bundesliga for the first time . The stables and riding facilities of the Erlangen Riding Club are located in the Kosbach district . V.
But other sports have also been represented in Erlangen for a long time. The Erlangen Dance Tournament Club was founded in 1949, making it one of the oldest dance sports clubs in Bavaria. The Dance Tournament Club Erlangen was one of the founding members of the State Dance Sports Association of Bavaria ( LTVB ).
The Erlangen section of the German Alpine Club (DAV), founded on January 15, 1890, is the largest sports club in the city with 9,432 members (as of December 31, 2018). The section operates the Erlanger Hütte in the Ötztal Alps , the Falkenberghaus near Artelshofen in the Franconian Alb , and the DAV climbing center with the Hanne-Jung climbing hall in the Röthelheimpark district of Erlangen .
- Monthly: Poetry Slam at E-Werk (since 2002)
- January: Erlanger Spielertage, in the E-Werk (since 1987)
- February: Regional competition Jugend forscht & students experiment in the Heinrich-Lades-Halle (since 1989)
- End of April: Weekend of Fear , film festival for obscure films
- May / June (always from the Thursday before Pentecost Sunday): Bergkirchweih , folk festival since 1755
- May / June in uneven years: International puppet theater festival together with the cities of Nuremberg, Fürth and Schwabach (since 1979)
- June in even years: International Comic Salon (since 1984)
- June / July: Palace Garden Festival of the Friedrich Alexander University
- July: ARENA international theater festival for young arts
- July: Old Town Festival on the Old Town Church Square
- August: Market square festival with handicrafts, art and customs
- August: Erlanger Poetenfest (since 1980)
- October: The Long Night of Science (biennial since 2003)
- December: Christmas market on Schlossplatz and historical Christmas market on Neustädter Kirchenplatz.
The International Puppet Theater Festival, International Comic Salon and Erlangen Poetenfest were considered to be threatened with existence around the year 2000 for financial reasons. At least the latter two events have now been able to secure their municipal support - also through new sponsorship concepts - especially since the International Comic Salon in particular is generating record sales in the hotel and catering trade.
Environmental and nature protection has enjoyed a high priority in Erlangen since the beginning of the environmental movement in Germany in the early 1970s. A number of national and international awards attest to the success of the efforts. In 1988 the city was awarded the title “Partner of the European Environment Year 1987/88” and in 1990 and 1991 the title “Federal Capital for Nature and Environmental Protection”. The city administration proclaimed 2007 the year of the environment under the motto “ERLANGEN naturally”. One focus is the expansion of photovoltaics. From 2003 to 2011, the installed capacity of photovoltaic systems in Erlangen increased more than twenty-fold to 16,700 kW, so that over 2.0% of Erlangen's electricity demand is now covered annually. Erlangen participates in the so-called Solar League . In the competition between the big cities, Erlangen was third in the 2012 season and second in the European solar league.
Since 2007 Erlangen has been the first major city in which every school has a solar system. The data from the solar systems at the schools are shown in the so-called climate protection school atlas on the Internet, which can be used in the classroom at the schools. In 2011, a solar city map was set up on the Internet, in which realized solar systems can be entered.
As early as the 1970s, the then Mayor Dietmar Hahlweg laid the foundation for the high proportion of bicycles in total traffic with a bicycle-friendly transport policy. He paid particular attention to the introduction of cycle paths on the sidewalks. The bicycle is a common means of transport for the entire population. Cyclists in suits with briefcases are not an uncommon sight. Erlangen and Münster used to fight regularly for the title of the most bicycle-friendly city in Germany.
With the use of natural gas buses in local public transport, the Erlanger Stadtwerke have also made a contribution to reducing CO 2 emissions and fine dust.
Nature and landscape protection
There are two nature reserves which, according to Article 7 of the Bavarian Nature Conservation Act, offer the highest level of protection for plants and animals. These are:
- The Brucker Lache wetland biotope, designated as a nature reserve in 1964 , was expanded in 1984 from originally 76 ha to 110 ha. South of the nature reserve, in the immediate vicinity, is the Tennenlohe Forest Experience Center, one of nine forest experience centers of the Bavarian Forest Administration .
- The Exerzierplatz nature reserve established in October 2000 , a 25 hectare sand biotope that is also part of the Franconian sand axis .
In the immediate vicinity of the city is also the middle Franconian nature reserve, the Tennenloher Forest, with 934 hectares . The area, which has been used as a shooting range and practice area since the end of the 19th century until the 1990s, is one of the last large-scale sand ecosystems in southern Germany. In 2003 a 50-hectare open-air enclosure was set up here for a herd of wild horses ( Przewalski horses ).
Other nature reserves under discussion are:
- The Dechsendorfer Lohe, a 56 hectare area in the Seebachgrund, whose extensive wet meadows and dry forests are worth protecting
- A 47-hectare area in the northern Regnitz valley near the West hydropower plant, which has all levels from dry sand grass to wet meadows.
In addition to the nature reserves, there are 21 landscape protection areas in Erlangen with a total area of 3538 ha, i.e. almost half of the entire urban area. In contrast to the nature reserve, the focus here is on protecting the special landscape and its recreational value as well as maintaining an efficient natural balance. This includes:
- The Holzweg in Büchenbach, a traditional connecting route between Büchenbach and the Mönau forest area , which the Büchenbach residents used to get wood for centuries. As a result, a ravine has formed, the edges of which are overgrown with species-rich grassland vegetation.
- The sandy lawn on the so-called “Riviera”, a footpath along the Schwabach. This area was declared a landscape protection area in early 2000.
- The Hutgraben Winkelfeldern and Wolfsmantel (186 ha), a watercourse that rises in a hollow west of Kalchreuth and flows into the Regnitz west of Eltersdorf . This area was declared a landscape protection area in 1983.
- The Bimbachtal, located southwest of Büchenbach, which was declared a landscape protection area in 1983.
- The 56 hectare Grünau area
- The area around the Great Bischofsweiher (Dechsendorfer Weiher) (169 ha)
- The Mönau (570 ha)
- The Dechsendorfer Lohe (70 ha)
- The Seebachgrund (112 ha)
- The Moorbachtal (50 ha)
- The Regnitz Valley (883 ha)
- The Meilwald with ice pit (224 ha)
- The Schwabach Valley (66 ha)
- The Steinforstgraben with Kosbacher Weiher and permanent forest strips east of the Main-Danube Canal (157 ha)
- The Rittersbach (66 ha)
- The protective strip on both sides of the BAB 3 (47 ha)
- The monastery forest (197 ha)
- The Aurach Valley (182 ha)
- Römerreuth and the surrounding area (110 ha)
- The Bachgraben (9 ha)
- The Brucker Lache (331 ha)
The Regnitzwiesen , which are kept free from development, ensure that the floods, which often occur in autumn and late winter, can run off safely. Due to the extensive Regnitz meadows, a large white stork population could form. The eyries in Bruck, Eltersdorf and Frauenaurach are regularly occupied. For several years now, a pair of storks has been breeding on the fireplace of the Steinbach brewery in the immediate vicinity of the city center.
In the Aurachwiesen near the Bruck district, a historic water paddle was put back into operation in 2004 . About 10 more water pumping wheels are located north of Erlangen near Möhrendorf . These bicycles, almost unchanged since the 15th century and made entirely of wood, used to be found in very large numbers along the entire course of the Regnitz between Fürth and Forchheim. The massive wooden structures, reminiscent of mill wheels, are nowadays set up by volunteers at the beginning of the summer season and dismantled and stored at the end of the season. Some of them are used today to irrigate wetlands, which serve to maintain the food base for the native storks.
see also the list of architectural monuments in Erlangen
- The current city center, the former Neustadt Erlangen, is worth seeing as an ensemble. It was built as a baroque planned and ideal city and today, with its dead straight street and square fronts and the uniform facades of the almost entirely two and three-story eaves-free houses, it is one of the most important and best-preserved structures of this type in Germany.
- The castle complex with the margrave castle , the castle and market square and the castle garden , in which u. a. the orangery , the former Konkordienkirche (today the Geological Institute), the Huguenot fountain and the equestrian statue of Margrave Christian Ernst are located.
- The Markgrafentheater , the oldest baroque theater in southern Germany.
- The Palais Stutterheim , which today houses the city library and the city gallery.
- The Egloffsteinsche Palais , which was built in 1718 on the outskirts of the city for Carl Maximilian Freiherr von Eggloffstein. Particularly noteworthy is the former ballroom with a magnificent stucco ceiling , which is attributed to Domenico Cadenazzi . In 1749 the building was acquired by the city after temporarily belonging to the university. Since then, the building has been used in various ways, including as an institute for the poor , a tobacco factory and for various schools. Since the renovation in 1998 it has been used exclusively by the adult education center. The apartment of the poet and professor of oriental studies Friedrich Rückert was also located in this building .
- The former water tower (Apfelstraße 12) was built in 1705 as the first tower in Neustadt. It was originally six storeys high and served to supply the botanical garden, the fountain and the water features in the orangery . Since 1818 it has been owned by the university, which used the water tower to supply water to its institutes located in the palace gardens. Three floors were demolished in 1876 due to disrepair. Two rooms were used as the university's dungeon between 1839 and 1897 . One of these rooms is still preserved today in its original state.
- The old town hall on Martin-Luther-Platz. The building was erected in the middle of the eastern front of Martin-Luther-Platz from 1733/1734 to 1740 after the town hall was destroyed in the old town fire in 1706. After the city hall functions were merged in the Neustadt in 1812, the building served different purposes. The building has been used for the city museum since 1964. It was renovated in 1988.
- The inconspicuous little Burgbergkapelle is the oldest building in the city. It probably dates from the 15th century, but surprisingly is not mentioned either in the history of the city of Erlangen or in the history of the church before 1709. It was a hermitage and probably had the job of looking after the sick outside the city walls. Near today is still the now rebuilt hospice .
- The Platenhäuschen on Burgberg , in which August Graf von Platen completed the comedy Der Schatz des Rhampsinit in the summer of 1824 .
- The former beer cellar in Burgberg
- The remains of the old city wall including the memorial plaques for the Nuremberg Gate, which was damaged by an American tank when driving through it in 1945 and which then had to be blown up.
- The Loewenichsche Palais, which was built in the baroque style by Joachim Christoph Heer in the middle of the 18th century and served as a residential building and tobacco factory for the Loewenich family from 1817. Family owned until 1941, it was then used by the post office and is now an art museum.
- The old university library , built in Art Nouveau style between 1910 and 1913 , which housed the house library of Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg-Bayreuth . Among them are u. a. numerous valuable manuscripts, the margravial collection and a coin collection.
- The St. Johann 6 residential complex , popularly known as Langer Johann . The high-rise complex, which opened in 1972, has almost 24,000 m² of usable space and is the largest residential building in Bavaria.
- The Evangelical Reformed Huguenot Church on Huguenot Square, the oldest Huguenot church outside of France
- The Old Town Parish Church (Dreifaltigkeitskirche)
- The Neustädter Parish Church (University Church )
- The Neustädter Friedhofskirche
- The Martinskirche (Martinsbühler Church)
- The Markuskirche in the city east
- The Matthäuskirche at Ohmplatz ("Oratorienkirche")
- The St. Michael Chapel in the Steudach district
- The New Apostolic Church in Schuhstrasse
- The Russian Orthodox Church
- The Martin Luther Church in Erlangen / Büchenbach
- The Johanniskirche in Alt-Erlangen
- The Catholic Church of St. Heinrich in Alterlangen
- The Catholic Sacred Heart Church
- The Catholic Parish Church of St. Boniface
- The Catholic parish church of St. Sebald
- The Catholic Church of Our Lady in Dechsendorf
- The Evangelical Christ Church in Dechsendorf
- The canal monument ( Ludwig-Danube-Main Canal )
- The margrave monument on Schlossplatz. The larger than life bronze statue designed by Ludwig von Schwanthaler and cast by Johann Baptist Stiglmaier , which the Bavarian King Ludwig I donated to the university in 1843 on its centenary, is the first in Germany to be expressly dedicated to a university founder.
- The equestrian monument in the castle garden
There are a number of fountains in the city and its districts:
- The Paulibrunnen on the market square
- The Mühlsteinbrunnen, Elise-Spaeth-Str. 7 (inner courtyard of the Werner von Siemens secondary school).
- The Huguenot Fountain in the palace gardens
- The dolphin fountain in the palace garden
- The Rückert fountain in the palace gardens
- The Ruckerbrunnen, a slender metal sculpture by the sculptor Hans Rucker on the town hall market, which reminds of the crossing of the 100,000-inhabitant limit of Erlangen.
- The ring fountain, corner of Brahmsstrasse. / Werner-von-Siemens-Str., Executed by Bernhard Rein.
- Ohm fountain on Ohmplatz.
- Source stone in the labyrinth on Bohlenplatz, executed by Bernhard Rein for the city anniversary in 2002.
- Meilwaldbrunnen, corner of Schleifmühlstr. / Ebrardstrasse - A tree trunk hollowed out as a trough, with the branded inscription erected after 1965; the rotten trough was removed in summer 2007.
- Brunnenbuberl on Maximiliansplatz.
- Castle garden
- Botanical Garden
- The aroma garden Erlangen was laid out from 1979 to 1980 on over 9000 m² at the palm complex in the Schwabachauen on the initiative of the biologist and pharmacist Karl Knobloch. The area was previously used as a vegetable garden for the Erlangen District Hospital. The aroma garden is home to over 1000 native and exotic aroma plants, which are used because of their essential oils as suppliers of medicines and spices or for cosmetics.
- Burgberggarten with sculptures by Heinrich Kirchner
- Martin-Luther-Platz (oldest square in Erlangen), redesigned and built after the old town fire in 1706
- Huguenot Square (called "Hugo", city center and junction of city center streets and city bus routes)
- Castle and market square that form the center of the city
- Neustädter Kirchenplatz
- Lorlebergplatz (formerly Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz)
- Old town church square
- Theater square
- New market
- The Ohmplatz in the south of the city
- Customs House Square
- Maximiliansplatz in the old town
- The Evangelical-Lutheran old town cemetery has been located at its current location on Martinsbühl near St. Martin's Church since the beginning of the 18th century .
- The Reformed Cemetery in Äußere Brucker Straße has been in its current location since 1828. The southern side of the grave served the French Reformed community, the northern side of the German Reformed community.
- The Neustädter Friedhof (Äußere Brucker Str. 24/26) was laid out as "Teutsch Gottesacker" in 1721 in front of the city gates. The university crypt has been located here since 1775. In this cemetery there are many older graves of well-known Erlangen families and professors, e. B. the grave of the children Friedrich Rückert , Ernst and Luise.
- The Israelitische Friedhof (Rudelsweiherstrasse 85) has been the cemetery of the Erlangen Jewish community since 1891
- The Zentralfriedhof (municipal cemetery) on Äußere Brucker Straße was opened in 1895.
- The Westfriedhof is located south of the Steudach district.
Nationwide fame in 1982 achieved the song " Wissenswertes über Erlangen " by Foyer des Arts . In Max Goldt's lyrics there are no direct references to the real conditions in Erlangen (with the exception that Erlangen is actually not in the Sauerland ). Rather, the name "Erlangen" should serve as a placeholder for any German city. The headline is often used by journalists as a headline for articles that have anything to do with Erlangen.
The Erlangen baby : An incident at the University Hospital in 1992 brought Erlangen into the national headlines. After the traffic accident of a 19-year-old pregnant woman, she was artificially kept alive despite her brain death in order to save the fetus. The measure was unsuccessful and the fetus died a few days later in a spontaneous abortion. Because of the widespread public debate about the case, the Society for German Language chose the term Erlanger Baby as one of the words of the year 1992.
What is also striking about Erlangen is the high number of student connections . There are 18 beating and non-beating, political and non-political associations of male students.
The Erlangen-based writer Tobias Bachmann , in his science fiction story "The Downfall of the City of Erlangen" , published in 2006, made a satirical and fantastic account of his hometown: His first-person narrator observes how giant bird-like animals choose the Huguenot city as a nesting city and Erlangen in Lay rubble and ashes. Cynicism does not remain hidden here: “The chimney of the public utility company was kinked, various high-rise buildings collapsed. After all, I thought, the birds seem to have an excessive appetite for the architectural ugliness of this city. ”Even if everything will be fine at the end of the story, the conclusion that opens the story remains:“ The future had brought nothing to Franconia either. "
On the transport from the SS prison Gdansk to Dachau concentration camp died on February 24, 1945 when acquiring the South Tyrolean Josef Mayr-Nusser , a Catholic pacifist who in 1944 forced the Waffen-SS was drafted and for refusal to perform military oath of military morale was charged and convicted . The specialist academy for social education in Hammerbacherstraße 11 honored him with its name.
A memorial commemorates him at the point where Wehrmacht soldier Werner Lorleberg , who surrendered the city without a fight, was murdered.
A state horticultural show was planned in Erlangen in 2024 on the Wöhrmühlinsel and the large car park area. In a referendum, the population voted against the state horticultural show.
- Erlanger beer
A passage from Karl May's novel “Through the Land of the Skipetars ” is often quoted : An oriental, whom the hero Kara Ben Nemsi encounters in Germany, is first of all the city of “Elanka” (Erlangen), which supposedly even has babies Beer would be fed. In fact, Erlangen - which once housed almost 30 breweries and, very early on, was connected to the German railroad network and diligently exported beer and brewing materials - enjoyed an international reputation as the city of barley juice in the 19th century. American and Swedish beers, which are sold under the name "Erlanger", still bear witness to this today.
In old Erlangen, every citizen of the old town had the right to brew their own beer even when the city was founded. The so-called “Gemeinbräuhaus” was located in the old town and could be used by every citizen. This brewery was in operation with interruptions until 1813.
Of the 30 breweries there are still two left today:
Only the two reopened breweries Steinbach and Weller are left. The reason for this was (in addition to the global economic crisis of the 20s) u. a. that the Erlangen brewers slept through the productivity-increasing innovation push with modern cooling technology. When electrical cooling was already being used in Munich, they relied on the tried and tested cellar vaults of their castle hill.
The only large brewery in Erlangen for many decades, Kitzmann , unexpectedly announced its liquidation in September 2018 and sold its name under license to the Kulmbacher Aktienbrauerei. Kitzmann beer will continue to be brewed in Kulmbach. The Kitzmann brewery in Erlangen's old town was sold to a property developer who wants to build apartments on the company premises.
- → Main article: List of personalities from the city of Erlangen
Well-known personalities born in Erlangen include the moderators Katrin Müller-Hohenstein and Barbara Hahlweg , the soccer player Lothar Matthäus , the Siemens CEO Heinrich von Pierer , the mathematician Emmy Noether , the physicist Georg Simon Ohm , the historian Karl Hegel and the cabaret artist Klaus Karl-Kraus .
- → Main article: List of honorary citizens of Erlangen
- 1000 years of Erlangen 1002–2002. Special supplement to the Erlanger Nachrichten from January 2002.
- Bavarian city book. Volume V 1: Sub-volume Lower, Middle and Upper Franconia. from German city book. Urban History Handbook. On behalf of the working group of historical commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the Association of German Cities and the Association of German Municipalities, ed. by Erich Keyser. Stuttgart 1971.
- Johann Kaspar Bundschuh : Erlangen . In: Geographical Statistical-Topographical Lexicon of Franconia . tape 2 : El-H . Verlag der Stettinische Buchhandlung, Ulm 1800, DNB 790364298 , OCLC 833753081 , Sp. 63-71 ( digitized version ).
- Johann Georg Veit Engelhardt: Erlangen in the back pocket. A faithful guide through town and university. 2nd edition. Theodor Blaesing, Erlangen 1845. (Reprint: Palm and Enke, Erlangen 1978, ISBN 3-7896-0051-2 )
- Christoph Friederich, Bertold Freiherr von Haller, Andreas Jakob (Hrsg.): Erlanger Stadtlexikon . W. Tümmels Verlag, Nuremberg 2002, ISBN 3-921590-89-2 ( online ).
- Georg Paul Hönn : Erlangen . In: Lexicon Topographicum of the Franconian Craises . Johann Georg Lochner, Frankfurt and Leipzig 1747, p. 244-246 ( digitized version ).
- Andreas Jakob: The new town of Erlangen. Planning and creation. Erlangen modules for Franconian homeland research 33 / special volume, Erlangen 1986, ISSN 0421-3769 .
- Andreas Jakob: The development of the old town of Erlangen. From “villa Erlangon” to the city of the Bohemian kings. Palm & Enke, Erlangen 1990, ISBN 3-7896-0094-6 . (Reprint from the yearbook for Fränkische Landesforschung, Volume 50/1990)
- Andreas Jakob: "The place rose from its ashes much nicer". The fire in the old town of Erlangen on August 14, 1706 and its reconstruction as a modern planned town by 1712. In: Erlanger building blocks for Franconian homeland research 51/2006. Nuremberg 2006, ISSN 0421-3769 , pp. 9-47.
- Andreas Jakob: Under the shadow of the Heerstrasse. Erlangen's war and military history from the War of the Spanish Succession to the Congress of Vienna. In: Erlanger building blocks for Franconian local research 52. Nuremberg 2008, ISSN 0421-3769 , pp. 71–126.
- Andreas Jakob: An idea from Versailles in Franconia. Power and art politics during the rise of Erlangen to the second residence and sixth state capital of the Margraviate Brandenburg-Bayreuth. In: Axel Gotthard, Andreas Jakob, Thomas Nicklas (eds.): Studies on the political culture of Old Europe. Festschrift for Helmut Neuhaus on his 65th birthday. Duncker & Humblot , Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-428-12576-0 , pp. 421-460.
- Andreas Jakob: On the night that the Jews' campaign took place. The pogrom of 9/10 November 1938 in Erlangen and its legal processing after 1945. In: Publications of the City Archives Erlangen, No. 9/1. Nuremberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-930035-15-1 .
- Andreas Jakob: Erlangen in the 18th century. The Bavarian millennium. Volk Verlag , Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-86222-071-7 .
- Ralf Nestmeyer : Nuremberg, Fürth, Erlangen. A travel guide. Michael Müller Verlag , Erlangen 2012, ISBN 978-3-89953-710-9 .
- Jürgen Sandweg (Ed.): Erlangen. From the stocking town to the Siemens town. Palm & Enke, Erlangen 1982, ISBN 3-7896-0055-5 .
- Jürgen Sandweg, Gertraud Lehmann (Ed.): Behind undestroyed facades. Erlangen 1945–1955. Palm & Enke; Junge & Sohn, Erlangen 1996, ISBN 3-7896-0555-7 .
- Martin Schieber: Erlangen. An illustrated history of the city. Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-48913-3 .
- Rolf Steidel: Erlangen. Story in stories. Erlangen, Rudolf Merkel 1995, ISBN 3-87539-041-5 .
- Ferdinand Lammers: History of the city of Erlangen from the origins under the Franconian kings to the cession to the crown of Bavaria according to documents and official sources . Erlangen 1834 ( e-copy ).
- Pleikard Joseph Stumpf : Erlangen . In: Bavaria: a geographical-statistical-historical handbook of the kingdom; for the Bavarian people . Second part. Munich 1853, p. 671-673 ( digitized version ).
- Georg Tessin : German associations and troops 1918–1935. Biblio-Verlag, Osnabrück 1974.
- Alfred Wendehorst (Ed.): Erlangen. History of the city in presentation and image documents. CH Beck , Munich 1984, ISBN 3-406-09412-0 .
- Johannes Wilkes: Instructions for use for Erlangen. Mönau-Verlag Erlangen 2010, ISBN 978-3-936657-33-3 .
- 1000 years of Erlangen. A city portrait. Documentary, Germany, 2002, 43 min., Script and direction: Alex Mölkner and Martin Rabus, production: Bayerischer Rundfunk , Studio Franken .
- 18th century - Erlangen. Documentary and scenic documentation, Germany, 2012, 43:40 min., Book: Christian Lappe, director: Christian Stiefenhofer, Lisa Reisch, moderation: Udo Wachtveitl , production: Bayerischer Rundfunk , series: Das Bayerische Millennium , first broadcast: April 10, 2012 on Bavarian television .
- Official website
- Tourist information and city marketing
- Entry on the coat of arms of Erlangen in the database of the House of Bavarian History
- Link catalog on the subject of Erlangen at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Erlanger City Lexicon
- Literature on the keyword Erlangen in the catalog of the German National Library
- Erlangen: Official statistics of the LfStat
- ↑ "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- ↑ Portrait of the Lord Mayor. City administration Erlangen, accessed on June 26, 2020 .
- ↑ Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing, on www.erlangen.de ( Memento of the original from May 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed August 9, 2011.
- ↑ a b Christine Bockisch-Bräuer, Martin Nadler, Wolfgang Weißmüller , Christian Züchner, Thomas Engelhardt: Prehistory in the Erlanger area. Booklet accompanying the permanent exhibition, published by the Erlangen City Museum, 2002.
- ↑ Martin Nadler: Late Neolithic steles and petroglyphs? To a re-evaluation of the so-called character stone graves in the central Regnitz valley. In: Hans-Jürgen Beier, Ralph Einicke, Eric Biermann (eds.): Varia Neolithica VII: Adze, ax, hatchet & Co - tool, weapon, cult object? - News from neolith research. Contributions from the conference of the tools and weapons working group in the Hitzacker Archaeological Center 2010. Langenweißbach 2011, pp. 171–182.
- ^ Christian Züchner: The Erlanger drawing stones. A special grave form from the late Bronze Age. In: Prehistory in the Erlangen area. Booklet accompanying the permanent exhibition, published by the Erlangen City Museum, pp. 70–71.
- ^ Rudolf Herold: Contributions to the prehistory of Erlangen and its surroundings: I. Finds and excavations before August 1913; II. The excavation near Kosbach in August 1913. The Kosbach Altar. Meeting reports of the Physico-Medical Society in Erlangen, Volume 45, 1913, pp. 55–92.
- ↑ Martin Nadler, Brigitte Kaulich: A burial mound in the Mönau forest near Erlangen-Kosbach. In: Konrad Spindler (Ed.): Prehistory between the Main and the Danube. New archaeological research and finds from Franconia and Old Bavaria. Erlanger Research Series A, Volume 26, 1980, pp. 173-205.
- ↑ Finds from the Kosbach Altar ( Memento of the original from January 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Detailed documentation on the Kosbach site ( memento of the original from June 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Andreas Jakob: The development of the old town Erlangen. In: Yearbook for Franconian State Research. Volume 50, Neustadt ad Aisch 1990, ISBN 3-7686-9108-1 , p. 37 ff.
- ^ MGH, DO II., 132 . Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- ↑ MGH, DH II., 3 . Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- ↑ See the whole: Andreas Jakob: The development of the old town Erlangen. In: Yearbook for Franconian State Research. Volume 50, Neustadt ad Aisch 1990
- ↑ MGH, DH II., 372 . Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- ^ MGH, DH IV., 109 . Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- ^ MGH, DH IV., 110 . Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- ↑ Ferdinand Lammers, History of the City of Erlangen , Erlangen 1834 (reprint 1997), p. 17.
- ↑ Andreas Jakob: The development of the old town Erlangen. In: Yearbook for Franconian State Research. Volume 50, Neustadt ad Aisch 1990, footnote 34, p. 55.
- ↑ Andreas Jakob: The development of the old town Erlangen. In: Yearbook for Franconian State Research. Volume 50, Neustadt ad Aisch 1990, p. 56.
- ↑ Johannes Bischoff: The settlement in the first centuries. in Alfred Wendehorst: Erlangen history of the city in representation and picture documents. Munich, 1984, ISBN 3-406-09412-0 , p. 20.
- ↑ a b Johannes Bischoff: The settlement in the first centuries. in Alfred Wendehorst: Erlangen history of the city in representation and picture documents. Munich, 1984, p. 23.
- ↑ reproduced in Ferdinand Lammers, Geschichte der Stadt Erlangen , Erlangen 1834 (reprint 1997), p. 183.
- ↑ Andreas Jakob: The development of the old town Erlangen. In: Yearbook for Franconian State Research. Volume 50, Neustadt ad Aisch 1990, p. 95.
- ↑ The salutation burger was the proof for the older local research that Erlangen was granted city rights as early as 1367. That is why Erlangen celebrated its 600th anniversary in 1967 - 31 years early.
- ↑ Andreas Jakob: The development of the old town Erlangen. In: Yearbook for Franconian State Research. Volume 50, Neustadt ad Aisch 1990, pp. 95f.
- ↑ Ferdinand Lammers, History of the City of Erlangen , Erlangen 1834 (reprint 1997), pp. 27 and 189ff
- ↑ Rudolf Endres in Alfred Wendehorst (Ed.): Erlangen. History of the city in presentation and image documents. CH Beck, Munich 1984, p. 31.
- ↑ Andreas Jakob: The development of the old town Erlangen. In: Yearbook for Franconian State Research. Volume 50, Neustadt ad Aisch 1990, p. 101.
- ↑ Alfred Wendehorst (Ed.): Erlangen. History of the city in presentation and image documents. CH Beck, Munich 1984, p. 33.
- ↑ Alfred Wendehorst (Ed.): Erlangen. History of the city in presentation and image documents. CH Beck, Munich 1984, p. 40.
- ^ A b Alfred Wendehorst (Ed.): Erlangen. History of the city in presentation and image documents. CH Beck, Munich 1984, p. 41.
- ^ Ernst G. Deuerlein: A contribution to the history of the family from Erlangen. in Erlanger modules for Franconian regional research (hereinafter: EB), 1967, p. 165.
- ↑ Bernd Nürmberger: Erlangen around 1530. EB, 2003, p. 288.
- ↑ Bernd Nürmberger: Erlangen around 1530. EB, 2003, p. 199.
- ↑ Bischoff: Erlangen's residents 1616 and 1619. EB, 1961, p. 49.
- ↑ August Gebessler, City and District of Erlangen , Munich, 1962, p. 79.
- ^ Max Döllner : History of the development of the city of Neustadt an der Aisch up to 1933. Ph. CW Schmidt, Neustadt ad Aisch 1950. (New edition 1978 on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Ph. CW Schmidt Neustadt an der Aisch publishing house 1828–1978. ), P. 307 f. with note 33 (on "Christians-Erlangen").
- ^ Pia Tempel, Klaus Meinetsberger: Measurement of historical cellars in the old town of Erlangen. EB, 1990, pp. 201ff.
- ↑ Wangerin: Erlangen's late medieval defensive wall between the Katzenturm and the old town church. EB, 1991, p. 249ff.
- ↑ Andreas Jakob : “The new town of Erlangen. Planning and development. ”1986.
- ↑ Andreas Jakob : "The place rose from its ashes much more beautifully" ... 2006.
- ↑ Johann Albrecht Grunauer: The complete and enlarged cookbook set up in the newest way. Nuremberg 1733; Reprint, with a foreword by the editor Wolfgang Protzner. Echter, Würzburg 2008.
- ↑ Viviane Deak, Yvonne Grimm, Christiane Köglmaier-Horn, Frank-Michael Schäfer, Wolfgang Protzner: The first coffee houses in Würzburg, Nuremberg and Erlangen. In: Wolfgang Protzner, Christiane Köglmaier-Horn (Ed.): Culina Franconia. (= Contributions to economic and social history. 109). Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-515-09001-8 , pp. 245-264, here: pp. 245 and 257-262.
- ↑ Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries . Gondrom, Bayreuth 1993, ISBN 3-8112-0809-8 , p. 139 .
- ↑ Erlangen City Memory Book, at: denkmalprojekt.org (accessed on March 4, 2020)
- ↑ a b Andreas Jakob : "The night in which the Jewish action took place ..." 2011.
- ↑ Stadtmuseum Erlangen (ed.): Erlangen in National Socialism 1983.
- ^ German Association of Cities: Statistical yearbook of German municipalities. P. 384. Braunschweig 1952.
- ↑ Erlanger Stadtlexikon : Art. Federal capital for nature and environmental protection 2002.
- ↑ Süddeutsche Zeitung , May 19, 1993.
- ↑ “Overview of the personnel status at the Royal Bavarian Friedrich-Alexanders-University Erlangen together with the list of students in the winter semester 1869/70. Gain. Printed by the Kunstmann'schen Universitäts-Buchdruckerei ” , p. 26.
- ↑ Key figures and rakings from FAU. In: Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, accessed on February 13, 2020 .
- ^ Universities in Germany. Retrieved February 13, 2020 .
- ^ Büchenbach ( Memento of September 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ A b c Wilhelm Volkert (Ed.): Handbook of the Bavarian offices, municipalities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 601 .
- ↑ Max Döllner (1950), p. 307.
- ↑ www.erlangen.de .
- ^ City of Erlangen, Office for Statistics and Urban Research: Population 1495–1970 and since 1970
- ↑ City of Erlangen Religion , 2011 census
- ↑ City of Erlangen FIGURES - DATA - FACTS , accessed on March 17, 2020
- ↑ City of Erlangen Statistical Yearbook 2017 Table 6.6 . Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- ^ City of Erlangen social structure . Retrieved June 25, 2019.
- ↑ Erlangen's religious affiliation again declined
- ^ Website of the ELIA municipality Erlangen
- ↑ Andreas Jakob: Zu heil und nucz of the souls, in Das Himmelreich to attain. Erlangen 2007.
- ↑ Sylvia Ostertag-Henning in "The Kingdom of Heaven in Erlangen", Erlangen 2007.
- ↑ Brückner: The story of the Heart of Jesus. Erlangen, 1989, Sylvia Ostertag-Henning in “Das Himmelreich zu Erlangen”, Erlangen 2007
- ^ Josef Urban: Deanery Erlangen, cath. In: Christoph Friederich, Bertold Freiherr von Haller, Andreas Jakob (Hrsg.): Erlanger Stadtlexikon . W. Tümmels Verlag, Nuremberg 2002, ISBN 3-921590-89-2 ( complete edition online ).
- ^ Wolfgang Most: Association of individual perpetrators: Wehrsportgruppe Hoffmann . In: haGalil onLine . January 3, 2006, accessed November 11, 2010.
- ↑ Jehovah's Witnesses ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Website of the city of Erlangen, March 23, 2014.
- ↑ Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) , City of Erlangen website, March 23, 2014.
- ↑ Homepage of the City of Erlangen: Local Advisory Councils ( Memento of the original from May 21, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ A colorful mix: The new Erlangen city council. Retrieved May 23, 2020 .
- ↑ see www.pro-g6.de ( Memento of the original from June 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. and www.erlangen-gegen-g6.de ( Memento of the original from March 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Erlangen referendum May 7, 2017
- ^ No to the new district: Erlanger reject West III
- ↑ New Green District Council sworn in. Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen, Central Franconia District Parliamentary Group, July 25, 2014, accessed on November 7, 2014 .
- ^ Entry on the Erlangen coat of arms in the database of the House of Bavarian History , accessed on September 6, 2017 .
- ↑ Andreas Jakob : Stadtsignet . In: Christoph Friederich, Bertold Freiherr von Haller, Andreas Jakob (Hrsg.): Erlanger Stadtlexikon . W. Tümmels Verlag, Nuremberg 2002, ISBN 3-921590-89-2 ( complete edition online ).
- ↑ Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- ↑ State of Bavaria. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 7, 2019 .
- ↑ Handelsblatt of March 26, 2007, p. 8.
- ↑ Zukunftsatlas 2016. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original ; accessed on March 23, 2018 .
- ^ Max Döllner : History of the development of the city of Neustadt an der Aisch up to 1933. Ph. C. W. Schmidt, Neustadt a. d. Aisch 1950, OCLC 42823280 ; New edition to mark the 150th anniversary of the Ph. C. W. Schmidt publishing house, Neustadt an der Aisch 1828–1978. Ibid 1978, ISBN 3-87707-013-2 , p. 288 f.
- ↑ w1.siemens.com ( Memento of the original dated June 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Siemens company archive for medical technology ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Off for the southern bypass - State road 2240 will be redesigned. nordbayern.de, June 21, 2012, accessed on April 21, 2013 .
- ^ Claudia Henzler Nuremberg: From Nuremberg to Berlin in less than three hours . In: sueddeutsche.de . ISSN 0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed April 29, 2017]).
- ↑ Erlangen trading port on a historical map at BayernAtlas Klassik
- ↑ Ship cargo handling at the Erlangen Landing ( Memento from June 20, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Citizens' Initiative Environmentally Compatible Mobility in Schwabachtal e. V .: The city-surrounding railway. For Erlangen • For the region • For us , January 2002, Buckenhof, Bamberg
- ↑ Holger Peter: A vision of the city-surrounding railway conjured up. Erlanger Nachrichten, November 25, 2004.
- ↑ A new StUB report ( memento of the original from January 13, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Erlanger Nachrichten of February 2, 2008.
- ↑ City of Nuremberg / Committee for Transport: Stadtbahn Nürnberg-Erlangen and Stadt-Umland-Bahn Erlangen . Report as of January 31, 2008.
- ↑ City-Umland-Bahn Erlangen ("StUB-T-Netz"), regionally optimized bus network ("RoBus"). (PDF; 6.7 MB) (No longer available online.) June 12, 2012, archived from the original on October 25, 2012 ; Retrieved February 8, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ 60 district councilors are about to vote in principle on urban-surrounding railways - first supporters, now skeptics: District Administrator Irlinger. nordbayern.de, August 19, 2012, accessed on August 19, 2012 .
- ↑ StUB: Tunnel through Erlangen city center? nordbayern.de, March 22, 2013, accessed on March 22, 2013 .
- ↑ A fundamental decision on the future of the urban-suburban railway is imminent. Verkehrsverbund Großraum Nürnberg, March 30, 2012, accessed on June 8, 2012 .
- ↑ Erlangen decides to take the city-suburban railway. (No longer available online.) Bayerischer Rundfunk , September 28, 2012, archived from the original on August 26, 2012 ; Retrieved October 18, 2012 .
- ↑ Homepage of the city of Erlangen: New building of the FIS in Röthelheimpark ( Memento from May 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ see list of corporative sponsoring members of the Max Planck Society ( Memento from January 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ website .
- ^ Website of the Siemens Orchestra Erlangen
- ↑ Welcome to the Erlangen Section
- ^ Section Erlangen
- ↑ Falkenberghaus
- ↑ climbing center
- ^ Website of the Poetry Slam Erlangen
- ↑ www.ctu-ev.de
- ↑ see www.solarbundesliga.de
- ↑ see report in the Erlanger Nachrichten
- ↑ See www.klimaschutzschulenatlas.de
- ↑ See Erlangen.solarstadtplan.de ( Memento of the original from January 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Home. Retrieved August 15, 2019 .
- ^ Parish part of the Christ Church Dechsendorf | Martin Luther Church Erlangen. Retrieved August 15, 2019 .
- ^ Fountain in Erlangen ( Memento from February 27, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ For detailed information on the history of its origins, see with Heinrich Hirschfelder: Erlangen in the Empire 1871–1918. Bamberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7661-4616-8 , pp. 54-57.
- ↑ Memorial sites for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation, volume 1. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 130.
- ↑ 1000 years of Erlangen. A city portrait ( Memento of the original from February 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , ARD , 2002.
- ↑ 18th century - Erlangen , BR , April 10, 2012.
- ^ The Bavarian Millennium: Season 1, Episode 8 - 18th Century: Erlangen , IMDb , October 14, 2013.