|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Lower Franconia|
|Height :||138 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||62.47 km 2|
|Residents:||71,002 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1137 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||63739, 63741, 63743|
|Primaries :||06021, 06028|
|License plate :||FROM|
|Community key :||09 6 61 000|
|City structure:||10 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Jürgen Herzing ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Aschaffenburg in Bavaria|
Aschaffenburg ([ aˈʃafn̩ˌbʊɐk ], , locally : Aschebersch [ ˈaʒəˌbɛːʃ ]) is an independent city in the Bavarian administrative district of Lower Franconia , part of the metropolitan region of Frankfurt / Rhine-Main , largest city in the Bavarian Lower Main region and the second largest city in the administrative district after Würzburg Lower Franconia. The city is the seat of the District Office Aschaffenburg and the Technical University of Aschaffenburg .
Aschaffenburg is located on the northwest corner of the Mainviereck at the confluence of the Aschaff in the Main and on the western edge of the Spessart . The urban area is surrounded on three sides by the district of Aschaffenburg and borders on the district of Miltenberg in the south . The highest point in the area is on the western slope of the Pfaffenberg on the borders of the aforementioned districts . The lowest point is in the underwater of the barrage Obernau.
The mineral aventurine quartz can only be found in a few places in Europe, namely near Aschaffenburg and in Austria near Mariazell in Styria . Otherwise it is found in Europe to a greater extent, especially in the Urals .
City structure and environment
The 2010 small-scale breakdown is decisive for the statistical subdivision into districts. The 2010 small-scale breakdown is used to determine the number of inhabitants (resident population) of the districts and their areal size. On December 31, 2018, Aschaffenburg had 70,527 inhabitants. Aschaffenburg is divided into ten districts, which had the following population figures on that day:
- City center, consisting of the city center / city center and city center / Aschaffenburg-Ost: 26,043 inhabitants, 841 ha
- Dam : 13,681 inhabitants, 731 ha
- Schweinheim : 10,745 inhabitants, 1598 ha
- Nilkheim : 5,386 inhabitants, 802 ha
- Obernau : 4,932 inhabitants, 810 ha
- Unfortunately : 3,428 inhabitants, 317 ha
- Strietwald : 3,261 inhabitants, 755 ha
- Austrian colony : 1,656 inhabitants, 32 ha
- Gailbach : 1,714 inhabitants, 316 ha
- Obernau colony : 968 inhabitants, 45 ha
The following communities border the city of Aschaffenburg (clockwise, starting from the north): Johannesberg , Glattbach , Goldbach , Hösbach , Haibach , Bessenbach , Sulzbach am Main , Niedernberg , Großostheim , Stockstadt am Main , Mainaschaff and Kleinostheim .
It is often mistakenly assumed that the name Aschaffenburg derives from Ascanius . The original name Ascafaburc is made up of the words ascafa , which describes the river Aschaff (see name of the Aschaff ) and the Old High German burch , for castle .
Earlier spellings of the city from various historical maps and documents:
Aschaffenburg was founded by the Alemanni in the 5th century , and the first signs of settlement can be found as early as the Stone Age.
Around 957 Duke Liudolf von Schwaben and his wife Ida founded the collegiate monastery of St. Peter and Alexander. As an ecclesiastical institution, if not yet in the form of a collegiate foundation, the clerical community existed much earlier. In 982, the city and monastery of Aschaffenburg were donated by Duke Otto (with the consent of Emperor Otto II) to the Archbishopric of Mainz (Archbishop Willigis). From the 10th century until the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss in 1803, Aschaffenburg belonged to the Electorate of Mainz and was then the second residence of the Archbishops of Mainz. The territory dominated by the Archbishopric of Mainz was very heavily fragmented throughout the Middle Ages and in the early modern period. The largest contiguous part ("Oberes Erzstift") was around Aschaffenburg in what is now known as the Bavarian Lower Main . Therefore, the city was an important administrative center and frequent residence of the archbishops and electors.
Presumably in 869 there was already a chapel at the place where the collegiate church of St. Peter, later St. Peter and Alexander, stands today. Because here the wedding between King Ludwig III and the Saxon count's daughter Liutgard took place. In 989 the Archbishop of Mainz, Willigis , had the first wooden bridge built over the Main. Around 1122, Archbishop Adalbert I of Saarbrücken fortified the settlement or renewed its fortification. Aschaffenburg received market rights in 1144 and town rights in 1161 . Before 1346, the suburb was walled around the Agatha Church. In the same year, Archbishop Heinrich III confirmed . von Virneburg the privileges of the city.
The Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, Albrecht von Brandenburg , initially resided in Halle (Saale) and was already working there as a patron of visual artists, especially giving Lucas Cranach the Elder extensive commissions. When Albrecht moved his residence here as a result of the Reformation in 1541, he brought many of the art treasures he had donated to the church with him. Several Cranach pictures and a relic calendar, in which one of his relics was collected for every saint of the day , became the property of the collegiate church of St. Peter and Alexander . From his new residence Albrecht also conducted the famous correspondence with Martin Luther on the sale of indulgences .
In 1516, the canons of St. Peter and Alexander commissioned altarpieces from Mathis, the painter who later became famous as Matthias Grünewald .
In 1552 the old Johannisburg was destroyed in the second Markgräflerkrieg . Elector Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg had Johannisburg Castle built in the Renaissance style in its place from 1605 to 1619 while preserving the old keep .
Even under Archbishop and Elector Johann Adam von Bicken after 1596 and during the reign of his successor Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg , there were also witch trials in Aschaffenburg , which led to several hundred executions at the stake. On December 19, 1611, two alleged witches were beheaded and burned: Margarethe Rücker , the landlady of the Goldener Karpfen inn and Elisabeth Strauss, commonly known as the cross-tailor .
From 1631 to 1634 Aschaffenburg was part of the Swedish state in Mainz.
Around 1700 the monastery was registered in the canton of Odenwald in the Franconian knight circle. After the Rhine border was recognized by Austria in the Peace of Campo Formio in 1797, the city of Mainz French and Aschaffenburg became the new seat of government of the Kurmainzischen Erzstiftes. In 1803 the Principality of Aschaffenburg was created for the last elector and chancellor of the old empire, Karl Theodor von Dalberg , and Aschaffenburg became its capital. In 1810 the Principality of Aschaffenburg became part of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt and the city of Aschaffenburg became the administrative seat of a department and a district of the same name. Karl Theodor von Dalberg resided as Grand Duke of Frankfurt until his abdication on October 28, 1813 in favor of the heir to the throne Eugène de Beauharnais, in addition to the Palais Thurn und Taxis in Frankfurt am Main, often also in Johannisburg Palace.
As a result of the Paris Treaty of June 3, 1814, Aschaffenburg came to Bavaria on June 26, 1814, to which it has belonged ever since. From 1835 to 1865 Adalbert von Herrlein was mayor of Aschaffenburg. During his tenure there was a rapid increase in the population. From 1840 to 1848 King Ludwig I of Bavaria had the Pompejanum built. During the German War , fighting took place in Aschaffenburg on July 14, 1866 (see battles near Aschaffenburg ).
In the course of the November Revolution, a workers 'and soldiers' council was formed in Aschaffenburg on November 9, 1918, the day the republic was proclaimed in Germany , although the existing authorities in the city remained in place. After the murder of Bavaria's Prime Minister Kurt Eisner , this workers 'and soldiers' council imposed a state of siege on the city on February 23, 1919 , which was lifted three days later. On February 26, the Aschaffenburg parishes also refused to ring bells in memory of Eisner. On April 7th, the Bavarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed in Aschaffenburg, as in Munich and other Bavarian cities . On April 9, the Jäger battalion stationed in Aschaffenburg turned against the Bavarian Soviet Republic. After an ultimatum from the Würzburg General Command of the Bavarian Army, thanks to negotiations, the era of the Soviet Republic in Aschaffenburg came to an end without bloodshed. On May 26, the leaders of the Soviet Republic, Rudolf Hartig, Jean Stock , Stefan Eser and Peter Pfarrer, were sentenced to imprisonment for between one and a quarter and two years for aiding and abetting high treason.
Jewish families resided in the city for 700 years . The Aschaffenburg Jews buried their deceased, as well as Jews from the near and far, first in Frankfurt and since the beginning of the 18th century in the Jewish cemetery (district cemetery) in the Schweinheim district . There is a memorial stone in memory of seven Jewish citizens who died by suicide before they were threatened with deportation in 1942 .
In 1890 another Jewish cemetery was built adjacent to the old town cemetery . The former school and rabbi residence on Wolfsthalplatz , which the Jewish community built in 1898 on the place of their synagogue built around 1698 and closed in 1887, testifies to Jewish life . The new synagogue built in 1893 was desecrated and destroyed by SA men during the November pogrom in 1938 . In the former rabbinate building, which has been preserved alone, after a use a. a. The City of Aschaffenburg established the “Museum of Jewish History and Culture” as the municipal youth center in 1984. A permanent exhibition also provides information about the persecution and murder in the Shoah .
On the square named after the charitable Jewish banker Wolfsthal, a memorial plaque commemorates the persecution and murder of around 300 Jews from Aschaffenburg. Stumbling blocks are also being laid as memorials in Aschaffenburg . In Aschaffenburg there was a B'nai-B'rith lodge called the Philo-Lodge from 1925 until the ban on Jewish lodges . Your Logenheim, Lamprechtstrasse 21 (today house number 37), became the Andreas-Bauriedl-Haus on November 3, 1935 and became the seat of the NSDAP district leadership.
Second World War
Aschaffenburg was the target of 20 air raids by the Western Allies from 1940 to March 1945 . On November 21, 1944, the Royal Air Force dropped 14 tons of explosive bombs on large parts of Aschaffenburg, especially in the Damm district. About half of the people of Aschaffenburg became homeless and 344 people died.
When the US Army approached in the spring of 1945, Aschaffenburg was declared a " fortress " and should be held under all circumstances. Major Emil Lamberth was appointed fortress commander. When US General Robert T. Frederick noticed that the resistance from fighters there was stronger than elsewhere, he ordered his 157th Infantry Regiment to systematically fire artillery and air strikes on Aschaffenburg and surrounding villages in order to lose as few soldiers as possible in the ensuing house-to-house war .
The US troops reached the Schweinheim district via the undestroyed Nilkheimer railway bridge and after days of fighting in the Holy Week of 1945 advanced into the city center. After the devastation of the aerial warfare, artillery fire when the city was taken was even more severely damaged or destroyed, such as the Johannisburg Castle and the Pompejanum. After a nine-day defense, the city surrendered on April 3, 1945.
In the first years after the war the destroyed churches were restored, from 1954 the castle and from 1984 the Pompejanum - buildings that have become an integral part of the city. Other valuable buildings, such as the Teutonic Order House, were only partially rebuilt. Only the portico of the historic town hall was integrated into the meeting building of the new town hall. Only at the instigation of a citizens' initiative was the half-timbered structure of the House of the White Dove, known as the Lion Pharmacy , uncovered in the 1920s , reconstructed. The Bassenheimer and the Dalberger Hof were lost forever.
After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Aschaffenburg belonged to the American zone of occupation . The US military administration set up a DP camp to accommodate so-called displaced persons (DP) . Most of them were from Ukraine and Poland . The Aschaffenburg barracks from the time of the monarchy and especially the Third Reich were occupied by the US Army during the Cold War .
On July 9, 1958, the Aschaffenburg-Zentrum junction of the A3 motorway was opened to traffic. In the same year, the collegiate church of St. Peter and Alexander received the papal title Basilica minor , thus becoming the collegiate basilica of St. Peter and Alexander . In 1978 Guido Knopp initiated a history discourse , the Aschaffenburg Talks , which took place annually until 2008 .
The following US military bases were closed between 1990 and 1992: Taylor Barracks (former Heeresverpflegungsamt, Goldbacher Straße), Aschaffenburg Army Airfield (military airfield, Mainwiesenweg), Fiori Barracks (former Pioneer Barracks , Christian-Schad-Straße), Graves Barracks (former Bois Brule barracks, Bayreuther Straße), Ready Barracks (former artillery barracks, Josef-Dinges-Straße), Smith Barracks (former Lagarde barracks, Am Funkhaus), Jaeger Kaserne (former Jägerkaserne, built in 1896, Würzburger Straße).
The 2nd Royal Bavarian Jäger Battalion was stationed in the Jägerkaserne until the First World War . In 1995 the Würzburg-Schweinfurt University of Applied Sciences opened a branch here (at this time the Würzburg-Schweinfurt-Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences). Soon afterwards, the Aschaffenburg branch became the independent Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences (today Aschaffenburg Technical University ).
In 2007 the military training area in the Schweinheim and Gailbach districts was returned to the owners.
The following were incorporated into the independent city of Aschaffenburg:
- on March 1, 1901: the community of Leider
- on July 1, 1901: the community of Damm
- on April 1, 1939: the community of Schweinheim
- on April 1, 1975: the community of Gailbach
- on May 1, 1978: the municipality of Obernau
In the Middle Ages and in the early modern age , the population of Aschaffenburg grew only slowly and fell again and again due to the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. The city suffered population losses during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and after an outbreak of the plague in 1635.
Before General Custine took Mainz (1792), Aschaffenburg only had a little over 3,000 inhabitants. At the latest with the occupation of the left bank of the Rhine by France as a result of the Peace of Campo Formio, large parts of the Mainz court finally moved to Aschaffenburg. There were also numerous other emigrants from Mainz and the other areas on the left bank of the Rhine. The population increased to about 6,600 by 1812. With industrialization in the 19th century, population growth continued. Around 1900 about 18,000 people lived in the city.
The effects of the Second World War are clearly visible . After more than 20 Allied air raids between September 1940 and March 1945, most of the city was in ruins. In the worst attack on November 21, 1944 alone, 344 people died. Overall, Aschaffenburg lost a third of its residents (14,518 people) through evacuation, escape and air raids. The population fell from 45,379 in 1939 to 30,861 in December 1945. In 1950 the pre-war level was reached again. On December 30, 2006, the " official population " for Aschaffenburg was 69,863 (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices) according to the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing - a historic high.
Since the last census, the 2011 census, corrected the population in Germany significantly downwards, the population of Aschaffenburg on December 31, 2010 was also updated from 68,678 for May 9, 2011 and reduced to 67,359 according to a certain factor. As early as December 31, 2017, with 69,928 inhabitants, not only the level from before the 2011 census, but also the above-mentioned historical high of December 30, 2006, was significantly exceeded.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. For the years 1792 and 1812 these are real-time estimates, then census results (¹) or official updates from the State Statistical Office. From 1871, the information relates to the “local population”, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the location of the main residence”. Before 1871, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey procedures.
¹ census result
According to the 2011 census , 15.9% of the population were Protestant , 51.3% Roman Catholic and 32.7% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants, and especially Catholics, has decreased since then. At the end of 2019, 13.8% of the 70,500 inhabitants were Protestant, 45.5% Roman Catholic and 40.7% had no denomination or belonged to another religious community.
After Wilhelm Matt , Wilhelm Wohlgemuth , Jean Stock , Vinzenz Schwind and Willi Reiland , Klaus Herzog (SPD) was the sixth Lord Mayor of Aschaffenburg. After Herzog was able to win the elections in 2000, 2006 and 2012, he was no longer allowed to run for the mayoral election in 2020 for reasons of age. Since the required absolute majority was not achieved in this election, the candidates with the two highest numbers of votes, Jürgen Herzing (SPD) and Jessica Euler (CSU), ran against each other in a runoff. From this decision, Jürgen Herzing emerged as the new Lord Mayor with 66.6% of the votes.
|The Aschaffenburg city council consists of 44 members. Since the local elections on March 2, 2008 , it had the following composition:|
|2008-2010 :||CSU||SPD||GREEN||UBV *||FDP||KI **||total|
|Leonie Kapperer, who had moved into the city parliament for the municipal initiative, left it shortly after the election and was a non-party member of the city council until the end of 2010. Since December 2010 she has been a member of the SPD parliamentary group, which has since grown to 15 members.|
|2010-2014 :||CSU||SPD||GREEN||UBV *||FDP||KI **||total|
After the local elections on March 16, 2014 , the following distribution of seats resulted
|2014–2019 :||CSU||SPD||GREEN||UBV *||FDP||KI **||ÖDP||total|
In June 2019 Leonie Kapperer switched from the SPD to the ÖDP, which resulted in the following distribution of seats:
|2019-2020 :||CSU||SPD||GREEN||UBV *||FDP||KI **||ÖDP||total|
* Independent citizen representation ** Local initiative
Mayor and from 1904 mayor
The second mayor and deputy mayor is elected by the city council every six years after the city council election. In 2014 a second mayor (Jessica Euler, CSU) and a third mayor (Jürgen Herzing, SPD) were elected. On May 4, 2020, Jessica Euler was re-elected as second mayor. Eric Leiderer (SPD) was elected third mayor.
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In silver, above golden bebordetem reason a lower side plate edges touching symmetrical, blue thoughtful, red castle with round side towers, each beknauft with a golden spire ball one enthroned on golden seat with laterally projecting animal heads and paws blaugewandeter, in the archway with attached gothic top and -shod silver bishop, his right hand raised in blessing, with his left handholdinga left-facing golden crook , clad with a silver pallium and a blue, gold-striped miter . "|
Justification of the coat of arms: The blessing saint is Saint Martin , patron of the Archdiocese of Mainz, as well as the pallium , which belongs to an archbishop , symbolize the centuries-long membership of Aschaffenburg in the Archbishopric of Mainz .
The town's coat of arms has come down to us in the form of a large wax town seal first documented in 1236. Due to its behavior in the German Peasants' War in the spring of 1525, it was revoked from the city by Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz . After centuries only the "A" with a head bar from the smaller Aschaffenburg town seal could be used, King Ludwig I of Bavaria gave the town back its old coat of arms by resolution of April 1, 1836. The Aschaffenburg city colors are the colors green - red - white.
City partnerships with:
- since 1956: Perth ( Scotland )
- since 1975: St. Germain-en-Laye ( France )
- since 1996: Miskolc ( Hungary )
From June 23 to 25, 2006, the city of Aschaffenburg and Perth celebrated the 50th anniversary of their joint partnership. For the celebration, Provost (“Mayor”) Bob Scott came to the German twin city with a larger delegation from Perth and the surrounding area. The highlight of the festival was the Highland Games held in the Aschaffenburg Fasanerie .
- Since 1958 there has been a sponsorship for the Sudeten Germans expelled from the town and district of Graslitz (Czech: Kraslice )
Dialect and vernacular
In Aschaffenburg and its districts, as in the surrounding towns, different variants of the Lower Main dialects are spoken. One speaks a South Hessian and not, as is often believed, a Lower Franconian dialect . The Aschaffenburg dialect itself also differs from the neighboring sub-mainland language areas, such as Kahlgründer or Großostheimer dialect. A well-known speaker of the Aschaffenburg inner city dialect is the cabaret artist Urban Priol .
The Aschaffenburg dialect poet Karl Reuss writes in the first stanza of his poem in the volume Ascheborjer Posse about his hometown:
- O my dear Ascheborg
- You town of wunnerbor
- Like you lying in the green valley
- Sou schöi, sou sunnekloor!
Culture and sights
Churches and monasteries
Mosques, Cem House
- Ayasofya Camii, Islamic Community Millî Görüş - Ortsverein Aschaffenburg e. V. (IGMG)
- Kocatepe Camii, Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious s. V. (DİTİB)
- Masjid Badr Mosque, Islamic Workers' Association e. V.
- Othmane Mosque, Islamic Cultural Community e. V.
- Süleymaniye Merkez Camii, Education and Culture Association Aschaffenburg e. V. (formerly VIKZ e.V.)
- Yeni Camii, Islamic Cultural Community Aschaffenburg 1981 e. V.
- Cem House, Alevi Congregation Aschaffenburg e. V.
- City theater , built under Grand Duke Karl Theodor von Dalberg in 1811 during the times of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt , venue for “ab: art-theater” and “free ensemble aschaffenburg” among others.
- Colos hall , music club, appearances by stars, especially jazz , rock and blues
- Erthaltheater, venue of “mot - modern theater aschaffenburg e. V. "
- Youth culture center, including events by “AbaKuZ e. V. “- Initiative for an alternative cultural center; Lectures, concerts, readings, etc.
- Cabaret in the Hofgarten , run by Urban Priol in the former orangery.
- Ludwigstheater, venue of the "actor's company"
- "Story Stage Fairytale Theater Aschaffenburg"
- Zimmer Theater, venue of the “Junge Bühne Aschaffenburg e. V. "
- Stadthalle am Schloss , large hall, small hall, conference center, two conference and two seminar rooms
- fan frankenstolz arena (formerly: Unterfrankenhalle): Functional hall for sporting and cultural events.
- Casino, arthouse cinema with an award-winning film program
- Kinopolis Aschaffenburg
- Aschaffenburg State Gallery in Johannisburg Castle (1st floor) is part of the Bavarian State Painting Collection with an important Cranach collection.
- Aschaffenburg Castle Museum with works of art and historical evidence from six centuries is located on the second floor of Johannisburg Castle.
- Christian Schad Museum , dedicated to the artist Christian Schad (the museum is under construction).
- Kunsthalle Jesuitenkirche with changing exhibitions of classical modern and contemporary art.
- Stiftsmuseum der Stadt Aschaffenburg , a museum for prehistory and early history, the art of the Middle Ages , the Renaissance and for the sacred art of the Baroque . It is located in the former chapter house of the monastery, a building that dates back to the foundation of the monastery in the 10th century, and is structurally connected to the collegiate church of St. Peter and Alexander by a Romanesque cloister .
- Natural science museum, this museum owes its importance above all to the extensive collection of insects and a representative presentation of the mineralogy and geology of the Spessart . It is located in the Schönborner Hof , which was built by the Schönborn family as a city palace from 1673 to 1681.
- Museum of Jewish History and Culture. It is located in the former rabbi's house on Wolfsthalplatz. In the permanent exhibition on the history of the former Jewish community in Aschaffenburg, historical documents show the life of the Jewish community in Aschaffenburg from 1267 to the time of persecution under National Socialism.
- The Gentil House was built by the Aschaffenburg industrialist and collector Anton Gentil as a presentation space for his extensive collection in the 1920s.
- New Art Association Aschaffenburg e. V. KunstLANDing, at Landingstrasse 16, with special exhibitions of current art.
- Künstlerhaus Walter Helm
- Kirchnerhaus , birthplace of the painter Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
- Johannisburg Castle ( Renaissance ) with the court library
- Collegiate Church of St. Peter and Alexander with late Romanesque cloister . The church has the status of a papal minor basilica , cultural monuments can be found inside and a. one of the few surviving crucifixes in the Romanesque style and the Lamentation of Christ by Matthias Grünewald .
- Aschaffenburg old town cemetery (with the graves of Clemens Brentano and Wilhelm Heinse )
- historical old town (monument ensemble Oberstadt on the Stifts-, Bad-, Schloss- and Jesuitenberg)
- Bernhard von Trier memorial stone of the grateful city of Aschaffenburg in honor of the legendary Capuchin Father Bernhard von Trier (see above) in the Kleiner Schönbuschallee behind the Willigis Bridge (sculptor: Otto Gentil , 1931).
- Aristocratic courts in Aschaffenburg
- City Hall: Completed in 1958 based on a design by Diez Brandi . On the list of architectural monuments since 1991.
→ see also the list of architectural monuments in Aschaffenburg
- Park Schönbusch with the castle of the same name was laid out under the Archbishop of Mainz and Elector Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal from 1776 in the English garden style and is thus one of the oldest landscape gardens in Germany. It's in the west of the city.
- Kleine Schönbuschallee , dead straight avenue, first laid out in 1766. The path leads from the city center to Schönbusch Park.
- Nilkheimer Park , park of the former Nilkheim estate
- Palace garden , green area that connects Johannisburg Palace with the Pompejanum .
- Schöntal , originally the city moat and the prince-bishop's animal and vegetable garden, 1440–1450, with a magnolia grove .
- Fasanerie , a wooded landscape park in the east of the city, which connects to the Spessart nature park with the facilities on Godelsberg and Büchelberg.
- Aschaffenburg National Natural Heritage Adventure Trail on the site of the former military training area in Aschaffenburg-Schweinheim.
- Old town cemetery
- Forest cemetery and crematorium in the Leider district . The first cremation was on February 26, 1975.
- Cemetery in the Unfortunately district
- Cemetery in the Schweinheim district
- Cemetery in the Gailbach district
- Cemetery in the Damm district
- Nordfriedhof in the Strietwald district
- Village cemetery in the Obernau district
- Forest cemetery in the Obernau district
- Jewish cemetery at the old town cemetery , in the Schweinheim district and in the forest cemetery in the Leider district
- Alpine sports
The Aschaffenburg section of the German Alpine Club founded on December 16, 1896 with (as of December 31, 2018) 8,800 members is the largest association in Aschaffenburg. Operator of the Aschaffenburg bivouac ( bivouac box ), the Aschaffenburger Höhenweg , the DAV climbing center Aschaffenburg and the Waldaschaff climbing pillar .
- ice Hockey
The WSV Aschaffenburg took part in the games of the Hessian Ice Sports Association from 1987 to 1994. During that time he played in the Landesliga Hessen for six years and after promotion one year Hessenliga. In addition to a hobby team and junior teams at the 1. Aschaffenburger Eissportverein eV Source: rodi-db.de, there is currently a hobby team at WSV Aschaffenburg in Aschaffenburg.
The traditional club Viktoria Aschaffenburg , which plays its home games in the municipal stadium on Schönbusch, is well known beyond the region. After many years in the top German league in the fifties, the club played after relegation from the second Bundesliga from 1989, apart from brief interruptions, in the Oberliga Hessen . Since moving to the Bavarian Football Association in the 2012/13 season, Viktoria Aschaffenburg has been playing in the Bavarian Regional League.
The HSG Aschaffenburg 08 consists of the handball departments of the clubs TuS 1863 Damm eV, TV 1885 Schweinheim eV and TV Obernau 1900 eV With more than 350 athletes, it is one of the largest handball clubs in the Spessart / Odenwald district of the Hessian Handball Association (HHV).
The SV Einigkeit Aschaffenburg-Damm is a wrestling and judo sports club from the Aschaffenburg district of Damm. With two team championship titles and four runner-up titles, the team was one of the most successful German teams in wrestling in the early 1960s.
With the “Rowing Club Aschaffenburg”, a member club of the DRV is located here, which covers a wide range of high-performance, school and recreational sports and is one of the most efficient clubs in the city and in the association.
- Dance sport
With over 850 members, the Schwarz-Gold Aschaffenburg dance sport club, founded in 1962, is one of the largest German dance sport clubs .
- outdoor pool
- Indoor swimming pool
- Ice rink
- Skater track
- Wrestler performance center
- Stadium am Schönbusch
- fan frankenstolz arena
Trade fairs, festivals, regular events
Aschaffenburg has the highest density of restaurants and bars in Bavaria - there is one restaurant for around 400 inhabitants.
The Aschaffenburg Talks took place every year until 2008 . Other regular events are the traditional one-week “Aschaffenburg Volksfest” in June with subsequent fireworks and castle lighting, the Aschaffenburg Culture Days in July, the KOMMZ youth music festival, the “Aschaffenburg City Festival” on the last weekend in August and the forklift cup that has been taking place since 2005 , a world championship for forklift drivers.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2002, Aschaffenburg (as part of the Bavarian Lower Main region ) was voted 6th among the best business locations by 20,000 German companies at the German Chamber of Commerce and Industry (DIHK) . "Proximity to customers", "transport infrastructure", "educational institutions" and "university cooperations" were given as location strengths in the region.
In 2016, Aschaffenburg achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 5.132 billion within the city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 74,152 (Bavaria: € 44,215 / Germany € 38,180) and thus well above the regional and national average. In 2017 there were around 61,000 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 4.8% and thus above the Bavarian average of 2.7%.
In the Future Atlas 2019 , the urban district of Aschaffenburg was ranked 42nd out of 401 rural districts, municipal associations and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future prospects".
The Aschaffenburg area was one of the traditional centers of the German textile industry . At the beginning of the 20th century, around 35,000 people in the region were employed in this branch. The poor population in the Spessart earned an urgently needed extra income by working from home as a supplier for the factories. As a result of globalization and the relocation of wage-intensive industries to low-wage countries, many manufacturing jobs have been cut in the region, but the companies are largely still on site and attract nationwide customers through their factory outlets .
Wood and paper
Due to the abundance of wood in the Spessart, Aschaffenburg was traditionally also the center of the paper industry . The two plants of the former Waldhof-Aschaffenburg (PWA) paper mills now belong to the South African “ Sappi Group ” and the British “ DS Smith Paper ”. However, the Sappi company is not located directly in Aschaffenburg, but in the neighboring Stockstadt am Main market . Packaging and sanitary papers are produced in the factories.
At the beginning of 2007, the company Pollmeier Massivholz put a new sawmill into operation on the Aschaffenburg harbor site ( Bayernhafen ) , in which 180 new jobs were created. The total investment was around 150 million euros. This was the largest industrial new building in the city since 1954. The city expects this to stimulate forestry and forest ownership as well as the creation of additional jobs at supplier companies.
Metal and electrical
Two large factories in the automotive supplier industry are located in the city of Aschaffenburg and are integrated into global corporations. There are also other suppliers in the city and in the region. The headquarters of Linde Material Handling GmbH , a 100 percent subsidiary of the KION Group , Frankfurt am Main, which is the world's second largest manufacturer of forklifts and other industrial trucks, is located in Aschaffenburg . Other suppliers and service providers from the vehicle industry are located in the vicinity of Aschaffenburg. The Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences is also involved in the vehicle industry.
Well-known companies based in Aschaffenburg and the surrounding area include: DPD , Linde Material Handling , Linde Hydraulics , Kaup, ZF TRW , Joyson Safety Systems, Adler-Moden, SAF-Holland , SCA , PSI , E-on Netz and Modler.
There are a total of 834 hospital beds in the urban area of Aschaffenburg, which are spread over four hospitals (Aschaffenburg Clinic “Am Hasenkopf”, Hofgarten Clinic, Women's Clinic at Ziegelberg). There are 133 specialists and 26 general practitioners, as well as 68 dentists and 38 pharmacies.
There are seven old people's and nursing homes in the city for the elderly, with space for 720 residents. There are also 244 senior-friendly apartments in 14 residential complexes and around 162 options for assisted living in three different facilities.
The Social Network Aschaffenburg initiative provides information about advisory institutions, authorities, organizations, associations and church institutions with regard to social issues.
Over 620 shops in Aschaffenburg currently invite you to shop on over 230,000 m². That equates to 2.92 m² of retail space per head. The pedestrian zones (e.g. Herstallstrasse, Sandgasse, Steingasse, Roßmarkt, Frohsinnstrasse) alone offer almost 50,000 m² of retail space. The City-Galerie is also located here , which is also the largest inner-city shopping center in Northern Bavaria with over 50,000 m². With a purchasing power index of 107.4, citizens of Aschaffenburg are well above the national average (100). This corresponds to purchasing power of € 23,687 per inhabitant.
All of these shops not only supply the more than 70,000 residents of Aschaffenburg, but also a further 400,000 from the southeastern Rhine-Main area , a further 175,000 residents from the Aschaffenburg district , 131,000 from the Miltenberg district and 132,000 from the Main-Spessart district . That adds up to around 733,000 potential customers.
Since the 1990s, the former US Army facilities on Würzburger Strasse in the southwest of the city on the outskirts of the Schweinheim district ( Staatsstrasse 2312 , arterial road into the Spessart, towards Würzburg) have been converted into residential areas and a "service axis". The former Graves barracks houses a collection point for waste, a home for asylum seekers and various small businesses. An originally planned technology center did not materialize. Largest single settlement was on 27 December 2005, the opening of the construction market of the company Bauhaus with 120 new jobs near the former Ready barracks. The former Jäger barracks is now the seat of the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences .
Aschaffenburg is connected to the rail network by Aschaffenburg main station (regional and long-distance traffic including ICE), the port station (only freight traffic) and the university, Aschaffenburg-Süd and Obernau stops (only regional). The Nilkheim station on the former Bachgaubahn was taken out of service when it was closed in 1974. Efforts have been made since 2008 to build the still existing section of the line that runs from the Aschaffenburg – Miltenberg railway through the Schönbusch park to the Nilkheim II industrial park and belongs to the Bayernhafen Group , as well as the already dismantled line that crossed the ABs 16 district road at the same level by 1974 to reactivate to Großostheim .
There are numerous local and long-distance transport options. According to a framework agreement between the Free State of Bavaria and DB-Station & Service AG, a new rail stop is to be built at the Goldbacher Straße overpass (Goldbacher Viaduct). In mid-2009 the station building of the main station was demolished. On January 29, 2011, the newly constructed station building was handed over to its intended use by Federal Transport Minister Peter Ramsauer . In 2012, Aschaffenburg Central Station was voted “Station of the Year 2012” by the “ Pro Schiene Alliance ”. The expansion of the infrastructure for the long-distance traffic stop in Aschaffenburg is listed in Appendix 1 to Section 1 of the Federal Railways Expansion Act as a new urgent need project.
An Intercity Express is named after the city .
The state port of Aschaffenburg is located on the trans-European waterway Rhine-Main-Danube, belongs to the Bayernhafen group and comprises the largest industrial area on the Bavarian Lower Main . In addition to trimodal container reloading between road, rail and water, the focus is on logistics, supply and recycling. In 2005, the cargo turnover was 2.8 million tons, in 2011 it was 3.3 million tons.
From 1886 to 1938 Aschaffenburg was one of the contact points for chain shipping on the Main .
Aschaffenburg is connected to the A 3 via three junctions (Aschaffenburg-Ost, Aschaffenburg-Zentrum (formerly West) and Aschaffenburg-West (formerly Stockstadt)). The A3 takes you to Frankfurt am Main (around 40 kilometers away) and Würzburg (around 80 kilometers away). A few kilometers west of Aschaffenburg, at the Seligenstädter Dreieck, is the southern end point of the federal motorway 45 Dortmund-Aschaffenburg, the so-called Sauerland line. The B 469 connects the A 45 with the A 3 and on its way to Amorbach reaches close to the city area from the west. From its junction at Großostheim-Nord, the federal highway B 26 runs through the city center and takes up the B 8 . The draft of the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2030 approved by the Federal Cabinet includes the four-lane expansion of the B 26 in Annex 1, project list p. 89 over a length of 3.4 km in the urban area of Aschaffenburg and in the municipality of the Stockstadt am Main market with a total cost of € 22.1 million contain.
According to the planning approval decision of the government of Lower Franconia of November 11, 2019, the B 26 is to be expanded to four lanes over a length of 1.3 km and provided with turning lanes in order to improve the access roads to the Aschaffenburg port.
Urban ring road
As early as 1896 a 13 m wide ring road was planned along the Aschaffenburg – Miltenberg railway line between Schweinheimer and Goldbacher Strasse - today Kurmainzer, Wittelsbacher and Hohenzollernring.
After the incorporation of Damm and Leider in 1901 and later with the increase in motorized traffic, the planning of through and bypass roads began in the mid-1920s: Schillerstrasse, 1902; Main bridge on Schlotfegergrund as a connection between Hanauer Strasse and Darmstädter Strasse, 1925; Schlachthofstrasse, 1932, later Südring, today Südbahnhofstrasse; Bahnweg, 1931 in coordination with the then still independent community of Schweinheim; Liebigstrasse, 1931; today's Spessartstrasse, 1931.
After 1947, a self-contained urban ring road was planned and built along these routes for 70 years. The first major section, which became effective for traffic in the mid-1960s, corresponds to the plans for the ring at the same time as an earlier project by the city of Aschaffenburg for a "bypass road" (see above). This project, which was not carried out, was intended to connect Reichsstraßen (now federal highways) nos. 8 and 26 between the Black Bridge (Wilhelmstraße) and the Goldbach Viaduct. These different, but identical projects in the center of Damm were favored by the consequences of the aerial warfare, namely the complete destruction of the north side of the former Kästergasse. This first section of the ring with good traffic connections connected Glattbacher Straße with Burchardstraße via Schillerstraße. After that, but also in the mid-1960s, the Ebert Bridge was completed. The southern sections of the Ringstrasse, which had been planned for a lower elevation since 1964 and started with the Adenauerbrücke in the 1970s, have in part been in operation for decades and relieve the city center of through traffic.
Another section in the east of the city has been open to traffic since June 28, 2013. This enabled the U 48 and U 77 freeway diversions to be relocated from Schillerstrasse to the urban ring road.
In 2011, construction began on the northern section of the ring along the Frankfurt – Nuremberg railway line. As with the southern section along the Aschaffenburg – Miltenberg railway line, this was made possible by the decommissioning of track systems. The first sections of the north ring were opened to traffic in May and December 2012. In February 2014, an underpass was pushed under the tracks to connect the Nordring with the existing Westring in the Hanauer Straße area. The Nordring, which opened on July 10, 2017, relieves the pressure on Schillerstraße, which ran through residential areas and which until then had served as a ring road. The diversions between the motorway junctions Aschaffenburg Ost and Aschaffenburg West, namely the U77 and U48 as well as the Bundesstraße 26, however, continue to run via the southern and eastern Ringstraße or the Hanauer Straße - Friedrich- and Weißenburger Straße - Goldbacherstraße.
Five bridges cross the Main in Aschaffenburg. These are (following the direction of flow of the river, from south to north): the pedestrian walkway of the Obernau barrage , the Nilkheimer Mainbrücke railway bridge , and the Konrad-Adenauer-Brücke , Willigisbrücke and Friedrich-Ebert-Brücke road bridges .
Within the urban area there are 15 bus lines operated by Stadtwerke Aschaffenburg , which are served every 15, 20, 30 and 60 minutes. The district of Aschaffenburg , the district of Miltenberg and some Hessian destinations are served by five bus routes operated by KVG and twelve bus routes operated by VU . The transport community on the Bavarian Lower Main , the VAB, is formed with four more Deutsche Bahn AG railway lines . At night and on Sundays, outside the bus times, there is a shared call taxi service with which you can reach any destination that is otherwise connected to the regular services offered by the municipal utilities.
Scenic roads and long-distance cycle routes
- The Bocksbeutelstrasse is one of the German wine routes. It leads along the Main and its tributaries to the Rhön and the Steigerwald.
- The route of the industrial culture Rhine-Main leads through cities and associations of municipalities in the Rhine-Main area, which reveal their industrial-historical monuments.
- The German Limes Road is a tourist route that leads along the Upper German-Raetian Limes from the Rhine to the Danube.
In addition, the following long-distance cycle paths run along the banks of the Main:
- The Main Cycle Path leads from the two sources of the Main along the river to its confluence with the Rhine near Mainz . It has a total length of about 600 kilometers.
- The D-Route 5 ( Saar-Mosel-Main ) over 1021 km from Saarbrücken via Trier , Koblenz , Mainz , Frankfurt am Main , Würzburg and Bayreuth to the Czech border.
- The German Limes Cycle Route follows the Upper German-Raetian Limes over 818 km from Bad Hönningen on the Rhine to Regensburg on the Danube .
The airfield Aschaffenburg is as airfield categorized and is located about 2 km south-west of the urban area in the market Großostheim . In 2013, an extension of the runway by 350 m in the direction of Aschaffenburg was approved by aviation law. In the south of the urban area on the border with Markt Sulzbach there is also a glider airfield.
- Main-Echo , daily newspaper with subsidiary publications
- PrimaSonntag , advertising paper from the Aschaffenburg broadcasting company
- Showtime magazine: monthly scene and photo magazine for Aschaffenburg and Miltenberg
- FRIZZ The magazine
- Bread & Games: Culture magazine for Aschaffenburg and the surrounding area
Radio and television
Aschaffenburg is the seat of a regional court . The district of the district court of Aschaffenburg includes the independent city of Aschaffenburg and the districts of Aschaffenburg and Miltenberg. The district court of Aschaffenburg with its Alzenau branch in Lower Franconia and the Obernburg am Main district court with its Miltenberg branch belong to the district court .
A correctional facility is located in the Strietwald district. For years there was also a remand prison on Alexandrastrasse in the city center (in the vernacular, inmates sat “hinner de Sandkersch” - behind the sand church).
Current educational institutions
Aschaffenburg's approx. 20,000 pupils attend a total of 52 schools. These include: 12 elementary schools, 5 middle schools, 3 secondary schools, 1 business school , 4 high schools ( Friedrich-Dessauer-Gymnasium , Karl-Theodor-von-Dalberg-Gymnasium , Kronberg-Gymnasium Aschaffenburg , Gymnasium of the Maria-Ward School ), 5 special schools and 22 technical and vocational schools. More than 3000 courses are offered annually in the Aschaffenburg Adult Education Center for 63,500 participants.
1919 Children, young people and adults take part in courses at the Aschaffenburg Municipal Music School , which also has successes in the Jugend musiziert competition every year . It was opened in 1810 and is considered the oldest music school in Germany. The schools in Aschaffenburg are supported by the city library, from which almost 80,000 media (books, sound carriers, etc.) are borrowed more than 430,000 times a year. For decades, Aschaffenburg has also had one of 10 master mason schools in Germany .
On October 5, 1995, the Technical University began teaching, initially as a department of the Würzburg-Schweinfurt-Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences .
On October 1, 2000, this department became independent as a university of applied sciences and became part of the engineering sciences (IW) faculties with today's courses in electrical engineering and information technology, mechatronics, industrial engineering, renewable energies and energy management, international technical sales management and communication and documentation as well as economics and law (W + R) with today's courses in business administration, business administration and law and international real estate management.
Since the beginning of the summer semester 2019, the university has been called Technische Hochschule Aschaffenburg university of applied sciences, or TH-AB for short.
Specialized Academy for Social Pedagogy
The Fachakademie für Sozialpädagogik is a training center for educators . It is located in the Damm district and is financed by the Aschaffenburg district . Around 50 graduates are bid farewell each year. The facility was founded in 1973 and has been known in the area for its annual musical performances in the Mainaschaff Maintalhalle since the mid-1990s .
Historical educational institutions
The Charles University of Aschaffenburg was founded in 1808 by Karl Theodor von Dalberg as the Princely Primatic and Archbishopric Regensburg University of Aschaffenburg as part of the Napoleonic reorganization of the areas on the right bank of the Rhine . The name was changed as early as 1809. Even after its university status was withdrawn in 1818, the university continued to exist in a converted form as the Bavarian Lyzeum Aschaffenburg , a university-like institution of the Kingdom of Bavaria until 1873.
The Aschaffenburg Forestry University was a training center for forest officials in the Kingdom of Bavaria . It existed under different names from 1807 to 1910, with an interruption from 1832 to 1844, in Aschaffenburg. The building on Alexandrastraße was then used for the secondary school in Aschaffenburg and demolished in 1968. Today there is a multi-storey residential complex with an underground car park ("Parkhaus Alexandrastraße").
In 1904 the architect Rudolf Kempf opened the " First German Driving School " which was affiliated to the "Kempf'schen private technical center Aschaffenburg". It was closed again at the end of 1906, Kempf left Aschaffenburg and moved to Mainz. For the 100th anniversary in 2004, a stele was erected at the former location , created by master student Bernhard Chemin from the municipal technical school (master school) for stonemasons and stone sculptors in Aschaffenburg.
As in many other cities in Aschaffenburg, the air you breathe is exposed to high levels of nitrogen oxide, especially at non-official measuring points. More than 46 micrograms per cubic meter of breathing air have already been measured.
The particulate matter pollution , which occurs especially in winter, was the reason for the establishment of an "Air Quality Project Advisory Board", which met between December 2006 and June 2009. At the meeting on February 1, 2008, due to the high connection rate of Aschaffenburg households to the gas network, it was mutually assumed that around 85% of PM10 emissions were due to wood as a fuel.
In its final report of September 2009, the ifeu institute accompanying the Air Quality Project Advisory Board stated that the legal limit for fine dust concentration was being observed in Aschaffenburg (40 µg / m³ annual mean). However, if the legally permissible maximum number of times the maximum PM10 concentration is exceeded with sufficient certainty, further steps are required (50 micrograms per cubic meter on a daily average of a maximum of 35 days per calendar year). As such a measure, restrictions on pollutant emissions similar to the Regensburg Fuel Ordinance were discussed. However, such a measure was not decided by the city council. The project advisory board recommended a total of 27 measures and goals to the city council.
In the urban area there are two nature reserves , a landscape protection area , 26 natural monuments , three FFH areas and six geotopes designated by the Bavarian State Office for the Environment (as of 2019).
- List of nature reserves in the city of Aschaffenburg
- List of landscape protection areas in Aschaffenburg
- List of natural monuments in Aschaffenburg
- List of FFH areas in the city of Aschaffenburg
- List of geotopes in Aschaffenburg
There is also a diverse and ecologically valuable cultural landscape. Examples are the orchards and valuable flower-rich meadows. The Aschaffenburg National Natural Heritage Site has existed south of Schweinheim since 2018 .
Orchards are the habitats of many rare animals and plants. In the city area, as a result of the Kurmainz law, which continued to apply into the 20th century, rather narrow plots of land were created through inheritance, which were often farmed as a sideline. As a result of the fallow land that began in the 1960s and after the state land consolidation ceased to exist, many of these arable land and orchards have been preserved. For some time now, many of them have been better cared for again, and high-stem fruit trees of regional varieties have been replanted. This enabled a population of the rare little owl to survive alongside other strictly protected bird species between Schweinheim and Obernau .
In 2000, the nature conservation authority in cooperation with the state association for bird protection resulted in the "Schlaraffenburger Streuobstagentur", a private company based in Mömbris-Heimbach, which, in addition to the utilization of orchards, takes care of the typical regional cultural landscape and the preservation of its species-rich habitats deals. For this purpose, the company concludes fruit supply contracts with regional landowners and markets the products made from the fruit. The landowners must cultivate their contract areas according to Bioland guidelines.
The city of Aschaffenburg pays tribute to people who have made a special contribution to the city. The city of Aschaffenburg provides this recognition by awarding:
- Honorary citizenships in Aschaffenburg
- Citizen medal of the city of Aschaffenburg
- Culture award of the city of Aschaffenburg
- Honorary letter for outstanding services in sports management
For people related to Aschaffenburg see: List of personalities of the city of Aschaffenburg .
- The Aschaffenburg Maulaff is a popular figure .
- The city is often referred to as the Bavarian Nice because of its mild climate . Allegedly this statement comes from King Ludwig I, but this has not been proven. It is also called the gateway to the Spessart .
- The seventh landmark of the city is the Ascheberscher Arsch - a stone of the castle garden wall. Its two humps , one on top of the other, are reminiscent of the Buchener Blecker figure and are therefore taken to be a joke by the builders.
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