Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes
|Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes|
|UNESCO world heritage|
|Map of the Upper German-Raetian Limes
|Criteria :||(ii) (iii) (iv)|
|Reference No .:||430|
|UNESCO region :||Europe and North America|
|History of enrollment|
|Enrollment:||2005 (session 29)|
The Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes ( ORL ) is a 550-kilometer section of the former outer border of the Roman Empire between the Rhine and the Danube . It extends from Rheinbrohl to Eining Castle on the Danube. The Upper-Rhaetian Limes is an archaeological monument and since 2005 a World Heritage Site of UNESCO .
The term Limes originally meant “Grenzweg” or “Schneise” in Latin. In Germany, “Limes” usually refers to the Raetian Limes and the Upper Germanic Limes , together referred to as the Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes . The two Limes sections are named after the neighboring Roman provinces of Raetia ( Raetia ) and Germania superior (Upper Germany).
For the first time in history, the Roman Limites were spatially clearly defined and visually clearly recognizable external boundaries of a domain for friends and foe alike. It encompasses the longest land border in the European section of the Limes, interrupted only for a few kilometers by a stretch that follows the Main between Großkrotzenburg and Miltenberg . The Limes is largely in Europe otherwise by the rivers Rhine ( Lower Germanic Limes ) and Danube ( Donau Limes formed).
The function of the Roman military borders has been the subject of increased discussion for some time. The latest research mostly assumes that at least the Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes was not primarily a military demarcation line , but rather represented a monitored economic border to the non-Roman area. The Limes was hardly suitable for defending against systematic external attacks. The Roman Empire expanded its sphere of influence far to the northeast, beyond the border , through a clever economic policy . The many border crossings , which were secured by Roman soldiers, but nevertheless enabled a lively economic exchange, and the numerous Roman finds in "free Germania" (as far as Jutland and Scandinavia ) bear witness to this . Attempts were also made to settle Roman legionaries on the other side of the Limes or, much more frequently, to recruit auxiliary soldiers. The Romanization of the population thus extended beyond the Limes.
Interest in the Limes as a remnant of a complex from Roman times came back to life in Germany during the Renaissance and Humanism . This was supported by the retrieval of Germania and the Annales of Tacitus in monastery libraries in the 15th and early 16th centuries. Scholars such as Simon Studion (1543–1605) researched inscriptions and discovered forts, Studion led archaeological excavations at Benningen Fort on the Neckar line of the Neckar-Odenwald-Limes. Regional Limes commissions were founded, but remained limited to small areas due to the political situation, for example in the Grand Duchy of Hesse or the Grand Duchy of Baden . Johann Alexander Döderlein was the first to report on the course of the Limes in the Eichstätt area . In 1723 he was the first to correctly interpret the meaning of the Limes and in 1731 published a first scientific paper on it.
Reich Limes Commission
It was only after the founding of the empire in the second half of the 19th century that archaeologists were able to begin to record the previously only rudimentarily known course more precisely and to carry out the first systematic excavations. In 1892 the Reichs-Limeskommission (RLK) based in Berlin was founded for this purpose and was headed by the ancient historian Theodor Mommsen . The work of this commission is considered to be a pioneering effort to come to terms with Roman provincial history. The first ten years of research were particularly productive, in which the course of the Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes was determined and the forts along the border were named. The research reports on the excavations appeared from 1894 until the commission was dissolved in 1937. The individual deliveries were summarized in fifteen volumes under the title “ Der Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes des Roemerreiches ” (ORL), seven of which deal with the route and eight dealt with the individual forts. The documents of the Imperial Limes Commission are today in the care of the Roman-Germanic Commission of the German Archaeological Institute . In addition to the routes, the RLK numbered the forts consecutively as well as the watchtowers (Wp) of the individual routes.
In the course of this work, the 550 km long course of the Limes was measured, divided into sections and described. This division followed the administrative borders that existed in Germany in the 19th century, not ancient guidelines:
- Route 1: Rheinbrohl - Bad Ems
- Section 2: Bad Ems - Adolfseck near Bad Schwalbach
- Route 3: Adolfseck near Bad Schwalbach - Taunus - Köpperner Tal
- Section 4: Köpperner Tal - Wetterau - Marköbel
- Section 5: Marköbel - Großkrotzenburg am Main
- Line 6a: Hainstadt - Wörth am Main ( older Main line )
- Section 6b: Trennfurt - Miltenberg
- Section 7: Miltenberg - Walldürn - Buchen-Hettingen (Rehberg)
- Route 8: Buchen-Hettingen (Rehberg) - Osterburken - Jagsthausen (newer Odenwald line)
- Section 9: Jagsthausen - Öhringen - Mainhardt - Welzheim - Alfdorf-Pfahlbronn (Haghof)
- Route 10: Wörth am Main - Bad Wimpfen (older Odenwald line / Neckar-Odenwald-Limes )
- Section 11: Bad Wimpfen - Köngen (Neckar line)
- Route 12: Alfdorf-Pfahlbronn (Haghof) - Lorch - Rotenbachtal near Schwäbisch Gmünd (end of the Upper German Limes, beginning of the Raetian Limes) - Aalen - Stödtlen
- Route 13: Mönchsroth - Weiltingen-Ruffenhofen - Gunzenhausen
- Route 14: Gunzenhausen - Weißenburg - Kipfenberg
- Route 15: Kipfenberg - Eining Castle
The prehistory of the Limes goes back to the year 9 AD, when the Romans under their general Varus suffered a devastating defeat by Teutons under their leader Arminius in the so-called Varus Battle . A total of three Roman legions perished in this attempt by the Romans to expand the imperial border towards the Elbe . After this catastrophe, the Romans withdrew to the left side of the Rhine and the right side of the upper Danube .
A century later, however, Rome decided to shorten the borderline between the Rhine and the Danube and also to annex economically interesting territory, such as the Wetterau , in the process. The Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes developed in several stages from a pure post route within a lane that was cut into the Germanic forests. Wooden watchtowers were built in the Odenwald between the years 107/110 and 115 respectively . These wooden watchtowers, about ten meters high, were surrounded by earth walls and had a line of sight to each other. The average distance was around 800 meters. The expansion of the Limes was by no means uniform. The Limes in Upper Germany was expanded around 40 years earlier than in Raetia.
The oldest dendrochronological findings, which come from the founding phase of the Rhaetian camp village of Fort Buch , are estimated for May / June 161 AD. It is possible that the Roman military was only commissioned to build the first fortifications in Raetia and on the “Front Limes” around this time. At Limestor Dalkingen , a simple wattle fence made of individual posts was built in this first stage of expansion. At the same place a square of trenches was found that is assigned to a wooden tower. The excavator, Dieter Planck , assigned the fence and the tower to the same time. For the scientists the question now arises whether this simple hurdle was not often overlooked in the earlier observations, mostly at the time of the Reich Limes Commission (RLK). However, some scientists assigned this fence to a completely different period. In their opinion, this should only have been built after the palisade became damaged. However, this contradicts the findings at the Limestor. According to Planck, the palisade trench partially overlaps the post pits there . Dendrochronological investigations of palisades wood from near the Limestor located Schwabsberg in Ostalbkreis revealed that the next stage there already 165 vonstattenging n. Chr..
In the Wetterau, on the other hand, the palisade of the Marköbel fort could probably be established as early as 120 AD.
The following table provides further important dendrochronological figures on construction activities between 120 and 169:
|Germania superior||Marquetry||Winter 119/120, spring 120 AD||Limes palisade|
|Germania superior||Beneficiary consecration district Osterburken||Winter 159/160 AD||several timbers in the valley floor of the Kirnau|
|Germania superior||Murrhardt Castle||159 ad||Forest edge bark, well in the retentura of the fort.|
|Germania superior||Ostkastell Welzheim||165 AD||Casing well 2|
|Border Germania superior / Raetia||Rotenbachtal||Winter 163/164 AD||Limes palisade or wooden bridge just behind the palisade|
|Raetia||Aalen Castle||160 ± 10 AD (building inscription from the years 163/164)||Principia, wooden porch|
|Raetia||Vicus book||absolute dating 161 AD||Casing for well 2 and latrine 8|
|Raetia||Schwabsberg||"Late year 165, possibly spring 166"||Limes palisade, oak, recovered in 1969, four samples, one piece with a full forest edge|
|Raetia||Schwabsberg||165 AD||Limes palisade, oak, recovered in 1974, seven samples|
|Raetia||Mönchsroth||160 AD||Limes palisade; Pine cones, recovered in 1992 from the Schindhaus pond.|
|Raetia||Gunzenhausen||162 ad||Limes palisade; Oak wood recovered from the Altmühlwiesen between 1895 and 1898.|
|Raetia||Gunzenhausen||166 ± 10 AD||Limes palisade; Oak recovered in 1975 from the Upper Market Square.|
|Raetia||Theilenhofen Castle||126 AD||first military bath; sampled on November 27, 2002 by the dendrochronologist Franz Herzig|
The originally erected, weather-prone wooden towers were later replaced by stone structures. The Limes itself also went through several expansion periods. The Raetian Limes developed analogously. However, during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus, instead of a palisade, rampart and moat, a continuous massive wall up to three meters high was built there. Based on the identical dendrochronological investigations on three oak piles of a very well-preserved pile grid on which the Rhaetian wall near the Dambach Fort is based, it could be determined that the wood built there was felled in the winter months of 206/207 AD. It may then have been installed in the spring of 207. It thus seems clear that the wooden palisade in Raetia existed for around 45 years. From the structural difference between the border fortifications, the research deduces that their construction maintenance was evidently the responsibility of the respective provincial administration.
The Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes experienced various larger and smaller relocations of the border and was rebuilt accordingly in several places. The reasons for these border shifts are not known. It is suspected that some of these are subsequent straightening. For example, the border of the " Odenwald Limes ", which had been used as a Roman border fortification for around 60 years, was subsequently moved a few kilometers to the east.
At the Upper German Limes there are several sections that stand out due to an exactly straight route and look like they have been drawn through the landscape with a ruler. The extraordinary precision required for this is attributed to the use of the groma by Roman surveyors . The longest of these sections, with only a short deviation due to the terrain relief near Pfedelbach - Gleichen, extends from an otherwise insignificant watchtower near Walldürn (route 8) to the Haghof south of Welzheim and reaches a length of 81.259 km. This is the longest straight line in all of antiquity. A demonstration of power against the Germanic population is assumed to be the motive. A special feature in this area is the hexagonal tower (WP 9/51) in Pfedelbach-Gleichen. It is the only tower of this type on this Limes section. Its one meter wide and therefore unusually strong foundations have a base that protrudes 0.5 meters on the outside as additional reinforcement. The hexagonal shape and foundation walls suggest that the tower height was certainly well above normal. The design of the tower and its location suggest that it was a main point for the optical measurement of the dead straight route.
The Upper German-Raetian Limes was accompanied by a network of military bases and civilian supply facilities in the Roman hinterland and connected by a network of roads and paths.
At a distance of about ten kilometers smaller emerged castles (for auxiliaries auxiliary troops ), who provided the crews of the watchtowers and could be notified of this case of incidents at the border. The first forts were built on the Neckar and in the Taunus , first as wood-earth constructions, then also made of stone from 150 onwards. Outstanding examples of such forts are the Saalburg , the Kleiner Feldberg and the Kapersburg fort , all three located in the Taunus. A particularly large fort for a mounted unit (Latin: Ala ) was located in today's urban area of Aalen . These forts in turn could request reinforcements from the legionary locations, the provincial capitals, if necessary.
As a rule, larger and smaller civil settlements (lat .: vici ) formed around the forts . In these lived u. a. the relatives of the stationed auxiliaries. Traders, craftsmen and taverns also provided opportunities for supplying and dispersing the wealthy troops. Some of the early vici became larger and more prosperous civitas capitals even after the military withdrew, such as B. the Roman Nida in the area of today's Frankfurt-Heddernheim .
The Roman city foundation of Waldgirmes in the Lahn valley , on the other side of the later Limes, is a specialty . The city had a representative forum and was evidently intended as a local administrative center, probably as the capital of a civitas , perhaps even as the future capital of the large province of Germania magna originally planned by Augustus , which was to extend from the Rhine to the Elbe. After the Varus Battle (9 AD), at the latest with the abandonment of the Augustan expansion policy under Tiberius (17 AD), all relevant plans were discarded and the city abandoned.
As an economic border, the Limes had a number of guarded passages at which the military could control border traffic.
Only a few written sources have come down to us about the era of the decline of the Upper German-Raetian Limes. Historians have therefore long assumed that the Limes was overrun and collapsed in a single onslaught of the Germanic peoples in 259 and 260 AD. More recent archaeological investigations and finds show, however, that the decay in the 3rd century AD took place slowly and in different degrees and that there were also differences between the Upper Germanic and the Raetian sections. The meeting of a number of internal and external causes caused a process of continuous decline.
Fight under Severus Alexander
The pressure on the northern Roman border had already increased in the late 2nd century; More recent studies suggest that this could be due, among other things, to newly immigrated groups from the interior of Germania, who were not Romanized and were more aggressive towards the empire. Emperor Commodus had several border fortifications renewed and expanded around 185. In 213 Emperor Caracalla carried out a punitive campaign across the Limes. The main reason for the sinking or the abandonment of the Limes is, on the one hand, to be found in the increasing use of military forces due to conflicts in the oriental provinces. There, the Roman Empire faced a growing challenge from its eastern neighbor, the Persian Sassanid Empire , founded in AD 224 . In response, more and more troops, especially the Alen cavalry , were withdrawn from the Limes. The young emperor Severus Alexander led a campaign against the Sassanids in 232 AD together with his mother Julia Mamaea . The troops stationed on the borders in the east had proved unreliable by mutiny, so that the emperor had to assign more troops from the Limes. In the ensuing battles with heavy losses, neither of the two opponents could achieve a victory, and a peace treaty was not concluded.
On the other hand, the Germanic tribes, namely the Alemanni , used the weakening of the Roman defense lines to plunder and destroy in the year 233 AD. At that time there was probably only auxiliary infantry along the Limes, which had little to do with the Teutons, who were now organized differently than before in larger tribal associations and therefore now knew more easily how to mobilize more powerful units. The looting trains led the Teutons to the Rhine and the Alpine foothills. Several camps, including the Saalburg fort , were destroyed. Horizons of destruction from this time can be proven archaeologically, for example in the Osterburken fort . The remains of at least three people who had died violently were found in the trench area of the garrison in Osterburken.
The Roman troops who fought the Persians in the east are said to have worried about their relatives in Gaul. All this prompted Severus Alexander and his mother to set out for the Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes in 235. They set up their headquarters in the legionary city of Mogontiacum . The legionaries hoped for booty, retribution and an easy victory over the Teutons. The thrifty Mamaea, however, began to negotiate with the Teutons in order to avoid an expensive campaign. Therefore the Roman troops revolted and elevated the officer who was responsible for training the newly raised troops, Maximinus Thrax , to emperor. Mamaea and Severus Alexander were probably murdered in Bretzenheim in March 235 . With Alexander the last emperor of the dynasty died Severer during the fight to the limit, and the time of the soldier emperors began.
Maxi minus promised an increase in the Olds, special allowances ( Donativen ) and a pardon of all disciplinary sanctions. In the summer of 235 AD he led a campaign deep into the Germanic settlement areas (see also Harzhorn event ). The danger could be averted for some time, fortifications were rebuilt and partially reinforced.
The fortifications were renewed after the experience of the looting in 233 and presumably adapted to the new conditions. It is likely that the wall-ditch system as a barrier against cavalry armies was only now being expanded at the fortifications of the Upper German Limes in addition to or as a replacement for the palisades. However, many of the civilian settlements that were destroyed were not fully rebuilt. Archaeological finds confirm the need for repairs to be carried out quickly on farm buildings. Not only were residential buildings and bathing establishments no longer built in their old size, but individual forts also seem to have been reduced in their structural fabric at that time. Excavations within the Kapersburg and Miltenberg-Ost forts resulted in a reduction in the size of the interior. Perhaps even then a permanently reduced crew was expected.
The reason for the hesitant reconstruction was perhaps the reduced flow of money to the border region. While Emperor Caracalla was able to buy the support of his soldiers on the campaign against the Alemanni and other Germanic peoples on the Main in 213 AD with a greatly increased pay and with frequent lavish special allowances, his stance was for the stability of monetary value and the economic policy of his successors disastrous. Even Severus Alexander could no longer satisfy the immoderate expectations of the soldiers. Civil wars and a rapid change of emperors were the result. The Limes troops were repeatedly withdrawn to settle domestic political conflicts. Emperor Maximinus Thrax moved with his troops to Pannonia as early as 236 AD , and in the six- emperor year 238 AD he was murdered by his own people on the way to Rome during the siege of the city of Aquileia . The expansion of the Limes and the high purchasing power of the troops present had been the economic drive for handicrafts, trade and services in the border region. Now the loss of troops also resulted in a loss of population. The lack of money and labor hindered the reconstruction of the Limes.
On the other hand, the pressure from a population shift from the Eurasian area to the Rhine and Danube borders seems to have increased. Thirdly, internal Roman disputes may also have played an important role. Above all, however, it was probably never the intention of the Romans to use the ORL as a military defense facility - appropriate initiatives may have been considered after 235, but the Limes was and remained a border of peace.
German trains in AD 259/260
Numismatic and dendrochronological studies suggest that the Raetian part of the Limes was abandoned soon after AD 254, during the reign of Emperor Valerian (253–260). For example, in the early summer of AD 254, the camp village of the Raetian fort Buch was reduced to rubble. In contrast, the southern Upper Germanic section of the Vorderen Limes may have remained for a few years. This is indicated by the late finds of coins up to the time of Gallienus , as they were recovered from the Haselburg small fort and the Rötelsee small fort . The archaeologist Markus Scholz assumed that the Limes on the Taunus and Wetterau fell earlier than in the south. Numerous hoard finds then prove the Germanic invasions in 259 and 260 AD, which ultimately led to the abandonment of the entire Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes . These incursions occurred at the time of the Roman Empire crisis . The hoard find of Neupotz became known , which was brought to the light of day in the years 1967–1997 during the gravel extraction from an old Rhine arm near Neupotz . It belongs to the same fund horizon as the hoard find from Hagenbach or the hoard find from Otterstadt . A total of 18 excavator finds from the 3rd century are now known from the Rhine between Seltz and Mannheim . A massive advance of the Juthung to Italy in the years 259/260 became known through the Augsburg victory altar . However, traces of fighting and violent destruction have been found in very few Limes forts, which is why many researchers today assume that the border wall itself was not overrun and conquered, but more or less systematically cleared: the drastically changed military situation had made the facility superfluous . Many forts are therefore likely to have been burned down by the imperial troops themselves in order not to leave them to the enemy.
Soon after the heavy Germanic attacks around the year 260, it was decided to retreat to the left side of the Rhine and the south bank of the Danube with the new line of defense of the Danube-Iller-Rhine-Limes . The river borders were far more favorable as a defensive position. The ORL was effectively abandoned, even if life went on in some camp villages on the former Limes. For example, after the destruction around 254 AD, the abandoned Buch castle was extensively leveled over the fire horizon of the camp village, on which reconstruction began on a reduced scale. Some of the retreating Roman troops buried equipment and tools near their forts, apparently planning to return at a later date as soon as the region was pacified again. A connection with the battles between the usurper Postumus , who founded a Roman "special empire" in Gaul in 260, and the legitimate emperor Gallienus is often suspected today : the troops were needed elsewhere and the border may therefore be left to itself.
There is no evidence that the entire area on the right bank of the Rhine ( Dekumatland ) was evacuated by the Romans along with the Limes, i.e. that the civilian population was deported. A systematic withdrawal of the last remaining Roman soldiers was probably only possible around 275, when the situation of the Imperium Romanum stabilized again. At least part of the Roman population stayed in the country and mixed with the immigrating Germanic tribes. Around 300, Roman sources no longer speak of the agri Decumates , but of the Alamannia . The Roman emperors, however, held on to their claims to these areas at least until the late 4th century (Emperor Gratian undertook the last campaign in the former Dekumatland in 377), and maybe around 360 Emperor Julian even left part of the old Limes for a short time repair.
The structural decline of the Upper German-Raetian Limes lasted for centuries. According to a Bavarian chronicler, sections of the wall could still be seen over long stretches in 1780. However, as more and more buildings were built out of stone instead of wood, “the residents fetched lots of stones” from the remains of the wall. In Cologne there were still towers of the Roman city wall in the early 19th century. The north gate of the Roman city wall of Cologne was also only demolished in the middle of the 19th century because it had become too narrow for the growing traffic.
However, the function of most of the buildings along the former Limes has been forgotten. The population interpreted the Roman aqueduct of the city of Cologne , which largely ran on the surface and came from the south-west, as a “secret connecting passage” between the cities of Cologne and Trier. The dilapidated fortifications of the Raetian Limes, on the other hand, whose function no one could explain, were popularly referred to as the "Devil's Wall".
Significantly, the course of the complex also served as the property boundary for centuries (often at the same time as the municipality or administrative boundary). The land consolidation partially lifted these borders in the 20th century, but partially they still exist today.
The Limes today
The Limes is a ground monument of international importance in Germany . Some structures on the Upper German-Raetian Limes have been reconstructed. Examples are the Saalburg near Bad Homburg vor der Höhe , the Aalen fort , each of which houses important Roman museums within their walls, as well as numerous watchtowers.
The walls and ditches of the Upper German Limes are the best preserved of the actual border fortifications. This is especially true for the forest areas of the Westerwald and Taunus . In the Rhaetian Limes, on the other hand, a wide strip of rock rubble, often seen in the field markings as a straight field wood, marks the course of the fortification. Small mounds of earth and rubble can be found along the two limits at the places where a watchtower stood.
The name Limes played a role in the construction of the Siegfried Line : the largest program for the construction of this fortress in preparation for the Second World War was called the Limes program .
An international Limes congress takes place every several years , at which scientists who devote themselves to the exploration of the Limes meet and exchange research results.
Along the Upper German-Raetian Limes, the German Limes Road for motorists, the signposted German Limes Cycle Path and the Limes hiking trail (= Limes Trail ) in the Westerwald and Taunus , the Eastern Limes Trail (HW 37) of the Odenwald Club , the Limes hiking trail run as tourist routes (HW 6) of the Swabian Alb Association , the Limesweg (route 46) of the Franconian Alb Association and the Limes hiking trail in the Altmühltal Nature Park .
The European Commission (Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry) is funding the development of digital services for cultural tourism along the Limes in the ten neighboring European countries from 2011 to 2013. The model regions are located in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Lower Austria (Austria) and the city of Ruse (Bulgaria).
On 15 July 2005 the Upper German-Rhaetian Limes was by UNESCO in the list of World Heritage recorded on 5 July 2006 in Aalen the corresponding certificates of UNESCO to the representatives of the four participating states of Rhineland-Palatinate , Hesse , Baden-Wuerttemberg and Bavaria handed over. The federal states involved have founded the German Limes Commission (DLK) to coordinate them . Only the main line of the Upper German-Raetian Limes in its extensive state of development is part of the World Heritage. It includes part of the underlying infrastructure.
The Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes is not an independent world cultural heritage, but the second position of the world heritage site "Frontier installations of the Roman Empire", the first position of which is Hadrian's Wall in England, which was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO. The aim of the project "Border installations of the Roman Empire" is - initially - to integrate all European states through which the Limes runs with the installations located on their territory into the world heritage. In 2008 the Antonine Wall was added to Scotland .
With the support of the German Limes Commission and the Baden-Württemberg State Office for Monument Preservation, the Limes-Cicerones Association was founded in February 2005 , whose members work as qualified tour guides on the Upper German-Raetian Limes and thus fulfill a task within the framework of the Limes development plan.
See also: List of forts on the Upper German-Raetian Limes
Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes as a whole
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- Wolfgang Moschek: The Limes. Frontier of the Roman Empire. Primus, Darmstadt 2014, ISBN 978-3-86312-729-9 .
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- Rudolf Pörtner : With the elevator to Roman times. Econ, Düsseldorf 1959, 1965; Moewig, Rastatt 1980, 2000 (various other editions), ISBN 3-8118-3102-X .
- Britta Rabold, Egon Schallmayer, Andreas Thiel (eds.): The Limes. The German Limes Road from the Rhine to the Danube. Theiss, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8062-1461-1 .
- Marcus Reuter, Andreas Thiel: The Limes. In the footsteps of the Romans. Theiss, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-8062-2760-4 .
- Egon Schallmayer : The Limes. Story of a border. CH Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-48018-7 (Brief, current introduction.)
- Hans Schönberger : The Roman troop camps of the early and middle imperial period between the North Sea and Inn. In: Report of the Roman-Germanic Commission . 66, 1985, pp. 321-495.
- Andreas Thiel: Paths on the Limes. 55 excursions to Roman times. Theiss, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-8062-1946-X .
- Gerhard Waldherr: The Limes. Contact zone between cultures. Reclam, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-15-018648-0 .
- Willi Beck, Dieter Planck : The Limes in Southwest Germany. 2nd Edition. Konrad Theiß Verlag, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0496-9 .
- Thomas Fischer , Erika Riedmeier-Fischer: The Roman Limes in Bavaria. History and locations along the UNESCO World Heritage Site . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-7917-2120-0 .
- Jörg Heiligmann : The "Alb Limes". A contribution to the occupation history of Southwest Germany. Theiss, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-8062-0814-X .
- Cliff Alexander Jost: The Roman Limes in Rhineland-Palatinate . (= Archeology on the Middle Rhine and Moselle, Volume 14). State Office for Monument Preservation Rhineland-Palatinate , Koblenz 2003, ISBN 3-929645-07-6 .
- Margot Klee: The Limes between Rhine and Main . Theiss, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-8062-0276-1 .
- Margot Klee: The Roman Limes in Hessen . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-7917-2232-0 .
- Egon Schallmayer: The Odenwald Limes. Along the Roman border between the Main and Neckar. Theiss, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-8062-2309-5 .
- Bernd Steidl: Limes World Heritage: Rome's border on the Main . Logo Verlag, Obernburg am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-939462-06-4 .
- The Limes. Rheinbrohl - Holzhausen an der Heide. Topographic leisure map 1: 25000 with the Limes hiking trail, Limes cycle path, German Limes road. Ed .: State Office for Surveying and Basic Geographic Information Rhineland-Palatinate in cooperation with the State Office for Monument Preservation Rhineland-Palatinate, Archaeological Monument Preservation, Koblenz Office. - Koblenz: State Office for Surveying and Basic Geographic Information Rhineland-Palatinate in cooperation with the State Office for Monument Preservation Rhineland-Palatinate, Archaeological Monument Preservation, Office Koblenz 2006, ISBN 3-89637-378-1 .
- Official map of the UNESCO World Heritage Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes in Rhineland-Palatinate from Rheinbrohl to Saalburg (Hesse). Jointly ed. v. German Limes Commission, Directorate General for Cultural Heritage - Archeology Directorate, Verein Deutsche Limes-Straße, State Office for Surveying and Geographic Base Information Rhineland-Palatinate. - Koblenz: State Office for Surveying and Basic Geographic Information Rhineland-Palatinate 2007, ISBN 978-3-89637-384-7 .
- Limes Information Center Baden-Württemberg , accessed on July 16, 2010
- Links and literature on the topic of Limes
- The Limes in Hesse: multimedia dossier. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007 ; accessed on March 5, 2018 . (Diploma thesis in the online journalism course at Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences)
- The Limes: then and now - archaeologie-online.de
- UNESCO World Heritage: Borders of the Roman Empire
- Frontiers of the roman empire (website)
- die-roemer-online.de Extensive work on the Roman Limes in Germany
- German Limes Commission
- German Limes Road
- Limes film
- Saalburg, the only reconstructed Limes fort
- The Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes in the Hessen cultural portal
- Taunus-Wetterau-Limes: extensive representation of the Limes in Hesse
- Antikefan - Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes (private site)
- Limes sides - The Romans in Baden-Württemberg (private side)
- Impressions of a border - the Limes in Germany. A picture gallery of reconstructed Limes facilities
- The Upper German-Rhaetian Limes SPIEGEL article of January 27, 2009.
- AG Limes Öhringer Agenda-Gruppe Limes with the communities Schöntal , Jagsthausen , Forchtenberg , Zweiflingen , Pfedelbach and Mainhardt
- Presentation of the LIMES Action of the European Commission
- Virtual Limes worlds
- Limes in Bavaria Page from Bayerischer Rundfunk
- ↑ Dietwulf Baatz: The Saalburg - a Limes fort 80 years after the reconstruction. In: Günter Ulbert, Gerhard Weber (ed.): Conserved history? Ancient buildings and their preservation. Konrad Theiss publishing house. Stuttgart 1985, ISBN 3-8062-0450-0 , p. 126; Fig. 127.
- ↑ Weißenburg donates its own culture prize , published 1986, accessed on June 22, 2016
- ↑ Bernhard Overbeck: Johann Alexander Döderlein (1675–1745) and the “patriotic” numismatics , Braunschweig 2012, pp. 147–165
- ↑ (Cf. Klaus Kortüm: On the dating of the Roman military installations in the Upper German-Raetian Limes area. In: Saalburg-Jahrbuch. 49, 1998, Zabern, Mainz, pp. 5–65, and Egon Schallmayer : Der Limes. History of a border . Beck , Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-48018-7 , pp. 49–52 and pp. 54f.)
- ^ Bernhard Albert Greiner: The fort vicus of Rainau book: History of settlement and correction of the dendrochronological data. In: Ludwig Wamser, Bernd Steidl: New research on Roman settlement between the Upper Rhine and Enns . Bernhard Albert Greiner, Remshalden-Grunbach 2002, ISBN 3-935383-09-6 , p. 83.
- ↑ C. Sebastian Sommer: On the dating of the Raetian Limes. In: Peter Henrich (Ed.): The Limes from the Lower Rhine to the Danube. 6th colloquium of the German Limes Commission . Theiss, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-8062-2466-5 , (= contributions to the Limes World Heritage Site, 6), pp. 137–147; here, p. 138.
- ^ Dieter Planck: To the Limestor of Dalkingen, community Rainau, Ostalbkreis. In: Peter Henrich (Ed.): The Limes from the Lower Rhine to the Danube. 6th colloquium of the German Limes Commission . Theiss, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-8062-2466-5 , (= contributions to the Limes World Heritage Site, 6), pp. 99-107; here, p. 102 and 104, there Fig. 8.
- ^ Ernst Hollstein : Central European Oak Chronology. von Zabern, Mainz 1980, ISBN 3-8053-0096-4 , p. 115; Philipp Filtzinger (Ed.): The Romans in Baden-Württemberg. 3. Edition. Theiss, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-8062-0287-7 , p. 488.
- ↑ Jörg Fündling: Commentary on Hadriani's Vita from the Historia Augusta. Publishing house Dr. Rudolf Habelt, Bonn 2006, p. 610.
- ↑ Susanne Biegert, Johannes Lauber: potter's stamp on smooth sigillata from the front / western Limes. In: Find reports from Baden Württemberg. Volume 20. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1995, p. 549.
- ↑ a b Bernd Becker: Felling dates of Roman construction timbers based on a 2350 year old South German oak tree ring chronology . In find reports from Baden Württemberg . Volume 6. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-8062-1252-X , pp. 369-386.
- ^ Dieter Planck, Willi Beck: The Limes in Southwest Germany. 2nd completely revised edition. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0496-9 , p. 96.
- ↑ Wolfgang Czysz, Frank Herzig: New dendrodata from the Limes Palisade in Raetia. In: Andreas Thiel (Ed.): Research on the function of the Limes. Volume 2, Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-2117-6 , p. 191.
- ^ Dieter Planck, Willi Beck: The Limes in Southwest Germany. 2nd completely revised edition. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0496-9 , p. 122.
- ^ Bernhard Albert Greiner: The fort vicus of Rainau book: History of settlement and correction of the dendrochronological data. In: Ludwig Wamser, Bernd Steidl: New research on Roman settlement between the Upper Rhine and Enns . Verlag Bernhard Albert Greiner, Remshalden-Grunbach 2002, ISBN 3-935383-09-6 , p. 87.
- ^ Ernst Hollstein : Central European Oak Chronology. von Zabern, Mainz 1980, ISBN 3-8053-0096-4 , p. 115.
- ^ Philipp Filtzinger (Ed.): The Romans in Baden-Württemberg. 3. Edition. Theiss, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-8062-0287-7 , p. 488.
- ↑ a b c Wolfgang Czysz, Frank Herzig: New dendrodata from the Limespalisade in Raetia. In: Andreas Thiel (ed.): New research on the Limes. Volume 3, Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8062-2251-7 , pp. 183-194.
- ↑ Wolfgang Czysz, Franz Herzig: The pile grid in the Kreutweiher near the Limes fort Dambach. First dendrochronological results. In: Report of the Bavarian Heritage Monument Care , 49, 2008, pp. 221–227.
- ↑ Bernd Steidl : … civitatem dedit et conubium… Eight new fragments of military diplomas from Raetia . In: Bavarian history sheets 79, 2014, pp. 61–86; here: p. 71.
- ↑ C. Sebastian Sommer : Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marc Aurel ...? - To date the systems of the Raetian Limes. In: Report of Bayerische Bodendenkmalpflege 56 (2015), pp. 321–327; here: p. 142.
- ↑ Wolfgang Czysz, Robert Frank, Franz Herzig: Aufgetaucht - New investigations on the Devil's Wall in the Dambacher Kreutweiher . In: The archaeological year in Bavaria 2008 . Theis (2009), pp. 83-85; here: pp. 83–84.
- ^ Report of the Bavarian Monument Preservation, trade journal of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation, Volume 49. Verlag Dr. Rudolf Habelt, Bonn 2008, ISBN 978-3-7749-3609-6 .
- ↑ C. Sebastian Sommer : Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marc Aurel ...? - To date the systems of the Raetian Limes . In: Report of Bayerische Bodendenkmalpflege 56 (2015), pp. 321–327; here: p. 142.
- ^ MJT Lewis (2001): Surveying Instruments of Greece and Rome , Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-79297-5 , pp. 242, 245.
- ↑ The Limes in Pfedelbach (accessed on November 18, 2018) ( Memento from January 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑  google Maps
- ↑ Martin Kemkes : From the Rhine to the Limes and back again. The Occupation History of Southwest Germany. In: Dieter Planck and others: Imperium Romanum. Rome's provinces on the Neckar, Rhine and Danube . Theiss, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-8062-2140-5 , pp. 44-53, in particular pp. 51f.
- ^ Britta Rabold, Egon Schallmayer, Andreas Thiel: Der Limes. The German Limes Road from the Rhine to the Danube. Konrad Theiss Verlag 2000, ISBN 3-8062-1461-1 , p. 79.
- ↑ Thomas Fischer, Erika Riedmeier Fischer: The Roman Limes in Bavaria . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-7917-2120-0 , p. 41; Marcus Reuter : The end of the Raetian Limes in the year 254 AD. In: Bavarian prehistory sheets 72, 2007, pp. 77–149.
- ^ Bernhard Albert Greiner: The fort vicus of Rainau book: History of settlement and correction of the dendrochronological data. In: Ludwig Wamser, Bernd Steidl: New research on Roman settlement between the Upper Rhine and Enns . Verlag Bernhard Albert Greiner, Remshalden-Grunbach 2002, ISBN 3-935383-09-6 , p. 85.
- ↑ Markus Scholz: Ceramics and history of the Kapersburg fort - an inventory. In: Saalburg yearbook. Volume 52/53, 2002/2003. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2003, pp. 95/98.
- ^ Bernhard Albert Greiner: The fort vicus of Rainau book: History of settlement and correction of the dendrochronological data. In: Ludwig Wamser, Bernd Steidl: New research on Roman settlement between the Upper Rhine and Enns . Verlag Bernhard Albert Greiner, Remshalden-Grunbach 2002, ISBN 3-935383-09-6 , pp. 85 and 88.
- ↑  google Maps