Theodor Mommsen

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Theodor Mommsen in old age
The young Theodor Mommsen (center) with Moriz Haupt and Otto Jahn ( daguerreotype , Leipzig 1848)
Theodor Mommsen (engraving by Louis Jacoby , 1863)
The historian Theodor Mommsen (painting by Ludwig Knaus , 1881)
Theodor Mommsen (Portrait of Franz Lenbach , 1897)
Berlin memorial plaque on the house, Strasse des 17. Juni 152, in Berlin-Charlottenburg

Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (born November 30, 1817 in Garding , Duchy of Schleswig , † November 1, 1903 in Charlottenburg ) was a German historian and is considered one of the most important ancient scholars of the 19th century. His works and editions on Roman history are still of fundamental importance for research today. In 1902 he was honored with the Nobel Prize in Literature for his Roman history .


Theodor Mommsen came from a pastor's family ; his father Jens Mommsen had been pastor in Oldesloe in the Duchy of Holstein since 1821 , where the eldest son Theodor grew up with five siblings. The children gradually withdrew from their father's strict Christian beliefs, but Mommsen remained a staunch liberal Protestant until the end of his life, with a clear aversion to Catholicism. Although the family lived in rather poor conditions, Jens Mommsen aroused his children's interest in the ancient classics at an early age. After initial private lessons, Theodor Mommsen attended the Christianeum in Altona from October 1834 and began studying law at Kiel University in May 1838 . Here he joined the Burschenschaft Albertina (today Teutonia ), met the law student Theodor Storm , who later became famous as a poet, in 1839 , shared an apartment with him for a time and, together with him and his younger brother Tycho Mommsen, published the songbook of three friends , one Collection of poems that has been warmly received by literary critics. That same year he was in Kiel at Georg Christian Burchardi with the work ad legem de scribis et viatoribus et De auctoritate doctorate . Although he was actually a lawyer, from then on he devoted himself almost exclusively to ancient history , based on his studies on Roman law , which only emerged as a separate discipline around this time.

Mommsen aspired to a scientific career, but first had to make a living as a substitute teacher at two boarding schools for girls that his aunts ran in Altona. In 1844 he received a Danish travel grant (the Duchy of Schleswig was then linked to Denmark in personal union) and first visited France, then mainly Italy, where he began to work with Roman inscriptions . He got in touch with the Archaeological Institute and planned a collection of all known Latin inscriptions, which, in contrast to earlier corpora, was based on the autopsy principle . As a first step, Mommsen collected the inscriptions of what was then the Kingdom of Naples .

In 1847 Mommsen returned to Germany, but initially had to work as a teacher again. During the March Revolution of 1848 he became a journalist in Rendsburg and vigorously defended his liberal convictions. In the autumn of this year he received an appointment as associate professor for law in Leipzig and was finally able to embark on a scientific career. He began an extensive publication activity, but also remained politically active, together with his friends and professor colleagues Moriz Haupt and Otto Jahn . Because of their involvement in the Saxon May uprising in 1849 , the three were indicted and in 1851 dismissed from university.

After losing the professorship in Leipzig for political reasons, he accepted a call to the newly created chair for Roman law at the University of Zurich . He taught here from April 29, 1852 to August 27, 1854. A lecture from that time for the Antiquarian Society in Zurich was later published under the title Switzerland in Roman times . In Zurich, however, he felt very uncomfortable; In a letter he complained about the Swiss: "They belong to the frog family, and you have to thank God when they speak High German and put a napkin on the table." He therefore wanted to return to Germany and in 1854 he was called to Breslau , where he became friends with the lecturer Jacob Bernays . In 1856 the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Greifswald awarded him an honorary doctorate. Mommsen didn't like Breslau either; Above all, the students there repelled him: "Most of them stink, everyone is lazy".

In 1858 Mommsen's most ardent wish was fulfilled: he was appointed to a research professorship at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin and in 1861 was given a chair in Roman antiquity at the Berlin Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität , where he held lectures until 1885 (a task that clearly stepped back behind the research activities for him). He used calls to other universities that he received to improve his position. Mommsen was a member of the Royal Saxon Society of Sciences in Leipzig and from 1852 a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Sciences , from 1864 Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh , from 1872 member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , from 1876 socio straniero of the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome and from 1895 foreign member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres . In 1877 he was elected an honorary member of the philosophical-historical class of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna, in 1893 he became an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg .

Mommsen was unpopular with his students; he was considered a bad and bossy lecturer. He repeatedly intervened in appointment procedures in favor of his students and secured them chairs, for example in the case of Otto Seeck and Ulrich Wilckens . Both times Karl Julius Beloch , who had fallen out with Mommsen, was left behind. Most of Mommsen's students never succeeded in stepping out of the shadow of their overpowering teacher. Other younger scholars and some of Mommsen's students tried to emancipate themselves from their academic teacher. Of these, Max Weber is the most important, whom Mommsen considered to be his only worthy successor, but who turned to sociology before his doctorate .

Mommsen was highly honored for his scientific achievements (Order Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts 1868, honorary citizenship of Rome ). In the meantime he was world famous beyond the specialist circles; Mark Twain, for example, met him in Berlin in 1892 and was deeply impressed. Mommsen received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902 for his major work, Roman History .

With his wife Maria Auguste (1832-1907), a daughter of the Leipzig publisher Karl August Reimer , with whom he had been married since 1854, Mommsen had 16 children, twelve of whom reached adulthood. His son Konrad was an admiral and fleet chief of the Reichsmarine . His grandchildren include the historians Wilhelm Mommsen and Theodor E. Mommsen , the later President of the Federal Archives Wolfgang A. Mommsen , the manager and senior civil servant in the Ministry of Armaments , and later also in the Federal Ministry of Defense, Ernst Wolf Mommsen . Theodor Mommsen's great-grandson Hans Mommsen and Wolfgang J. Mommsen played a key role in shaping history in post-war Germany. His great-great-grandson Oliver Mommsen has made a career as an actor.

Mommsen's grave is located on Dreifaltigkeitsfriedhof II on Bergmannstrasse in Berlin-Kreuzberg , as an honorary grave of the State of Berlin , in field M1.

Scientific works

Mommsen wrote over 1500 scientific studies and treatises on various research topics, especially on the history and legal system of the Roman Empire from the early days to late antiquity . His most famous publication is the Roman story written at the beginning of his career . It appeared in three volumes from 1854 to 1856 and described the history of Rome up to the end of the Roman Republic and the rule of Gaius Julius Caesar , who Mommsen portrayed as a brilliant statesman. Mommsen thus shaped the highly positive image of Caesar in German research for almost a century. Mommsen compares the terminology of the political disputes of the late republic with the political developments of the 19th century (nation-state, democracy). The enthusiastically written work is considered a classic of historiography , although it is outdated in many ways, not least because of its literary quality .

Mommsen, whose scientific approach to antiquity changed greatly in later years, never wrote a continuation of Roman history into the imperial era ; only transcripts of his lectures on Roman imperial history were published (not until 1992). In 1885, Volume 5 of Roman History was published, a systematic representation of the Roman provinces in the early imperial period.

The three-volume (1871–1888) systematic presentation of Roman constitutional law in his work Römisches Staatsrecht is still of great importance for research on ancient and legal history . He also wrote a work on Roman criminal law ( Römisches Strafrecht , 1899).

Mommsen as a science organizer

At the Berlin Academy, where he was secretary of the historical-philological class from 1874 to 1895 , Mommsen organized numerous large scientific companies, especially source editions. In addition, through close contacts with Friedrich Althoff, he temporarily exerted great influence on Prussian science and university policy.

"Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum"

Mommsen had designed the collection of all known ancient Latin inscriptions ( Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum ) at the beginning of his scientific career when he published the model of the inscriptions of the Kingdom of Naples (1852). The complete Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum should consist of 16 volumes, 15 of which were still published during Mommsen's lifetime, five of which were written by Mommsen himself. In contrast to earlier collections, the basic principle for the edition was the autopsy principle , in which all preserved inscriptions were checked in the original. For the project, he not only used the Prussian Academy, but also the Royal Prussian Archaeological Institute , of which he was a long-time central director. For example, when awarding travel grants or filling institute positions, he steered an expressly desired epigraphic partial orientation of the institute. Mommsen had set aside 20 years for the implementation of the collection project for ancient Latin inscriptions. However, it still exists in the 21st century, now at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences .

The exploration of the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes

Under the leadership of Mommsen, the Imperial Limes Commission began its work in 1892 , the aim of which was to find out the exact course and location of the forts of the Upper German-Rhaetian Limes . The research reports on the excavations filled fourteen volumes and are still today considered a unique pioneering act in the processing of Germanic-Roman history.

Other editions and research companies

Mommsen also published the corpus luris civilis and codex theodosianus , which are essential for Roman law . He was also instrumental in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica , where he founded the series of Auctores antiquissimi ; Among the late antique Latin authors he edited himself there were Jordanes ( De origine actibusque Getarum ) and Hydatius von Aquae Flaviae (Continuatio Chronicorum Hieronymianorum) . In addition, there was the edition of the writings of the church fathers and numerous other undertakings. At the Berlin Academy, for example, he initiated research projects on the Greek Mint and Prosopographia Imperii Romani, which continue to this day, like the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum .

The Mommsen Society , the association of German-speaking ancient scholars, was later named after Theodor Mommsen .

Mommsen as a politician

In addition to his academic work, Mommsen was also politically active and dealt critically with the topics of anti-Semitism , imperialism and, as a contemporary of the revolution of 1848, with liberalism.

Mommsen was a co-founder of the liberal German Progressive Party in 1861 . From 1863 to 1866 and from 1873 to 1879 he was a member of the Prussian state parliament , from 1881 to 1884 in the Reichstag , first for the Progress Party, later for the National Liberals , and finally for the Secessionists . He mainly dealt with questions of science and education policy and enjoyed considerable authority: "When Mommsen, who was considered liberal and opposed imperialism and anti-Semitism, spoke out, there was a great response." Out of disappointment with the politics of the empire and its future he was very pessimistic, he finally recommended cooperation between the liberals and the social democrats . In 1881 Mommsen got into a dispute with Otto von Bismarck about social policy .

In the so-called Berlin anti-Semitism dispute of 1879/1880, he turned against his fellow historian Heinrich von Treitschke , who coined the slogan “The Jews are our misfortune” and thus made hatred of Jews socially acceptable in Mommsen's eyes. In 1890, Mommsen was one of the leading founders of the Association for the Defense against Anti-Semitism . The Free Scientific Association elected him an honorary member in 1887.

Apartment fire on July 12, 1880

In the fire in Mommsen's study, "the most important manuscripts of the Gothic history of the Jordanes were lost". His library was almost completely destroyed.

Honors, memorials, monuments, streets and buildings

The sculptor Fritz Schaper created a model sketch
for the Berlin Mommsen memorial in 1905 .
The sculptor Adolf Brütt in front of his Theodor Mommsen memorial in the Weimar Sculpture School (1908)
Memorial to Nobel Prize Winner Mommsen in front of Humboldt University, by Adolf Brütt (1909)

In 1987, a memorial to his life and work was set up in Mommsen's hometown of Garding , the Theodor Mommsen Memorial next to his birthplace, on which a plaque has been attached since 1903.

Mommsen's photographs had been made in large numbers since the early days of the new medium, and the historian, who had clearly recognized the importance of media presence for his reputation as a scientist and writer, carefully watched over their publication. A list of Mommsen's numerous photographs and xylographs is given by Hans Markus von Kaenel.

Drawings , etchings and lithographs with Mommsen's portrait were created by numerous well-known artists, including Heinrich Böse (1897–1982), Walter Gramatté (1897–1929), Carl Friedrich Irminger (1813–1863), Louis Jacoby (1828–1918), Meinhard Jacoby (1873–1956), Károly Józsa (1876–1929), Moritz Klinkicht (1849–1932), Arthur Krampf (1864–1950), Wilhelm Krauskopf (1847–1921), Rudolf Lehmann (1819–1905), Ernesto Mancastroppa ( 1857–1909), Adolf von Menzel (1815–1905), Hans Olde (1855–1917), William Blake Richmond (1842–1921), Gustav Richter (1823–1884), Fritz Schulze (1838–1914), Hans Seydel ( 1866–1916), Fritz Werner (1827–1908).

Paintings with Mommsen's portrait are by Willi Becker (1899–1963), Emanuel Grosser (1874–1921), Alphons Hollaender (1845–1923), Ludwig Knaus (1829–1910), Franz von Lenbach (1836–1904), Sabine Lepsius ( 1864–1942), Hans Schadow (1862–1924), Cesare Tropea (1861–1914 [?]), Friedrich Weidig (1859–1933). There are also historical pictures by William Pape (1859–1920) and Anton von Werner (1843–1915).

Portrait busts and statuettes were created by Reinhold Begas (1831–1911), Gustav Heinrich Eberlein (1847–1926), Ferdinand Carl Emmanuel Hartzer (1838–1906), Hermann Rudolf Heidel (180–1865), Meinhard Jacoby , Hans Hugo Lederer (1871–1949) ), Walter Lobach (1863–1926), Karl Pracht (1866–1917), Fritz Schaper (1841–1919), Maria Schlafhorst (1865–1925), Heinrich Splieth (1877–1929), Joseph Uphues (1850–1911) ( Mommsen portrait used for representation of the chronicler of the Mark Brandenburg Heinrich von Antwerp , see below).

Numerous medals and plaques with the portrait of Mommsen were designed for the famous ancient historian, as for other well-known personalities.

Commemorative plaques and monuments are by Adolf Brütt (1855–1939), Johannes Götz (1865–1934), Josef Kowarzik (1860–1911).

Mommsen's portrait was also disseminated on postcards, advertising photos and postage stamps.

Finally, Mommsen was also the subject of caricatures.

On the occasion of the centenary of the Berlin University on November 1, 1909, on the day of Mommsen's death, the seat image created by Adolf Brütt in Weimar was unveiled.

The Berlin sculptor Heinrich Splieth created a Mommsen bust, which was cast in bronze and placed on a pedestal in Garding as a memorial. It was stolen in 2001 and has not appeared since. The Mommsen bust , which visitors to the city can see today on the market square in Garding, is a cast of a bust by the Berlin sculptor Karl Pracht .

In the no longer existing Mommsen pharmacy in Berlin-Charlottenburg was a cast of Mommsen's marble bust, which the sculptor Ferdinand Hartzer had created in 1905 for the gallery of Berlin professors at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität.

In several places streets have been named after Mommsen. The same goes for schools. The film series Die Lümmel von der Erste Bank takes place at a fictional Mommsen high school in Baden-Baden. The Mommsenstadion in Berlin bears his name. There was also a Mommsen grammar school opened in 1903 on Wormser Strasse in Berlin-Charlottenburg, which was merged with the Kaiserin-Augusta grammar school after the war , now the Heinz Berggruen grammar school . Mommsen made a donation for the teachers' library before his death.

The sculptor Joseph Uphues designed the figure of the Brandenburg canon and historiographer Heinrich von Antwerp , who worked in the 12th and 13th centuries, according to the physiognomy of the eighty-year-old Mommsen , at least according to Uta Lehnert the resemblance is “probably not accidental”. The bust was a minor figure in Monument Group 3 with the central statue for Otto II in Berlin's Siegesallee and was unveiled on March 22, 1899.

On May 1, 2003 an asteroid was named after Theodor Mommsen: (52293) Mommsen .

On December 1, 2017 , a Berlin commemorative plaque was unveiled at his former home, Berlin-Charlottenburg , Marchstraße 8 (today: Straße des 17. Juni 152) .

Mommsen received an intense honor through the portrait medals with his portrait produced during his lifetime and posthumously, which were popular among the contemporary educated middle class of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. achieved widespread use.

On November 2, 2017, Deutsche Post AG issued a special postage stamp with a face value of 190 euro cents on his 200th birthday . The design comes from the graphic artist Julia Warbanow from Berlin.

In 1926 the plant genus Mommsenia Urb was named in his honor . & Ekman from the Black Mouth Family (Melastomataceae).


  • Karl Christ among others: Theodor Mommsen and the "Roman History". (= Theodor Mommsen: Roman History. Volume 8). dtv, Munich 1976. (6th edition 2001, ISBN 3-423-59055-6 )
  • Alexander DemandtMommsen, Theodor. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 18, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-428-00199-0 , pp. 25-27 ( digitized version ).
  • Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume 1, Part. 8, Supplement L-Z. Winter, Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-8253-6051-1 , pp. 87-90.
  • Joachim Fest : pathetic of history and builder from the Babylonian spirit. Theodor Mommsen's two paths to history. In: Ders .: Paths to History. About Theodor Mommsen, Jacob Burckhardt and Golo Mann . (= Manesse library. 47). 2nd Edition. Manesse-Verlag, Zurich 1992, ISBN 3-7175-8197-X , pp. 27-70.
  • Carl Gehrcke: Theodor Mommsen as a Schleswig-Holstein journalist (= writings of the Baltic Commission in Kiel . Volume VIII). Ferdinand Hirt, Breslau 1927.
  • Ève Gran-Aymerich , Jürgen von Ungern-Sternberg (ed.): L'Antiquité partagée. Correspondances franco-allemandes 1823–1861. In: Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. Volume 47, Paris 2012, ISBN 978-2-87754-272-2 .
  • Alfred Heuss : Theodor Mommsen and the 19th century. (= Publications of the Schleswig-Holstein University Society of Kiel. 19). Hirt, Kiel 1956. (Reprint: Steiner, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-515-06966-6 ).
  • Hans-Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. For the visual perception of a great personality of the 19th century. With a foreword by Stefan Rebenich (= Frankfurter Archäologische Schriften. Supplements. 1). Verlag Rudolf Habelt, Bonn 2018, ISBN 978-3-7749-4134-2 .
  • Peter Köpf : The Mommsens. From 1848 until today - the story of a family is the story of the Germans. Europa Verlag, Leipzig 2004, ISBN 3-203-79147-1 .
  • Wilfried Nippel , Bernd Seidensticker (Ed.): Theodor Mommsen's long shadow. Roman constitutional law as a permanent challenge for research. (= Spudasmata . Volume 107). Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 2005, ISBN 3-487-13086-6 .
  • Stefan Rebenich : Theodor Mommsen: a biography. Beck, Munich 2002. (Paperback edition Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54752-2 ).
  • Stefan Rebenich: Theodor Mommsen's "Roman History". In: Elke Stein-Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim Hölkeskamp (ed.): Places of remembrance of antiquity. The Roman world. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54682-X , pp. 660-676.
  • Stefan Rebenich: Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903). In: Lutz Raphael (Hrsg.): Classics of the science of history . Volume 1: From Edward Gibbon to Marc Bloch. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-406-54118-6 , pp. 88-105.
  • Stefan Rebenich, Gisa Franke (eds.): Theodor Mommsen and Friedrich Althoff. Correspondence 1882–1903. (= German historical sources of the 19th and 20th centuries. Volume 67). Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-486-70104-3 .
  • Stefan Rebenich, Iole Fargnoli (eds.): Theodor Mommsen and the meaning of Roman law (= Freiburg legal- historical treatises FRA. New series volume 69, Dept. A: treatises on Roman law and ancient legal history ). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-428-14050-3 .
  • Arno Mentzel-Reuters, Mark Mersiowsky, Peter Orth, Olaf B. Rader: Phoenix from the Ashes. Theodor Mommsen and the Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Catalog for the MGH exhibition from November 25 to December 21, 2005. Munich and Berlin 2005 (PDF, 8.32 MB) .
  • Repertory of the letters from the Walter de Gruyter archive. Selected by Otto Neuendorff. Edited by Anne-Katrin Ziesak . Berlin / New York 1999, p. 200.
  • Sebastian Schermaul: Theodor Mommsen and his time in Leipzig 1848–1851. In: Journal for Modern Legal History. No. 3 + 4, 2016, pp. 173–192.
  • Simon Strauss: From Mommsen to Gelzer ? The conception of Roman republican society in “constitutional law” and “nobility” . Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2017, ISBN 978-3-515-11851-4 .
  • Fritz Sturm : Theodor Mommsen. Thoughts on the life and work of the great German legal historian. (= Series of publications by the Legal History Museum Karlsruhe. Issue 11). Ges. For cultural historical documentation, Karlsruhe 2006, ISBN 3-922596-66-5 .
  • Theodor Mommsen in an interview about anti-Semitism. In: Hermann Bahr : The anti-Semitism. An international interview . Edited and with an appendix by Hermann Greive . Jüdischer Verlag im Athenäum-Verlag, Königstein 1979, ISBN 3-7610-8043-3 , pp. 26-28. (Original edition: Deutsche Zeitung . Vienna; then: Fischer, Berlin 1894; last: Hermann, Bahr: Critical Writings in Individual Editions . Ed. By Claus Pias . Volume 3. VDG-Weimar, Kromsdorf 2005, ISBN 3-89739-507-X ).
  • Lothar Wickert : Theodor Mommsen. 4 volumes. Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1959–1980.
  • Josef Wiesehöfer with the assistance of Henning Börm (ed.): Theodor Mommsen: Scholar, politician and writer. Steiner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-515-08719-2 .
  • Albert Wucher : Theodor Mommsen. In: Hans-Ulrich Wehler (ed.): German historians. Volume 4, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1972, pp. 383-400.

Web links

Commons : Theodor Mommsen  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Theodor Mommsen  - Sources and full texts


  1. ^ The two quotations from Stefan Rebenich: Theodor Mommsen: Scientist, Politician, Nobel Prize Laureate in Literature. In: Numismatisches Nachrichtenblatt. 52, 2003, p. 445 ff.
  2. ^ Fellows Directory. Biographical Index: Former RSE Fellows 1783–2002. (PDF file) Royal Society of Edinburgh, accessed March 22, 2020 .
  3. ^ Foreign members of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1724. Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen. Russian Academy of Sciences, accessed October 7, 2015 .
  4. ^ 19th century family tree. In: Retrieved November 2, 2015 .
  5. Theodor Mommsen's grave
  6. ^ Jurist, historian and man of letters. November 3, 2017 marks the 200th birthday of Nobel Prize winner Theodor Mommsen. In: Der Tagesspiegel . October 14, 2017, p. B 5.
  7. Wilfried Nippel , quoted from Der Tagesspiegel . October 14, 2017, p. B 5.
  8. Treasures from 200 years of MGH history - Part 10: A devastating fire. In: Monumenta Germaniae Historica. July 10, 2020, accessed July 15, 2020 .
  9. On the pictorial representation of Mommsen cf. Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 125-134.
  10. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 9–48.
  11. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 171–180.
  12. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 49–59.
  13. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 60–76, pp. 181–185.
  14. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 87-102.
  15. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 77–86.
  16. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 137–150.
  17. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 151–169.
  18. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 118–125.
  19. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, pp. 131-134; Dieter Staacken: Mommsen as a memorial. Forms of admiration and honor in the course of time using the example of the Gardinger Mommsen monument. In: From Seebüll to Berlin. Gardings honorary citizen Theodor Mommsen. Origin - life - achievement. (= Eiderstädter. Hefte. 6). ed. from Heimatbund Landschaft Eiderstedt and North Frisian Association. St. Peter Ording 2003, pp. 112-125.
  20. ^ Hans Markus von Kaenel: Theodor Mommsen in the visual media. 2018, p. 100; Angelika Keune: Scholar portraits of the Humboldt University in Berlin. Monuments, busts, reliefs, plaques, paintings, drawings, graphics, medals. Humboldt University, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-9806239-5-5 , p. 109.
  21. Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee. Réclame Royale. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-496-01189-0 , p. 109.
  22. Stefan Krmnicek (ed.): Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903) on medals and plaques. Collection of the Institute for Classical Archeology at the University of Tübingen (= From Croesus to King Wilhelm. New series. Volume 2). University Library Tübingen, Tübingen 2017, doi: 10.15496 / publication-19540 .
  23. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - Extended Edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 , doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .