Knut Hamsun

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Knut Hamsun, 1939
Knut Hamsun, 1890

Knut Hamsun (born Knud Pedersen , born August 4, 1859 in Garmo / Garmostrædet near Lom or in Vågå , Fylke Oppland , Norway ; †  February 19, 1952 in Nørholm near Grimstad ) was one of the most important Norwegian writers of the early 20th century. In 1920 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature for his work Segen der Erde , which was published in Norway in 1917 as Markens Grøde .

Hamsun's fame as a writer is overshadowed by his active advocacy for National Socialism . After the Second World War he was sentenced to a heavy fine for collaborating with the German occupiers.


Childhood and youth

Hamsund gård, where Knut Hamsun experienced his early childhood
Knut Hamsun 1871
Knut Hamsun 1874

Knut Hamsun was born in 1859 as the fourth of seven children of the small farmers Peder Pedersen and Tora Olsdatter and was baptized with the name Knud Pedersen three weeks after his birth in Garmo stave church. His father also worked as a village tailor.

In 1863 the family moved to Hamarøy in Nordland and bought the small Hamsund farm there. The in many respects backward, almost feudal society with its patriarchal relationships between masters and subordinates has probably caused Hamsun's basic conservative attitude.

At the age of nine he came to his uncle Hans Ohlsen in Presteid, where his parents were in debt, for several years, and had to do auxiliary services in the rectory and read from the Bible messenger. In retrospect, he later described this period as martyrdom. After his confirmation he worked as a shop assistant for the merchant Walsøe in Tranøy , where he scribbled his first verses on the doorframe of the shop.

In 1875, at the age of sixteen, Hamsun set out on a journey through Norway to get to know the country. He worked as a dock worker, traveling merchant and community clerk.


As an author, Hamsun initially called himself Knut Pedersen, in 1878 he added the farm name: Knut Pedersen Hamsund. At that time it became customary among educated people and emigrants to use a family name that corresponded to the name of the property in addition to or instead of the father's name. In 1879 he used the Nordic sounding name Knut Pederson. In an essay from 1885, the name Hamsun appeared for the first time - allegedly due to a typographical error - and kept it from then on. A family name only became compulsory in Norway in 1923.

Early literary development

Knut Hamsun, 1890
Knut Hamsun as a tram conductor in Chicago, 1884

Hamsun made his first literary attempts in 1877 with the work Den Gaadefulde (The Mysterious) and the farmer's novella Björger (The Citizen) from 1878, in which he processed experiences of his time in Presteid. Both works were printed and distributed in small towns in the north, but not noticed elsewhere.

In 1882 Hamsun emigrated to the USA. There he worked as a tram conductor in Chicago, farm worker, clerk and secretary. In 1885 he came back to Norway, suffering from severe pneumonia . After his recovery he tried briefly to work as a journalist in Oslo (then Kristiania), but traveled again to the USA in 1886, where he wrote newspaper articles, among other things. In 1888 he returned to Norway.

Hamsun never really got a foothold in the USA; the American way of life repelled him from the start. This is also clear in several essays from that and later period, including in Fra det moderne Amerikas Aandsliv from 1899, in which he polemically devalues ​​American intellectual life from the point of view of the European intellectual, but also in On the Benches at New Foundland 1891, On the prairie 1903 and vagabond days 1905.

The novel Sult , published in 1890 , in the German translation Hunger , brought him first literary recognition. In the next few years he lived in Paris for several years and then undertook extensive trips to various countries (Finland, Russia, Turkey, Persia).

Medium creative period

The works of this period, in which the individual development of a few main characters is the focus, established his world fame. In 1892 Mysterier ( Mysteries ) appeared, in which he depicts the disruption of a person. In 1893 the novel Redaktør Lynge came out, in which Hamsun observes and criticizes the press in the Norwegian capital. One of his main works was Pan , published in 1894 . The work was initially seen as a glorification of nature, but this mood is thwarted by Hamsun in the second part of the book. Between 1895 and 1898, Hamsun's drama trilogy was created, which includes the pieces An des Reiches Pforten , Spiel des Lebens and Abendröte . The novel Victoria was published in 1898 . In the same year Hamsun married Bergljot Bech, from whom he divorced in 1906.

Late creative period

Marie and Knut Hamsun, 1909
Marie and Knut Hamsun with their children Tore, Arild and Ellinor (1917)
Knut and Marie Hamsun with their four children (1933)

In 1909 Knut Hamsun married the 22 years younger actress Marie Andersen, who became known as a children's book author under the name Marie Hamsun . The couple had four children: sons Tore and Arild were born in 1912 and 1914, and daughters Ellinor and Cecilia followed in 1916 and 1917.

The works after his second marriage each show a multitude of figures in their social interrelations. Between 1906 and 1912 he published his hiking trilogy, at the center of which is a wanderer who does not want to commit himself, consisting of Under Høststjærnen ( Unter Herbststernen , 1906), En Vandrer spiller med Sordin ( Muted Saitenspiel , 1909) and Den Siste Glæde ( The Last Joy , 1912). These were the last works written in the first person.

In 1911 Hamsun bought a farm in Hamarøy , near which his father had already had his farm. In 1913 and 1915 he described the downfall of the old landowning families and the rise of new groups in the children of their time (1913) and in the sequel Die Stadt Segelfoss (1915), which are written in the third person.

In 1917 his most famous novel, Markens Grøde ( Blessing of the Earth ) was published , for which he received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1920 and in which he describes the story of a virtuous wasteland farmer who reclaims his land and lives from the fruits of his labor. In the same year, Hamsun moved to southern Norway to live closer to the cities. He wrote Konerne ved Vandposten ( Die Weiber am Brunnen , 1920), which deals with self-deception as a survival strategy, and Siste Kapitel ( The Last Chapter , 1923), a novel about a sanatorium, which has a clear similarity to the 1924 novel Der Zauberberg des Hamsun admirer Thomas Mann was certified.

Another trilogy appeared in the years 1927 to 1933 with the three August novels Landstrykere ( Landstreicher , 1927), August ( August circumnavigator , 1930) and Men Livet lever ( After year and day , 1933). The topics of emigration, homeland and industrialization in Norway are dealt with here. In 1936 his last novel Ringen sluttet ( The ring closes ) was published, which ties in with Sult and calls all traditional values ​​into question using the example of a young total refuser .

Hamsun and Germany

Hamsun was a great admirer of Germany and a staunch opponent of British imperialism and communism . The British approach to the Boer War was decisive for Hamsun's anti-British attitude . He had already publicly advocated the German position during the First World War . For Hamsun, Germany symbolized “young Europe”. He remained a friend of Germany until his death, although he did not speak the German language.

At the time of National Socialism , he took a stand for Hitler's politics in newspaper articles, while his literary production came to a standstill. In 1935, for example, he sharply attacked Carl von Ossietzky , who was imprisoned in the Esterwegen concentration camp , in the newspaper Aftenposten , among others . He described him as a “strange friend of peace” who had intentionally stayed in Germany in order to appear as a martyr. "If the government sets up concentration camps, you and the world should understand that there are good reasons for that," he wrote to an engineer who had campaigned for Ossietzky. When Carl von Ossietzky received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1935, Hamsun publicly expressed massive criticism and justified the establishment of concentration camps.

Hamsun with daughter Ellinor, 1944

Hamsun justified the disenfranchisement of the Jews in the German Reich as follows: "I understood it to mean that Germany only wants to inhibit Jewish power within the country, so that it is not the Jews but the Germans who should rule in Germany." must “be able to defend itself” if, according to Hamsun, it is “overwhelmed by this alien race”. For the Jews he called for a separate country on the grounds: "It is unsatisfactory for both parties that the Jews are forced to be at home among foreign races."

In 1936, Hamsun called for the election of the leader of the Norwegian Nasjonal Samling , Vidkun Quisling . During the German invasion of Norway in 1940 , he appealed to his compatriots: “Norwegians! Throw away the gun and go home again! The Germans fight for all of us and are now breaking England's tyranny over us and all neutrals. "

In 1947, in his speech at the trial against him, he justified these and similar statements made at the time as follows: “I wrote to prevent Norwegian youth and Norwegian men from acting foolishly and defiantly against the occupying power, without the slightest benefit, only to death and doom for themselves. "

Hamsun was concerned about attacks by the occupying power on the Norwegian population, as far as he heard about them. He stood up for some Norwegians who were to be executed by the occupying forces , partly with success, but not for others either, although he had been asked to do so. The brutal demeanor of Reich Commissioner Josef Terboven finally caused Hamsun in 1943 to work towards his replacement.

On May 18, 1943, Hamsun visited Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels , who valued Hamsun's works very much, in his private apartment in Berlin. Goebbels was deeply moved and happily noted in his diary that Hamsun's belief in the German victory was completely unshakable. In June, Hamsun gave Goebbels his Nobel Prize medal. On June 23, 1943, at the first meeting of the Union of National Journalists' Associations in Vienna, organized by Goebbels, Hamsun gave an anti-English speech in front of around 500 journalists from 40 countries, in which he openly spoke out in favor of National Socialism.

On June 26, 1943, Hamsun met Hitler at the Obersalzberger Berghof . There are different accounts of the circumstances under which this meeting took place. In her memoirs, Hamsun's wife Marie suggested that the visit to Hitler was planned before the Vienna Conference. In the late 1990s, the psychologist Gunvold Hermundstad argued that Hamsun's Vienna speech had caused so much attention that the meeting was hastily arranged. According to Thorkild Hansen , Goebbels arranged the audience that would later also become the subject of the trial against Hamsun. When Hamsun voiced his criticism of Terboven's approach, Hitler tried to prevent him from continuing with a torrent of speech. Hamsun dared to interrupt Hitler with the words: "The Reichskommissar's methods are not suitable for us, his 'Prussia' is unacceptable to us, and then the executions - we don't want any more!" When asked, Hitler told him whether Terboven was relieved, finally that he should return to Essen after the end of the war. When Hamsun persisted and insisted on a quicker replacement, Hitler broke off the conversation, which was made difficult by Hamsun's hearing loss and the interposition of an interpreter. Hitler kept his outburst of anger out of respect for Hamsun until he was gone. Hamsun's assumption that he could influence Hitler through his name and authority proved to be a mistake.

On May 7, 1945, Hamsun's obituary for Hitler appeared in Aftenposten :

“I am not worth speaking out loud about Adolf Hitler and his life and actions do not invite sentimental emotion. He was a warrior, a warrior for humanity, and a preacher of the gospel of justice for all peoples. He was a Reformation figure of the highest order and it was his historical fate to have to work in a time of unprecedented brutality, to which he ultimately fell victim. This is how every Western European can see Adolf Hitler, but we, his followers, bow our heads to his death. "

When asked by his son Tore about the motivation for this obituary, Knut Hamsun replied: "It was a gesture of chivalry towards a fallen greatness."

The character of Hamsun's ideological proximity to National Socialism is controversial in the reception: in part, common values ​​of race , myth , blood and soil , discipline and adventure are emphasized, in part, however, the rejection of the bourgeoisie as a link to Hitler.

After the Second World War

After the end of the Second World War, attempts were made to hold Hamsun accountable for his sympathy with the occupying forces. Because of his age (he was 86) and his merits, he was not taken into custody, but first taken to a retirement home in Landvik , then transferred to the psychiatric clinic in Vinderen ( Oslo ) for a longer examination . His assessment as "permanently mentally weakened" should serve to relieve him in court. Hamsun opposed this attempt and insisted on justifying his behavior during the occupation in a court case.

The Supreme Court charges of criminal offense were dropped as untenable. The case was followed up under the treason order, which obliged collaborators to pay compensation. Hamsun's membership in a Nazi organization could not be clearly proven, nevertheless the district court of Grimstad sentenced him on December 16, 1947 with the votes of two lay judges against the vote of the court chairman to a “compensation” of 425,000 kroner plus interest and procedural costs for “damage towards the Norwegian state ”. Following this judgment, he was allowed to return to his Nørholm estate near Grimstad . In the revision proceedings in 1948 the sum was reduced to 325,000 crowns. The fine remained so high that it meant the financial ruin of the family.

In his 1947 defense and in his last book, På gjengrodde Stier ( On Overgrown Paths , published 1949), Hamsun proved that he was by no means insane. After his 90th birthday, however, he began to decline physically and mentally. He died at the age of 92 on Nørholm, in whose garden his urn was also buried.


Knut Hamsun, painting by Alfredo Andersen (1860–1935)
Christian Sinding , Gunnar Heiberg and Knut Hamsun, painting by Henrik Lund (1879–1935)

Hamsun's work was enthusiastically received, especially in Germany, where around 1900 there was a strong preference for everything Nordic. His first biography appeared in Germany as early as 1910. His admirers included Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse , Robert Musil , Arthur Schnitzler , Jakob Wassermann , Stefan Zweig , Martin Buber , Arnold Schönberg and Alfred Einstein . They all contributed to the festschrift that was published in Germany on Hamsun's 70th birthday. Maxim Gorki , Gerhart Hauptmann , Heinrich Mann , Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and André Gide also contributed to the commemorative publication published in Norway for the same occasion . Other admirers were Ernest Hemingway , Franz Kafka , John Galsworthy , Henry Miller and even the young Bertolt Brecht . One of the most renowned journalists and writers in Germany at the time, Kurt Tucholsky , also confessed in a short article in the Vossische Zeitung , issue of January 1, 1928: "Kurt Tucholsky loves ... Hamsun". Tucholsky's attitude, however, changed with Hamsun's offensive turn to National Socialism and turned into massive disappointment.

Hamsun's collaboration with the National Socialists and his lack of insight in the last years of his life are the subject of Tankred Dorst's play Eiszeit from 1973. In 1975 the play was filmed under the direction of Peter Zadek , the director of the world premiere.

A German Knut Hamsun Society existed from 1955 to 1978. In 1988 the Hamsun Society was founded in Norway, dedicated to promoting knowledge and research into Hamsun's work.

The film Hamsun (1996) deals with the last 17 years of Knut Hamsun's life. The main roles are played by Max von Sydow (Knut Hamsun) and Ghita Nørby (Marie Hamsun). In addition, several of his novels and short stories have been edited as plays or filmed.

On the occasion of his 150th birthday in 2009, Ingar Sletten Kolloen's biography, which was very successful in Norway, was published in several translations. In 2011 the German edition was published by Landt Verlag . In 2010 the Hamsun Center in Presteid in the northern Norwegian municipality of Hamarøy, designed by the American architect Steven Holl , was opened to the public; it is a literature house and documentation center on Hamsun.

Monuments, places of remembrance, names

In Norway a place (plass), a street (gate) or a street or a way (vei) is named after Hamsun: in Bodø, Grimstad, Hamarøy, Kongsberg, Lom, Mo i Rana, Narvik, Raufoss, Stokmarknes and Trondheim.

In the following Norwegian places you can see monuments, memorial stones, busts and memorial plaques in memory of Hamsun: in Bøverdalen / Elveseter, Grimstad (in the city and on the Nørholm Manor), Hamarøy (in three places), Harstad, Kjerringøy, Koppang, Lillehammer , Lillesand, Lom (in the town and in Garmo), Oslo, Sollia / Stor-Elvdal, Sortland, Tromsø, Vågå and Øystese.

On Hamarøy a secondary school is named after Hamsun: Knut Hamsun videregående skole.

On August 4, 2009, Norwegian Post issued a special stamp with a portrait of Hamsun and an excerpt from the manuscript on "Mysteries" worth 25 Norwegian kroner for his 150th birthday.

Works (selection)

Pan , Dutch edition from 1930
  • Fra det modern America's Aandsliv (1889)
  • Hunger (1890, German 1890) ISBN 3-423-11398-7
  • Mysteries (1892, German 1894) ISBN 3-423-11157-7 ; Radio play Mysteries - Johann Nilsen Nagel breaks with traditions , 1959, directed by Gert Westphal , music by Bernd Scholz ISBN 3-89813-341-9
  • Editor Lynge (1893, German 1898)
  • New Earth (German 1894)
  • Pan (1894, German 1895.) ISBN 3-423-12709-0
  • Victoria . The story of a love. (1898, German 1899) ISBN 3-423-12639-6
  • A ghost and other experiences (1898, German Albert Langen, Munich 1934)
  • In wonderland. Experiences and dreams from the Caucasus (German 1903)
  • The wild choir [poems] (1904, German 1926)
  • Fighting forces (German Albert Langen, Munich 1905)
  • Benoni (German 1909)
  • Rosa (German 1909)
  • The "Wanderer Trilogy":
Under autumn stars (1906, German 1908)
Muted string playing (1909, German 1910)
The Last Joy (1912, German 1914)
  • The "Segelfoss novels":
Children of their time (1913, German 1914)
The town of Segelfoss (1915, German 1916)
Tramp (German 1928)
August circumnavigator (1930)
By year and day (1933)

The Norwegian and German first editions of all works

(Details of translators in brackets)

Norw. First edition Original title German title German first edition Place in the Collected Works
1877 The Gaadefulde. En kjærlighedshistorie fra Nordland (under the name Knud Pedersen) [The mysterious one. A love story from Nordland] - -
1878 Et Gjensyn (under the name Knud Pedersen Hamsund) [A greeting] - -
1878 Bjørger (under the name Knud Pedersen Hamsund) - 1984
(Gert Imbeck)
1889 Lars Oftedal . Udkast (11 items, first in Dagbladet) - - -
1889 Fra det modern America's Aandsliv [From the spiritual life of modern America] 1981 -
1890 Sult hunger 1891
(Marie v. Borch)
Vol. 1 (1917)
1892 Mysterious Mysteries 1894
(Marie v. Borch)
Vol. 1 (1917)
(Pauline Klaiber-Gottschau,
1925 rev. By J. Sandmeier)
1893 Editor Lynge Editor Lynge 1898
(Marie v. Borch)
Part of vol. 2 (1922)
(J. Sandmeier)
1893 Ny Jord New earth 1894
(Marie v. Borch)
Part of vol. 2 (1922)
(J. Sandmeier)
1894 Pan Pan 1895
(Marie v. Borch)
Vol. 3 (1923)
(J. Sandmeier)
(separately as early as 1921)
1895 Ved Rigets Port At the gates of the empire [drama] 1895
(Marie Herzfeld)
Part of vol. 11 (1926)
(J. Sandmeier)
1896 Livets Spil Game of Life [Drama] 1910
(Christian Morgenstern)
Part of vol. 11 (1926)
(J. Sandmeier)
1897 siesta

(Dronningen af ​​Saba, Med Skyshest, Jul i Aasen, Jon Tro, Julegilde, women fra Tivoli, Paa Gaden, Rejersen af ​​Sydstjaernen, Ringen, Paa Bankerne, En ganse alminding Flue, Hemmeling Ve, Lidt Paris)

The Queen of Sheba and other short stories

(The Queen of Sheba, My Styßpferd, Christmas in the mountain hut, Johannes Treu, Christmas feast, The Lady of Tivoli, On the Street, Schiffer Reiersen, The Ring, On the benches near New-Foundland, A very common fly, Secret woe, Parisian sketches.) 253 pp.

(Ernst Brausewetter)
Vol. 10 (1925), Part 1
(Collected Novellas,
J. Sandmeier, 375 pages)
1898 Aftenrøde . Slutningspil Afterglow [drama] 1904
(Christian Morgenstern)
Vol. 11 (1926)
(J. Sandmeier)
1898 Victoria. En kjærlighedshistorie Victoria 1899
(Mathilde Mann)
Vol. 3 (1923)
(J. Sandmeier)
slaves of love and other short stories
(slaves of love, the son of the sun, the conqueror, Zacchaeus, little experiences, father and son, the voice of life, small town life, an arch prankster) 192 S.
1903 Kratskog . Historier og Skitser (Kjærlighetens slaver, Solens Soen, Erobreren, Zacheus, Polevede Smaating, Far og Soen, Livets Roest, Smaabyliv, En Aerkelskaelm) The voice of life and other short stories

142 pp.

Slaves of Love and other short stories
(Slaves of Love, The Son of the Sun, The Conqueror, Zacchaeus, Little Experiences, Father and Son, The Voice of Life, Small Town Life, An Arch Rascal) 192 p.

(Ernst Brausewetter?)

(Mathilde Mann)

Vol. 10 (1925), Part 2: Undergrowth
(Collected Novellas,
J. Sandmeier, 375 pages)
1903 I Æventyrland. Oplevet and drømt in the Caucasus In Wonderland: Experiences and dreams from the Caucasus 1903
(Clare Greverus Mjöen)
Vol. 6 (1924)
(Cläre Greverus Mjöen)
1903 Dronning Tamara (play in three acts) Queen Tamara [acting] 1903
(Gertrud Ingeborg Klett)
Vol. 12 (1926), pp. 347-488
(Gertrud Ingeborg Klett)
1904 Det vilde Kor (Digte) The wild choir [poems] 1926
(Heinrich Goebel) 122 pp.
The Eternal Roar [Selected Poems] 1925
(Hermann Hiltbrunner), 68 pp.
Vol. 12 (1926), pp. 489-515
(H. Hiltbrunner)
1904 Sværmere Enthusiast 1905
(Hermann Kiy)
Part of vol. 3 (1923)

(J. Sandmeier)

- Under halvmaanen Under the crescent. Travel pictures from Turkey 1906
(Gertrud Ingeborg Klett)
Vol. 6 (1924)
(Gertrud Ingeborg Klett)
1905 Striding Liv. Skildringer from Vesten and Østen Combat forces

(On the Blaamandsinsel [first: Maureninsel], Alexander and Leonarda, Among animals, summer delight, women's victory, vagabond days [first: Vegabondage], small town life)

(Hermann Kiy) 261 pp.
Vol. 10 (1925), Part 3
(Collected Novellas,
J. Sandmeier, 375 pages)
1906 Under Høststjærnen. En Vandrers Fortælling Under autumn stars 1908
(Pauline Klaiber)
Vol. 5 (1923)
(J. Sandmeier)
1908 Benoni Benoni 1909
(Gertrud Ingeborg Klett),
(Mathilde Mann)
Vol. 4 (1923)
(J. Sandmeier)
1908 Rosa: Af Student Parelius' Papirer pink 1909
(Gertrud Ingeborg Klett)
Vol. 4 (1923)
(J. Sandmeier)
1909 En Vandrer spiller med Sordin G edämpftes Saitenspiel 1910
(Pauline Klaiber)
Vol. 5 (1923)
(J. Sandmeier)
1910 Livet i Vold Brought by the devil (drama) 1911
(Carl Morburger)
Vol. 11 (1926)
1912 The sidste Glæde The final joy 1914
(Niels Hoyer)
Vol. 5 (1923)
(J. Sandmeier)
1913 Børn av Tiden Children of their time 1914
(Niels Hoyer)
Vol. 6 (1924)
(Niels Hoyer)
1915 Sailfoss By The city of Segelfoss 1916
(Pauline Klaiber)
Vol. 7 (1924)
(Pauline Klaiber-Gottschau)
1917 Brands Grøde Blessing the earth 1918
(Pauline Klaiber)
Vol. 8 (1924)
(Pauline Klaiber-Gottschau)
1918 Sproget i Fare [Language in danger] - -
1920 Konerne ved Vandposten Women at the well 1921
(Pauline Klaiber-Gottschau)
Vol. 9 (1925)
(rev. J. Sandmeier)
1923 Siste chapters The last chapter 1924
(Erwin Magnus)
Vol. 13 (1928)
(Hermann Hiltbrunner)
1927 Landstrykere Tramp 1928 [1927]
(J. Sandmeier; S. Angermann)
Vol. 14 (1927)
(J. Sandmeier; S. Angermann)
1930 August August circumnavigator 1930
(J. Sandmeier; S. Angermann)
Vol. 15 (1930)
(J. Sandmeier; S. Angermann)
1933 Men live lever By year and day 1934 [1933]
(J. Sandmeier; S. Angermann)
Vol. 16
(J. Sandmeier; S. Angermann)
1936 Wrestling sluts The ring closes 1936
(J. Sandmeier; S. Angermann)
Vol. 17
(J. Sandmeier; S. Angermann)
1949 Paa gjengrodde bull On overgrown paths 1949
(Elisabeth Ihle)

Radio plays

  • 1978: Victoria - adaptation (word) and direction: Hermann Wenninger (radio play adaptation - WDR )
    • Speaker: Not specified


  • Uta von Bassi: Hansen, Hamsun and the truth. A study of Danish documentary literature using the example of Thorkild Hansen's “Hamsun Trial”. Frankfurt am Main u. a .: Long. 1984. (= contributions to Scandinavian studies; 2) ISBN 3-8204-5291-5
  • Walter Baumgartner : Knut Hamsun. Reinbek near Hamburg: Rowohlt. 1997. (= Rowohlt's Monographs; 543; Rororo Monographs), ISBN 3-499-50543-6
  • Martin Beheim-Schwarzbach: Knut Hamsun. With testimonials and photo documents. Reinbek near Hamburg: Rowohlt. 1990. (= Rowohlt's monographs; 3; rororo-picture monographs) ISBN 3-499-50003-5
  • Horst Bien: Works and Effects of Knut Hamsun. An inventory. Leverkusen: literature publ. North Reinhardt. 1990. (= Artes et litterae septentrionales; 6) ISBN 3-927153-23-0
  • Akos Doma : The other modern. Knut Hamsun, DH Lawrence and the philosophical current of literary modernism. Bonn: Bouvier. 1995. (= treatises on art, music and literary studies; 396) ISBN 3-416-02585-7
  • Per Olov Enquist: Hamsun. A movie narrative. Munich u. a .: Hanser. ISBN 3-446-20541-1
  • Thomas Fechner-Smarsly: The return of signs. A psychoanalytic study on Knut Hamsun's “Hunger”. Frankfurt am Main u. a .: Long. 1991. (= texts and studies on German and Scandinavian studies; 25) ISBN 3-631-42946-0
  • Robert Ferguson: Knut Hamsun. Life against the current. Biography. Munich: Dt. Taschenbuch Verl. 1992 (= dtv; 11491) ISBN 3-471-77543-9
  • Wilhelm Friese: Knut Hamsun and Halldór Kiljan Laxness. Notes on works and effects. Tübingen u. a .: Francke. 2002. ISBN 3-7720-2780-6
  • Tore Hamsun: My father Knut Hamsun. Munich: Langen-Müller. 1993. ISBN 3-7844-2460-0
  • Thorkild Hansen: Knut Hamsun. Its time, its process. Munich u. a .: Long Müller. 1985. ISBN 3-7844-1875-9
  • Aldo Keel: Knut Hamsun and the Nazis. New sources, new debates . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung of February 9, 2002.
  • Ingar Sletten Kolloen: Knut Hamsun. Swarmers and Conquerors , translated from Norwegian by Gabriele Haefs, Berlin: Landtverlag, 2011. ISBN 978-3-938844-15-1 . Heavily abridged international version, see review: Aldo Keel: Der halbe Hamsun. A Norwegian biography of the writer in German . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung from August 6, 2011.
  • Ulrich Kriehn: Knut Hamsun's early work in context. Transitions from naturalism to neo-romanticism. Frankfurt (Oder): Viademica-Verl. 1997. (= Edition Kulturwissenschaften; 4) ISBN 3-932756-25-8
  • Leo Löwenthal: Knut Hamsun . In: Fall of the Demonologies. Reclam. Leipzig. 1990. ISBN 3-379-00642-4
  • Tore Rem: Knut Hamsun. The trip to Hitler. Translated from the Norwegian by Daniela Stilzebach. Publishing house Das Neue Berlin. Berlin 2016.
  • Gabriele Schulte: Hamsun in the mirror of German literary criticism 1890 to 1975. Frankfurt am Main a. a .: Long. 1986. (= texts and studies on German and Scandinavian studies; 15) ISBN 3-8204-5597-3
  • Heiko Uecker (Ed.): News about Knut Hamsun. Frankfurt am Main u. a .: Long. 2002. (= texts and studies on German and Scandinavian studies; 51) ISBN 3-631-39020-3
  • Wolfgang Schneider: Knut Hamsun. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin, Munich 2011.
  • Sten Sparre Nilson: Knut Hamsun and politics . Ring-Verlag, Villingen 1964, DNB  453592805 .
  • Tore Rem: Knut Hamsun. Die Reise zu Hitler , translated from Norwegian by Daniela Stilzebach, Das Neue Berlin, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-360-01304-0 .

Web links

Commons : Knut Hamsun  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Knut Pedersen Garmostrædet
  2. ^ Entry by Knut Pedersen in the census of 1875 with the place of birth (Norwegian).
  3. ^ Documents submitted to Les Prix Nobel
  4. Rolf Nettum: life and work of Knut Hamsun ; in Circle of Nobel Prize Friends , Vol. 20, Coron-Verlag, Zurich, p. 25
  5. Hansen 1985, pp. 32, 34; Ferguson 1990, p. 406
  6. ^ Karl d'Ester: The press and its people in the mirror of poetry. A harvest spanning three centuries. Troeltsch, Würzburg 1941 (presentation to editor Lynge on 18 pages).
  7. Süddeutsche Zeitung: In the greenhouse of an epidemic. Retrieved April 1, 2020 .
  8. Quoted from Robert Ferguson: Knut Hamsun. Life against the current , dtv, Munich, 1992, p. 510
  9. Quoted from Martin Beheim-Schwarzbach: Hamsun - with self-testimonials and image documents , Rowohlt, Hamburg, 1958, p. 143
  10. Peter Logerich: Goebbels. Biography . Siedler, Munich 2010, p. 576.
  11. Monika Žagar: Knut Hamsun. The Dark Side of Literary Brilliance . Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle 2009, p. 196 f.
  12. Monika Žagar: Knut Hamsun. The Dark Side of Literary Brilliance . Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle 2009, p. 197.
  13. Hansen 1985, p. 122
  14. Hansen 1985, pp. 99-128; Rolf Nettum: Life and Work of Knut Hamsun ; in Circle of Nobel Prize Friends , Vol. 20, Coron-Verlag, Zurich, p. 46
  15. ^ Gabriele Schulte: Hamsun in the mirror of German literary criticism 1890 to 1975. Frankfurt am Main a. a .: Long. 1986. (= texts and studies on German and Scandinavian studies; 15) ISBN 3-8204-5597-3 , p. 173. There after Nilson, p. 234; Further translation: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, October 21, 2002, No. 244 / page 36 ; Norwegian original text at and at February 20, 2009
  16. Sten Sparre Nilson: Knut Hamsun and politics . Ring-Verlag, Villingen 1964, DNB  453592805 , p. 186 ( online ).
  17. Schulte, p. 180.
  18. This is perhaps the nemesis Der Spiegel 46/1979 about Thorkild Hansen's book on the Hamsun trial
  19. Kurt Tucholsky: Collected Works 1928 . Ed .: Mary Gerold-Tucholsky, Fritz J. Raddatz. 70th - 119th thousand edition. tape 6 . Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1985, ISBN 3-499-29006-5 , p. 7 .
  20. Impressive disgust article in the Spiegel from March 12, 1973
  21. From unassailable age Post by Hellmuth Karasek in the period from March 23, 1963
  22. Hamsun Selskapet Norwegian Hamsun-Society retrieved August 17, 2018