Herta Müller

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Herta Müller (2019)
Herta Müller at the Munich Literature Festival 2016
Herta Müller at a reading in Estonia in 2011

Herta Müller (born August 17, 1953 in Nițchidorf , People's Republic of Romania ) is a German writer who grew up in the Romanian Banat and who emigrated to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1987. In her works, Müller addresses the consequences of the communist dictatorship in Romania .

In 2009 Herta Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature .



Herta Müller, whose family belonged to the German minority in Romania , was born as a Banat Swabian in the Banat. Her grandfather was a wealthy farmer and merchant and was expropriated under the communist regime in Romania . Her mother was deported to a Ukrainian camp for several years of forced labor after the Second World War . Her father, a former soldier of the Waffen-SS in the 10th SS Panzer Division "Frundsberg" , earned his living as a truck driver.

Stone tablet in the entrance hall of the Nikolaus Lenau Lyceum in Timișoara

Herta Müller attended the German school in Nițchidorf from 1960 to 1968 and also had Romanian as a subject. At the age of 15, she turned down the apprenticeship that her mother had organized with a seamstress in the village. Instead, she attended the German-speaking Nikolaus Lenau Lyceum in Timișoara , where she began to master the Romanian language. Because of the distance between the city and her home village, she sublet in Timișoara and only came home on weekends. After graduating from high school, Müller studied German and Romanian Studies from 1973 to 1976 at the University of the West Timișoara .

From 1976 she worked as a translator in a machine factory. Then, according to Müller, a secret service employee appeared three times to compel them to do intelligence work for the Securitate . She refused to do so by tearing up the recruitment sheet. Since she did not cooperate despite the threat of death, she then had to appear every morning for roll call with the boss, who asked her when she would look for a new position. After her office was taken away, she had to do translations on the stairs that no one would have requested; that's how she got into writing. It was spread among colleagues that she worked for the secret service; a rumor she could not have defended against. “My colleagues thought of me exactly what I refused.” In 1979 she was dismissed and then worked temporarily as a teacher, including at the Nikolaus-Lenau-Lyzeum, worked in kindergartens and gave German lessons to private students.

After visiting the Federal Republic of Germany three times from 1984 onwards , Herta Müller left for Germany in 1987 with her then husband Richard Wagner . She described the treatment at the state reception center for emigrants in Nuremberg-Langwasser as absurd. She was interrogated for several days by the Federal Intelligence Service and the Office for the Protection of the Constitution because she was suspected of being a Securitate agent.

In the following years she received a number of lectureships as writer in residence at universities in Germany and abroad. In 1990, Müller separated from her husband Richard Wagner. In the same year she met her current husband Harry Merkle, with whom she wrote the script for the feature film Der Fuchs - Der Jäger (1993). Herta Müller belonged to the PEN Center Germany until she left in 1997 .

In 1998 she was appointed to the "Brothers Grimm Visiting Professorship" at the University of Kassel , in 2001 she held the Tübingen Poetics Lecturer , and in 2005 she was "Heiner Müller Visiting Professor" at the Free University in Berlin , where she lives today. She has been a member of the German Academy for Language and Poetry since 1995 and of the Academy of Arts in Berlin since 2016 .

Müller and the Romanian secret service

In 2008, Müller said in a conversation that she had been threatened with death by the Securitate while she was still in Germany and that her opponents among the Banat Swabians had harassed her with anonymous letters. In the same year she criticized in an open letter the invitation of the historian Sorin Antohi and the Germanist Andrei Corbea-Hoișie to a conference of the Berlin Romanian Cultural Institute on July 25, 2008, since both had been informants of the Securitate in communist Romania.

Herta Müller described the measures taken by the Romanian secret service to “compromise and isolate”. From Müller's point of view, the Securitate files on the Banat Action Group revealed that discrediting measures should make them untrustworthy. Müller assumes that letters drafted by the Securitate were sent to German broadcasters in which she was denounced as an agent. They also accused leaders of the Banat Swabian compatriot , of whom Müller suspects that they were informal employees of the Securitate and that they wrote on behalf of the Romanian Communist Party .

In 2005 it was initially reported that the Securitate files on Müller had been destroyed, according to the National Council for the Study of the Securitate Archives (CNSAS) . About the part of her Securitate file that she has since been given access to, Müller wrote: “You can't call it hairdressing, the file is downright gutted.” The file with the name Cristina. consists of three volumes with 914 pages and is said to have been created on March 8, 1983, but contains documents from the years before. The reason for the opening of the files was "tendency towards distortions of the realities in the country, especially in the village milieu" as well as belonging to the "circle of German-speaking poets", which "is known for its hostile work".

Müller's criticism of Putin

In 2014, Herta Müller, citing her experiences under the Ceaușescu regime, repeatedly criticized the policies of Russian President Vladimir Putin , whom she described as a KGB- socialized dictator with personality cults ” and whose policies make her “sick” . She understood sick to be a feeling of personal degradation: “It offends my mind. He insults all of our minds every day with the same audacity. He's been caught lying 100 times, he is exposed after every lie, and he continues to lie anyway. He's getting too close to me. ”Müller signed an open letter to the German Chancellor and the Federal Foreign Minister asking them to campaign for the release of the Ukrainian filmmaker Oleh Sentsov , who was imprisoned in Russia .

Work and appreciations

Müller at the Leipzig Book Fair (2007)

Herta Müller began to write as a high school student and published her works in the "Lenauschülerstimmen", in "Universitas" and in the "Kulturbote" of the Neue Banater Zeitung .

In Timișoara, Müller was initially close to the authors of the Banat Action Group : Richard Wagner, Ernest Wichner , Gerhard Ortinau , Rolf Bossert , William Totok , Johann Lippet and others. After the group was broken up by the Romanian secret service Securitate in 1976, the authors reorganized themselves in the official literary circle of the Timișoa “Writers' Association Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn ” around the poet and editor-in-chief of the local German-language newspaper Nikolaus Berwanger . Herta Müller was the only woman in this group of writers, which now also included Helmuth Frauendorfer , Roland Kirsch , Horst Samson and Werner Söllner .

The more recent prose from Austria, especially the novels by Thomas Bernhard and Franz Innerhofer , and the friendship with Richard Wagner and the poet Rolf Bossert pointed the way for their own literature. She wanted to express with her texts how dictatorships rob people of their dignity.

On October 8, 2009, the award of the Nobel Prize for Literature 2009 to Herta Müller was announced. She drew “ landscapes of homelessness by condensing the poetry and objectivity of prose ”, it said in the tribute. The reason for the award of the Nobel Prize was based on the intensity of the literature she wrote.

Herta Müller's language and poetology

Herta Müller followed her path “always new and always different. And yet their style has remained the same in a unique way. A style that, located on the eastern periphery of German, is robust and at the same time delicate in texture, ”said Andrea Köhler in her contribution to the NZZ in 1993. Twenty years later, Günther Rüther describes the language in Müller's oeuvre as follows:“ Von The melody changes book to book, but its key is unmistakable. Müller's tense world of images is peculiar: 'Their language is rich in images and economical, beautiful and at the same time hard.' asserted while walking through the cities. "A language that does not elegantly bypass the treacherous jargon of dictatorship, but inflexibly undermines it because its poetic truth is bought with fear of death." Today, Müller enriches German literature thematically and poetically in a way that was once done by Franz Kafka , Joseph Roth or Paul Celan from the edge of the German cultural and linguistic area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, said Rüther.

Meaning, displacement and the unpredictable

Herta Müller's language has “something seductive as well as something unsettling.” It is “extremely precise, and yet, or perhaps because of that, the reader gets the impression that something is wrong,” said Sissel Lægreid in a literary contribution from 2013 When reading Herta Müller, she sometimes feels like "like Kafka's texts, I no longer know what to believe and accordingly feel a certain discomfort." One can hardly distinguish between truth and lies, because the immediate logical is missing -semantic context. If you look closely, what is being said seems “neither to point to something specific nor to guarantee anything meaningful with regard to the intended opinion.” Several possible interpretations are created for each statement, which can cancel each other out because what is said and what is written tends to go beyond itself to something else. What appears to be there usually turns out to be something else. If you have tried to fill the semantic void, to create a meaning, the design must be revised in the next step. Lægreid suspects the reason for her discomfort when reading that in Herta Müller's texts “a disproportion or a lack of balance between the words and the things is predominant.” Rüther puts it this way: Müller's words and sentences defy clear classification, “ because they always create their own new reality in the tension between narrator and reader. ”They“ open up spaces of association for the reader ”.

Herta Müller has explained how the constitution of meaning can take place for her when reading and in writing: “... what you don't write down, you feel in what you write down. What is said has to be careful with what is not said / I notice it in the texts of other authors, I feel it from the books. What circles me, goes its way while reading, is what falls between sentences and hits, or makes no noise. It's the exuberance, ”said Müller in her poetological essays The Devil Sitting in the Mirror. How perception invents itself (1991). It is these omissions that open up freedom for the readers and their own experience and in which their own perception can unfold, writes Clemens Ottmers in 1994. Müller also pointed out the reasons for a certain characteristic of her sentences and why this characteristic is in the The process of writing shows: “The unrest is an attack in the stillness of perception. If one tries to hit the attack while writing, the rotation through which the leap into the unpredictable begins, one has to write his sentences in short bars, which are open on all sides, for the shift. ”The experience horizon can with the help of omissions both on Pages of the author as well as the reader's side are broken and the autobiographical boundaries of the text can be crossed on both sides.

With language, according to Herta Müller, one cannot say everything about the “vicious circle of dictatorships”, but in writing “one can express oneself about everything and through this and through other gestures” - here she remembers her mother during the deportation - “the Would preserve ”. This is the freedom that the oppressed have. The freedom becomes greater, "the more words we can use". “Nothing is right, but everything is true.” The words form a pantomime of reality in action, parallel to this reality. It reminds them of the “acute loneliness of man”. The subject of “dictatorship” is “always implicit”.

Language as a tool, "reverse engineering"

Herta Müller wrote in 1991 about the effect of dismantling: "The dictator's frog, if you have broken it down into individual details, it provokes." From Stig Sæterbakken's point of view, Herta Müller practices "the reverse engineering of the writer". Reading becomes a bit like mentally disassembling a car into its component parts: “The longer we look, the less car it becomes and the more individual parts, the more we learn about what things are really made of, how they are constructed and are assembled. ”Müller concretizes words about things: Hunger becomes an object, death a white beard. Part of this process is “the stringent syntax and the distinctly poetic rhythm of all her texts, with which she always emphasizes the materiality of language.” By means of this dismantling of constructions of meaning “we can sharpen our awareness of the individual components” and in words “things Put them on top of each other, stack objects on top of each other until there are too many and everything collapses, ”says Sæterbakken.

In her writing style, says Müller, she often uses the subjunctive , “so that it is correct, but it makes the language appear sharp. The dialect wasn't complicated, and that's beautiful and sensual to me. If I can, I'll go straight to the point. The language stays close to where you got it from. ”“ I don't like abstract terms in my texts. For example, I would never write the word dictatorship . ”Sometimes Müller uses a feminine term for words that are male in German, often adapting the gender of certain words from the Romanian language. “Write” is “also hear”. She reads everything she writes “aloud, and if it doesn't sound good”, then “something is wrong. The written language should always be oral ”. Müller combines auditory and visual things. What was previously not material is materialized through this combination. Müller's philological awareness and language-critical concerns can be tracked down by trying “not only to see what is written, but also to hear it at the same time.” Müller continues: “For me, language is something from the outside. She can do everything, I also distrust her. It doesn't exist for itself, it just runs parallel to what's happening. ”“ I want to say in my books what happens in life. Language is just the tool. "

“I keep writing you cards. The cards are full. And I empty. "

- Herta Müller : Travelers on One Leg (1989)

This quote can serve as an example of how Müller uses language as a tool. What happens in life is made clear here not only grammatically, but also visually: how much fuller the written card is than the sentence afterwards with “I”. Only the first is grammatically complete, the following two are missing the verb. And from the first to the second to the third sentence, not only the number of words is reduced, but also the number of syllables.

Müller's collages

Müller uses collage as a metaphor, as a structure and as an artistic practice. Collage as a motif was first found in Travelers on One Leg (1989). In the meantime, the connection between different modes of artistic expression has become more central in Müller's work. The more recent collages increasingly bring out the poetic and playful in the interplay of image and language.

When asked about the genre, Müller replied that it was “a way of writing, nothing else”. With the pictorial language in the collages, she does not see herself as a visual artist , it is more the "craftsmanship that she likes". Her collages are too instinctive and intuitive, said Herta Müller at the opening of the exhibition in the Literaturhaus Berlin on September 7th, 2012, when she presented her latest volume, Father telephoned with the flies , which includes 187 collages. In 2012, Susanne Beyer stated in an interview with Herta Müller in Spiegel that literary scholars “do not find it easy with the definition of the genre”: “One speaks of 'poem pictures', another of 'short stories' or 'prose poems'.” Julia Müller, for example notes that the paratext in all four publications of this type, The Guardian takes his comb. From Departing and Exciting (1995), A lady lives in a hair knot (2000), The pale gentlemen with the mocha cups (2005) and Father telephones the flies (2012), does not provide any information about a species and therefore an assignment is to be regarded as problematic . It is unclear whether it is poetry with accompanying illustrations or collages with text and image elements. Furthermore, whether each card is a self-contained artifact or whether the individual pages of the postcard books relate to one another like parts of a cycle .

In the exhibition “Wortkünstler / Bildkünstler” as part of the Ingelheim International Days 2013, Müller's word and text collages formed the radical, but also poetic end point of the exhibition. The author showed her works, in which she often creates bizarre texts with cut-out words from magazines, in collages with her own visual artistic aesthetic.

In March 2019, the literary scholar Christina Rossi published an essay in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung in which she presented the find of early collages from 1989 in the archive of the Institute for German Culture and History of Southeast Europe at the LMU Munich. She found nine collages in the vestibule of the writer Richard Wagner , with whom Herta Müller was married at the time. Müller had sent the collages to Wagner as postcards in the summer of 1989. The collage cards found by Rossi represent Herta Müller's earliest known collages.

Lowlands (1982/84)

Her first book Niederungen , the manuscript of which was withheld by the publisher for over four years before publication, could only appear in a censored version in Romania in 1982 . While intellectuals “praised the critical and linguistically innovative presentation”, parts of the Banat Swabians felt their work as “ pollution of the nest ”. The publication of the satire Das Schwäbische Bad, contained in the volume, in May 1981 in the Neue Banater Zeitung already triggered violent polemics among readers. In a letter to the editor, some Banat Swabians felt “exposed, humiliated and insulted”. The contradicting criticism continued in West German feature pages.

Traveler on One Leg (1989)

Herta Müller rewrites the genre of the big city novel from the point of view of a foreign German-speaking woman with travelers on one leg . Irene is in her mid-thirties and is leaving an "other country" ruled by the military with official permission. She comes to West Germany with a single suitcase, where she hopes to find a new home. What should be trusted, however, also seems to be “another country”. She was admitted to a temporary home and was eventually granted German citizenship. Irene has not yet found her way. She creates a collage that she scans step by step with her eyes. As a city ​​runner , Irene explores the new city spatially, which she experiences as an observer and not as a participant or participant. Irene realizes that her life has curdled into observations that render her unable to act. There is no thread of action. The instability of the protagonist Irene and her strength are mainly expressed in the writing style. Because the normality that is publicly exhibited is full of falsehood and vagueness in Irene's perception and she tries to withstand it with her language, Irene cannot overcome her loneliness. Even the narrative can only move forward by hopping on one leg. The end is ambivalent, because on the one hand Irene dreams of going far away and on the other hand she doesn't want to know about saying goodbye. In one of the first reviews in November 1989 it says: “The magical evocation of the province as a permanent psychosocial condition offends the reader, who believes himself to be at the height of the time in which he is living, carried by the general expectation of an even greater German splendor in the future . Irene's west doesn't glow. It is struck with the passivity of the marginalized, here as there, in Kreuzberg and in Nitzkydorf. ”(Günter Franzen in Die Zeit , edition of November 10, 1989)

Breathing swing (2009)

In 2009, Müller's novel Atemschaukel , which was funded by a Grenzgänger grant from the Robert Bosch Foundation , was nominated for the German Book Prize and made it to the finals of the six best novels. In this book the author traces the deportation of a young man to a Soviet-Ukrainian labor camp, which exemplifies the fate of the German population in Transylvania after the Second World War. She used the experience of the poet and Georg Büchner Prize winner Oskar Pastior , who died in 2006 and whose oral memories Herta Müller wrote down in several notebooks, as a model. Many years later, during her conversations with Oskar Pastior about his deportation , he told her things that reminded her of these events of her youth. Her grandfather summed up after the end of the First World War : "When the flags flicker, the mind slips into the trumpet." This became the motto of her life. "I decided not to blow the trumpet."

Reading “Breath Swing”, Potsdam , July 2010

The "fear of death" creates "hunger for life" and this the "hunger for words". In her speech on the awarding of the Nobel Prize, she named people and circumstances as the background to the novel that would have made her writing possible, Oskar Pastior's influence, but also the love of her mother, which she focused on in the question: “Do you have a handkerchief [with you ]? ”No other item in the house would have been as important as the handkerchief. It was universally usable: for colds, nosebleeds, injured hands, crying or biting on it to suppress crying. One of them served as an office on a flight of stairs when her company in Romania tried to fire her. Asking about the handkerchief brought her into connection with the loneliness of the human being, but also with the security that the mother offered her.

Critical to the work

  • At the end of the 1980s, Claudio Magris said that in the course of theoretical considerations, Müller sometimes "fell into a stereotype that is not free from arrogance", in which it resembles Thomas Bernhard , Peter Handke and Franz Innerhofer .
  • Voices from literary criticism in relation to the more recent works would criticize the fact that Herta Müller's composite details no longer really create images. This is due to the fact that the metaphors "seem increasingly forced, that every detail wants to interpret beyond its limits", Clemens Ottmers reported in 1994 in his contribution to Müller's essay volume The Devil Sitting in the Mirror. How perception invents itself.
  • Her journalistic texts criticize how Müller equates regimes that must be viewed as different, according to Lyn Marven in the first footnote of her article from 2013.
  • Some accuse Müller of neglecting to change the subject in the Federal Republic of Germany after 1990. The author countered this by saying that others would of course be allowed to write about persecution by the Nazis all their life, so Günther Rüther 2013. He is thinking of Primo Levi , Jorge Semprún , Georges-Arthur Goldschmidt and Imre Kertész, among others .


Müller's poetological practice can be described as an aesthetically staged resistance maneuver. Collages are becoming increasingly central in Müller's work . They combine the visual with the linguistic and have recently turned towards the poetic and playful in terms of structure and content. According to the jury of the Tübingen Hölderlin Prize 2015, Müller is also connected to Friedrich Hölderlin because her poetry is increasing in intensity.

Since 1989 Travelers on One Leg has appeared in feature articles that sound like reservations made by the asylum authorities in outposts of immigration offices, said Michael Naumann in his review of The King Bows and Kills 2003 and continues that there is something in this Art: "Although she writes about the horrors of a dictatorship with powerful metaphors, she succeeds in doing this in a peculiar, unmistakable language - but all of this takes place abroad ..."

According to Martina Wernli, Müller's work is characterized by two peculiarities: on the one hand, the author makes "her writing the subject" and thus blurs "the line between poetic, poetological and occasion-related texts", on the other hand, objects in her work trigger a narration:

“Things require a narrative in which a sparkle can then be perceived. In this almost subjectless process of writing, the metaphor of glitter, shine and sparkle shows how literature is created and what characterizes literature. "

- Source: Martina Wernli: “Herta Müller's current contemporary literature.” In: Herta Müller and the glitter in the sentence.


Literary works



  • The cold ornament of life . Texts. Ursus Press 05, Berlin 1987 (35 numbered and signed copies)
  • The devil is sitting in the mirror. How perception invents itself. Rotbuch Verlag, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-88022-767-5
  • The guard takes his comb. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-498-04354-4
  • A lady lives in the topknot. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-498-04474-5 .
  • Este sau nu este Ion. Iași 2005 (in Romanian), ISBN 973-681-994-9 .
  • The pale gentlemen with the mocha cups. Hanser Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-446-20677-9 .
  • eleven years later towards evening . 16 collages by Herta Müller. BUCHENpresse Dresden 2008 (12 copies)
  • Father telephones the flies . Hanser Verlag, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-446-23857-2 . Paperback edition 2014, ISBN 978-3-596-19826-9 .
  • "Our life / was complicated in 7 ways". 10 collages. In: Norbert Otto Eke (ed.): Honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Cultural Studies at the University of Paderborn to Herta Müller. Paderborn, October 29, 2012. [Cover: Awarding of an honorary doctorate to Herta Müller ]. Paderborn, Universität, 2013, pp. 28–38.
  • Collage poems. In: Herta Müller. Politics and aesthetics. Edited by Bettina Brandt and Valentina Glajar. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln 2013, ISBN 978-0-8032-4510-5 , pp. 31-35.
  • A blue hall is homesick . Hanser Verlag, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-446-26175-4

Essays on literature and other things

Interviews, speeches and poetry lectures

  • How perception invents itself. Paderborn University Speeches, Book 20, Paderborn 1990.
  • The devil is sitting in the mirror. How perception invents itself. Rotbuch Verlag, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-88022-767-5 ,
  • A fly comes through half a forest. In: First-hand literature. 10 years Paderborn guest lecturer for writers. Edited by Hartmut Steinecke . Igel, 1994, ISBN 3-927104-77-9 , pp. 173–186 (first: Kursbuch (magazine) 110, December 1992, pp. 25–34)
  • Home is what is spoken. Speech to the high school graduates of 2001 Blieskastel 2001, ISBN 3-935731-08-6 .
  • “Say you are fifteen” - keep living . Second part of the joint contribution Dagmar von Hoff, Herta Müller: Telling, remembering and morality. Ruth Klügers " live on". A Youth (1992). In: Walter Schmitz (Ed.): Remembered Shoah. The literature of the survivors = The shoah remembered. Thelem, Dresden 2003, pp. 203-222, Part 2 pp. 209-221.
  • The Romanian pheasant was always closer to me than the German pheasant. I don't want anything more to do with utopias. Herta Müller in conversation with Carlos A. Aguilera. In: Akzente , edition 5/2008, pp. 401–411.
  • Tübingen poetics lectures. Audio book. Konkursbuch Verlag, Tübingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-88769-188-2 .
  • " I don't believe in the language". Herta Müller in conversation with Renata Schmidtkunz . With CD. Wieser, Klagenfurt 2009, ISBN 978-3-85129-860-4 .
  • “I was so lucky!” A conversation with Herta Müller. Herta Müller in conversation with Ulrich Greiner .
  • Interview with Herta Müller at the Frankfurt Book Fair 2009 about the new novel Atemschaukel . With Maritta Huebinger, Deutschlandradio Kultur , Radiofeuilleton , October 17, 2009.
  • "Fear of life and hunger for words". In conversation with Michael Lentz . Leipzig Poetics Lecture 2009. Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-518-12620-2 .
  • My fatherland was an apple core . An interview with Angelika Klammer. Carl Hanser, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-446-24835-9 .
  • Herta Müller, The Art of Fiction No. 225 . Herta Müller in conversation with Philip Boehm. In: Paris Review 2014.
  • The fearful rulers rule the fearful people . Die Welt , December 6, 2016



Audio books / audio pieces


  • Heart animal . Premiere at the Maxim Gorki Theater Berlin on April 20, 2009. Directed by Felicitas Bruckner, with Anja Schneider
  • Lowlands . Premiere State Theater Timişoara on September 29, 2012. Directed by Niky Wolcz
  • Traveler on one leg . Deutsches Schauspielhaus in Hamburg on September 25, 2015. Directed by Katie Mitchell , with Julia Wieninger as Irene


  • 1993: Vulpe - vânător (The Fox - The Hunter) , directed by Stere Gulea


Herta Müller 2009 in Frankfurt
Award of the Heinrich Böll Prize 2015 to Herta Müller by Cologne's Lord Mayor Henriette Reker

Herta Müller received the following awards, among others:

Research literature

  • Marlies Janz : Laudation for Herta Müller (speech on the occasion of the award of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen Literature Prize to Herta Müller 1985), in: Die Schwarze Botin , Berlin - Paris - Vienna, No. 27 (1985), p. 32 f. Partial print in: Wolfgang Emmerich (Hrsg.): Der Bremer Literaturpreis 1954–1987, Eine Documentation, Bremerhaven 1988, p. 327 f.
  • Norbert Otto Eke (Ed.): The invented perception. Approaching Herta Müller. With a detailed bibliography. Igel Wissenschaft, Paderborn 1991, ISBN 3-927104-15-9 .
  • Clemens Ottmers: Writing and Living. Herta Müller “The devil is sitting in the mirror. How perception invents itself “1991. In: Paul Michael Lützeler Hg .: Poetics of the authors. Contributions to contemporary German literature. Fischer TB, Frankfurt 1994, ISBN 3-596-11387-3 .
  • Walter Hinck : The land brought back by HM In: Sense and Form . H. 1, 1995, vol. 47, pp. 141–146, on the occasion of the award of the Kleist Prize.
  • Herta Haupt-Cucuiu: A poetry of the senses: Herta Müller's “Discourse of Aloneness” and its roots (= literature and media studies , Volume 49), Igel, Paderborn 1996, ISBN 3-89621-031-9 (dissertation Albert-Ludwigs- University of Freiburg in Breisgau 1995, 188 pages, 21 cm).
  • Ralph Köhnen (Ed.): The pressure of experience drives language into poetry. Imagery in Herta Müller's texts. Peter Lang, Frankfurt 1997, ISBN 3-631-30662-8 .
  • Friedmar Apel : Turbatverse. Aesthetics, mysticism and politics at HM In: Akzente. Journal of Literature. Hanser, Munich 44. Jg. H. 2, April 1997, pp. 113-126.
  • Antje Harnisch: foreigner abroad. HMs "travelers on one leg". In: Zs. Monthly books for German teaching, German language and literature. Wisconsin UP, Madison, Vol. 89, H. 4, 1997 ISSN  0026-9271
  • Brigid Haines: Herta Müller. Wales UP, Cardiff 1998, ISBN 0-7083-1484-8
  • Grazziella Predoiu: Fascination and provocation with Herta Müller, a thematic and motivic discussion. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-631-37105-5 (also dissertation at the University of Sibiu 2000).
  • Nina Brodbeck: Pictures of horror. On the concept of fear in the work of HMs Marburg, Universität, Diss. Phil., 2000, ub.uni-marburg.de No print available
  • Herta Müller. In: text and criticism , Munich 2002
  • Carmen Wagner: Language and Identity. Literary and didactic aspects of Herta Müller's work. Igel, Oldenburg 2002, ISBN 3-89621-156-0 .
  • Thomas Daum, Karl-Friedrich Geißler (ed.): Herta Müller. Carl Zuckmayer Medal of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate 2002. Brandes & Apsel, Frankfurt 2003, ISBN 3-86099-776-9 .
  • Astrid Schau: Life without a reason. Construction of cultural identity with Werner Söllner , Rolf Bossert and Herta Müller. Aisthesis, Bielefeld 2003, ISBN 3-89528-379-7 (also dissertation at the University of Paderborn 2001).
  • Bogdan Dascalu: Hero and World in Herta Müller's Tales. Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-8300-1318-3 .
  • Diana Schuster: The Banat Authors' Group. Self-presentation and reception in Romania and Germany. Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz 2004, ISBN 3-89649-942-4 (plus Diss. Phil. Univ. Iași 2004)
  • Valentina Glajar: The Discourse of Discontent: Politics and Dictatorship in Hert Müller's 'Herztier'. In: Glajar, The German Legacy in East Central Europe. As Recorded in Recent German Language Literature. Pp. 115-160. Camden House, Rochester NY 2004.
  • Paola Bozzi: The strange look. About Herta Müller's work. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 978-3-8260-3252-3 .
  • Symons Morwenna: Room for Maneuver. The role of intertext in Elfriede Jelinek 's “The Piano Player”, Günter Grass ’s “A Wide Field”, and Herta Müller's “Niederungen” and “Travelers on One Leg”. London 2005, ISBN 1-904350-43-7 .
  • Lyn Marven: Body and Narrative in German Literature. Herta Muller, Libuse Moníková, and Kerstin Hensel. Oxford UP 2005, ISBN 1-904350-43-7
  • Jutta Dornheim : The water-chewing ducks by Herta M. Cultural poetic reflections on the embodiment of rumors. In: Cuckoo. Notes on everyday culture. ( Reading sample ) Graz, issue 2/2006
  • Iulia-Karin Patrut: Black Sister - Devil Boy. Ethnicity and gender in Herta Müller and Paul Celan . Böhlau, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-412-33805-2 .
  • Cosmin Dragoste: Herta Müller - metamorfozele terorii. Editura Aius PrintEd, Craiova 2007, ISBN 978-973-1780-32-0 .
  • Anja Maier: Strange things. Everyday objects in HMs "The King bows and kills". In: Michael C. Frank u. a. (Ed.): Journal for cultural studies. 1, 2007, “Stranger Things,” pp. 53–61.
  • Maria S. Grewe: Estranging Poetic. On the Poetic of the Foreign in Selected Works by Herta Müller and Yoko Tawada . Columbia University, New York 2009 OCLC 423284646 .
  • Urs Meyer: Images or imagery? Herta Müller's media miniatures. In: German Studies in Switzerland. SAGG online magazine, issue 6 (PDF), 2009, Speech images or imagery? Herta Müller's media miniatures .
  • Katja Suren: An angel disguised himself as an angel and remained unrecognized: Childlike rhetoric with Natascha Wodin, Herta Müller and Aglaja Veterany. Dissertation University of Paderborn 2010, Helmer, Sulzach 2011, ISBN 978-3-89741-316-0 .
  • Wolfgang Beutin: Herta Müller. In: Award-Winning. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2012, ISBN 978-3-631-63297-0 , pp. 339-360.
  • Cristina Rita Parau: Breathing turn ” - “ Breath swing ”. Paul Celan and Herta Müller: Differences and Homologies. In: Andrea Benedek u. a. (Ed.): Intercultural explorations: living, writing and learning in two cultures. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2012. Part 1, pp. 373-386.
  • Minu Hedayati-Aliabadi: The Stranger Look - a Strange Eye. Transmedia staging of text and image in Herta Müller's collages In: Textpraxis. Digital journal for philology. No. 5, 2/2012
  • Norbert Otto Eke : laudation. Resist and contradict. In: Norbert Otto Eke (ed.): Honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Cultural Studies at the University of Paderborn to Herta Müller. Paderborn, October 29, 2012. Paderborn, Universität, 2013, pp. 14–27.
  • Bettina Brandt, Valentina Glajar (eds.): Herta Müller. Politics and aesthetics . University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln 2013, ISBN 978-0-8032-4510-5 , table of contents (PDF)
  • Poetry and dictatorship. The writer Herta Müller , edited by Helgard Mahrdt and Sissel Lægreid, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2013, ISBN 978-3-8260-5246-0 ( table of contents PDF).
  • Julia Müller: Speech clock. Herta Müller's literary style of representation (= literature and life , volume 85). Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-412-22151-5 (dissertation University of Jena 2009, 324 pages, illustration, 24 cm).
  • Lars Meier: "From the world's fragile furnishings". Herta Müller's Kleist Prize speech as the basis of her poetics. In: Anna Fleig u. a. (Ed.): Writing after Kleist. Literary, media and theoretical transcriptions . Rombach, Freiburg im Breisgau / Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-7930-9768-6 , pp. 181-200.
  • Jens Christian Deeg and Martina Wernli (eds.): Herta Müller and the glitter in the sentence. An approach to contemporary literature. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-8260-5746-5 .
  • Norbert Otto Eke (Ed.): Herta Müller Handbook. With a detailed bibliography. Metzler, Stuttgart 2017, ISBN 978-3-476-02580-7 .
  • Christina Rossi: meaning and structure. Access to Herta Müller's collages. Dissertation University of Augsburg. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-8260-6705-1 .

Web links

Commons : Herta Müller  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Video material

Audio material


  1. The complete version contains: 1. The funeral speech, 2. The Swabian bath, 3. My family, 4. Lowlands, 5. Rotten pears, 6. Pressing tango, 7. The window, 8. The man with the matchbox, 9 Village chronicle, 10. The German parting and the German mustache, 11. The intercity bus, 12. Mother, father and the little one, 13. The street sweeper, 14. Black Park, 15. Working day
  2. contains 3 stories from lowlands and 3 more, which were later printed again in Barefoot February : 1. Rotten pears, 2. Pressing tango, 3. Village chronicle, 4. The great black axis, 5. Drosselnacht, 6. Many rooms are under of the skin.
  3. Six very short stories: If you only touch air, you don't travel. Elderberry like to include. The man who didn't eat. Station world. Peaches of the old. On the toes
  4. contains 5 stories from the Akzente booklet from 1987 (without the last one there) and additionally: Was as lifeless as a red scarf. & Quere.
  5. contains in addition to the three stories mentioned in Drückender Tango u. a. The little utopia of death & everywhere you have seen death. A summer trip to Maramures . & My exchange of blows, my minority German.
  6. Much shorter than the later book, about a ninth in length, a lot was not included in the book from November 1989, the language used was partially changed, as was the order of the episodes
  7. Published in November 1989 with 166 p. For the variant preprint see the note on the previous mention. - Further new editions ibid. 1992, Rowohlt 1995, Fischer TB 2010. - Translations into Danish , Swedish , Dutch , Italian , Greek and English
  8. Excerpts In: Akzente. Zs. For literature . H. 5 / Oct. 2008, pp. 391-400.
  9. The connection between death / devil and a mirror has been a symbol of vanitas since the late Middle Ages and since the baroque era . In Daniel Hoffer's (* 1470 † 1536) woodcut, death and the devil of the vain beauty appear in the mirror; The devil in the vanity girl's mirror. Woodcut from the "Ritter von Turn" published by Johann Bergmann von Olpe , Basel 1493; Grimm's fairy tale Snow White ; at ETA Hoffmann ; also with Jean Paul, Droste-Hülshoff, Lenau, Wilde and Rilke in the motif of the doppelganger.
  10. with add. Materials: b / w portrait; Cover of the 2000 edition (see above) with handwriting. Notes HMs; 1 sheet of lecture notes in Masch.schr. with handwriting Undersc .; 1 review of her lecture in Neue Westfälische January 27, 1993; 1 letter to the publisher, handwritten: 1 copy from The Guardian takes his comb. 1993, no page number (on moral courage); Program of her six poetics lectures in the winter semester 1989/90 in Paderborn.
  11. The award ceremony took place on November 1st, 2009.
    Source: ' Award ceremony in Frankfurt: Herta Müller settles accounts with the Protestant church . Spiegel Online , November 1, 2009
    In her acceptance speech, Müller advocated a thorough review of the history of the persecution of the
    Jews in Romania and Hungary . The German minorities in both countries have so far not adequately dealt with their involvement in National Socialism .
    Source: Deutschlandradio: Human rights award for Herta Müller . November 2, 2009
    According to the jury, the decision to award the award was made on October 1, 2009, before it became known that Herta Müller would receive the Nobel Prize for Literature.
    Herta Müller receives the Franz Werfel Human Rights Award . ( Memento from October 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) In: Die Presse , October 13, 2009.
  12. The award ceremony was on March 27, 2010 in Wolfsburg. Early announcement due to the Nobel Prize on October 8, 2009.
  13. Explanation of Müller's poetics lectures
  14. Turbatverse are words thrown at one another, as a result of cuts, breaks and tears
  15. Explanation of the book. Zs.-Volume in Germany. available at Trier University Library, sign. 24 / z 1126.
  16. therein: "Conversation with HM", pp. 14–24 (rest of the book in English)
  17. Bibliography of the thematic booklet under primary lit., 2002. Secondary: Contributions by Ernest Wichner, Ralph Köhnen, Josef Zierden, Friedmar Apel, Philipp Müller, Norbert Otto Eke, Jürgen Wertheimer, Angelika Overath; very detailed. Selected bibliography including press
  18. extensive literature references, especially newspaper interviews with Herta Müller, see under web links
  19. Title is published by Helmer , Sulzbach 2011, ISBN 978-3-89741-316-0 .

Individual evidence

  1. a b Der Tagesspiegel , Katrin Hillgruber: The sky over the Banat . April 29, 2010.
  2. a b Herta Müller in the Munzinger archive ( beginning of the article freely accessible)
  3. Herta Müller: Beauty is political. In: welt.de. September 27, 2014, accessed March 19, 2017 .
  4. Thomas Wagner: Romania - The School of Nobel Prize Winners. In: deutschlandfunk.de. December 10, 2014, accessed January 28, 2017 .
  5. ^ Anna Lindner: City of a homeless person - A city portrait for the 60th birthday of Herta Müller, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. In: wienerzeitung.at. August 19, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2017 .
  6. Every word knows something about the vicious circle . In: FAZ , December 7, 2009.
  7. a b c The Securitate is still on duty . In: Die Zeit , No. 31/2009.
  8. Herta Müller: Essay: Heart Word and Head Word . In: Der Spiegel . No. 4 , 2013 ( online ).
  9. a b Ilka Scheidgen: Five o'clock talks. As a guest (among others) at Herta Müller. Kaufmann Verlag, Lahr 2008, pp. 63–64, 72.
  10. Spy in the summer academy . In: Frankfurter Rundschau , July 23, 2008.
  11. ^ "Spy affair" in Berlin . In: Siebenbürger Zeitung. August 9, 2008; accessed in September 2008.
  12. ^ Processing of the Securitate files is only in the initial phase . In: Siebenbürger Zeitung. June 4, 2005.
  13. Conversation with Herta Müller. Russia, Putin and Propaganda , 7'58 ″, in 3Sat-Kulturzeit , March 21, 2014.
  14. Herta Müller: Putin makes me sick .
  15. “Putin's boldness offends my mind” , Die Welt , March 5, 2015.
  16. Preventing Oleg Sentsov's Death! Heinrich Böll Foundation , May 29, 2018, accessed on February 18, 2019 .
  17. a b Katharina Kilzer: When Herta Müller received the Müller Guttenbrunn Prize . In: FAZ , October 9, 2009.
  18. ^ Richard Schwarz: The circle around Niki Berwanger. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . October 17, 2009.
  19. ^ Romanian Germans Herta Müller: Nobel Prize for the amputated life . World online ; Retrieved December 7, 2009.
  20. ^ Nobel Foundation : Nobel Prize for Literature for German writer Herta Müller . Retrieved October 8, 2009.
  21. Nobel jurors like to read German . ( Memento from October 18, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Zeit Online , October 8, 2009.
  22. a b Andrea Köhler: The snow jagged border of the sentences. Herta Müller's poetic expansion of perception. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , September 27, 2003, literature and art, p. 66.
  23. a b c d Günther Rüther: Herta Müller. Literature on Overcoming Fear. In: ders. Literature and Politics. A German fate? Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education 2013, pp. 188–199, notes pp. 318–319.
  24. a b c Sissel Lægreid: “Speech eyes and word things. Herta Müller's Poetics of Delimitation. ”In: Poetry and dictatorship. The writer Herta Müller. Published by Helgard Mahrdt, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2013, ISBN 978-3-8260-5246-0 , pp. 55–79.
  25. a b c Herta Müller: The devil sits in the mirror. How perception invents itself. [Poetics lectures 1990 at the University of Paderborn] Rotbuch Verlag, Berlin 1991, 2nd edition. 1995, ISBN 3-88022-767-5 , pp. 19, 19, 27.
  26. a b c Clemens Ottmers: Writing and Life. Herta Müller “The devil is sitting in the mirror. How perception invents itself “1991. In: Paul Michael Lützeler (Ed.): Poetics of the authors. Contributions to contemporary German literature. Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt 1994, pp. 279-294, p. 290.
  27. Deutschlandfunk : Kulturfragen. December 13, 2009.
  28. a b Stig Sæterbakken: Every sentence is an event . Essay. In: Poetry and dictatorship. The writer Herta Müller. Published by Helgard Mahrdt. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-8260-5246-0 , pp. 177–190.
  29. a b c d Susanne Beyer: I ate the language . In: Der Spiegel . No. 35 , 2012 ( online - interview with Herta Müller).
  30. Herta Müller: Travelers on One Leg . 3. Edition. Fischer Taschenbuchverlag, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-596-18778-2 , p. 134.
  31. a b Lyn Marven: ›The structure was so strange‹: The Interaction between Visual and Verbal in Herta Müller's Prose and Collages, in: Herta Müller. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2013, pp. 64-83.
  32. Edith Ottschofski, Vom “ Herzkran ” and the “Heimat zum Quadrat” , sevenbuerger.de , 23 September 2012.
  33. Julia Müller: Speech clock. Herta Müller's literary style of representation . Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-412-22151-5 , p. 211.
  34. International Days : Word Artist / Visual Artist. From Goethe to Ringelnatz. And Herta Müller. April 28 to July 7, 2013
  35. Christina Rossi: Herta Müller cuts with scissors . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , March 11, 2019, p. 27.
  36. Verena Auffermann : Passions. 99 women authors of world literature . C. Bertelsmann Verlag 2009, ISBN 978-3-570-01048-8 , pp. 378-382.
  37. a b Renate Rechtien, Karoline From Oppen: Local - Global Narratives . (German Monitor 68). Rodopi, 2007, ISBN 978-90-420-2261-4 , p. 300.
  38. Eckard Grunewald (Red.): Reports and Research - Yearbook of the Federal Institute for Culture and History of Germans in Eastern Europe . Volume 11, section “The Truth / Neue Banater Zeitung”, Munich, 2003, p. 156.
  39. ^ Friedrich Christian Delius : Every month a new broom . In: Der Spiegel . No. 31 , 1984 ( online ).
  40. ^ A b Antje Harnisch: Foreigner Abroad. Herta Müller's “Travelers on One Leg”. In: Monthly books for German teaching, German language and literature. 89, 4, 1997, pp. 507-520.
  41. a b Hans Ester: Most stimulating op één been. In: Trouw. 1, 1993, p. 4.
  42. Ralph Köhnen: About corridors. Kinaesthetic images in texts by Herta Müller, in: The pressure of experience drives language into poetry. Imagery in Herta Müller's texts. Published by Ralph Köhnen, P. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-631-30662-8 , pp. 123-138.
  43. ^ Maria Kublitz-Kramer : The freedoms of the street. To Herta Müller's travelers on one leg. In: Women in Literary Studies. Circular 41, April 1994, pp. 5-8.
  44. Ursula Homann: Herta Müller. Traveler on one leg, in: German books. Volume 20 1990, pp. 109-110.
  45. ^ Karl Schulte: Travelers on one leg. A mobile, in: The pressure of experience drives language into poetry. Imagery in Herta Müller's texts. Published by Ralph Köhnen, P. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-631-30662-8 , pp. 53-62.
  46. ^ Günther Franzen: Test the west . Herta Müller's prose traveler on one leg. In: The time. November 10, 1989.
  47. ^ Robert Bosch Stiftung: Cross-border commuter program of the Robert Bosch Stiftung .
  48. Six novels nominated for the German Book Prize . Zeit Online , September 16, 2009; Retrieved September 16, 2009.
  49. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: Every word knows something about the vicious circle . December 7, 2009.
  50. ^ Claudio Magris: The Danube. Biography of a river . Translated from the Italian by Heinz-Georg Held. Hanser, Munich / Vienna 1988, ISBN 3-446-14970-8 , p. 361; quoted by Bernhard Doppler: Home is exile. A development figure without development. To "travelers on one leg". In: The invented perception. Approaching Herta Müller. Edited by Norbert Otto Eke, Igel Verlag Wissenschaft, Paderborn 1991, ISBN 3-927104-15-9 , pp. 95-106, p. 101.
  51. ^ Friedrich Hölderlin Prize 2015 for Herta Müller. (No longer available online.) University of Tübingen, August 17, 2015, archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; accessed on January 28, 2017 .
  52. Michael Naumann: Mouth Heaven. With her new volume of essays, Herta Müller has written poetics about poetry in dictatorships. In: Die Zeit , No. 7/2003, literature.
  53. Martina Wernli: "Herta Müller's current contemporary literature." In: Herta Müller and the glitter in the sentence. Edited by Jens Christian Deeg and Martina Wernli, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2016, ISBN 978-3-8260-5746-5 , pp. 7–28, here p. 15.
  54. Martina Wernli: "Herta Müller's current contemporary literature." In: Herta Müller and the glitter in the sentence. Edited by Jens Christian Deeg and Martina Wernli, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2016, ISBN 978-3-8260-5746-5 , pp. 7–28, here p. 17.
  55. In this volume, collages alternate with poetological essays; Marven 2013, p. 136.
  56. ^ Postcard collection with picture-text collages, pp. 18–19 In: Norbert Otto Eke: Laudatio . Resist and contradict. In: Norbert Otto Eke (ed.): Honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Cultural Studies at the University of Paderborn to Herta Müller . Paderborn, October 29, 2012. Paderborn, Universität 2013, pp. 14–27.
  57. eleven years later towards evening . ( Memento from July 15, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) BUCHENpresse Dresden 2007/08
  58. Some of the essays are based on the poetics lectures that Müller gave at the University of Paderborn, others are new (according to Clemens Ottmers: Writing and Life. Herta Müller "The devil sits in the mirror. How perception invents itself" 1991. In: Paul Michael Lützeler Ed .: Poetics of the Authors. Contributions to contemporary German literature. Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt 1994, pp. 279–294.) “The devil sits in the mirror”, writes Herta Müller, comes from her grandmother: “Perhaps it all began with the harmless, even poetic-sounding prohibition in front of the mirror [...] when I stood there light-footed, even a little happy with myself, who knows why ... "(first essay, p. 22).
  59. Interview with Herta Müller. In: Die Zeit , No. 43/2009, p. 49.
  60. Theo Breuer : Herta Müller and the words . In: Cover culture magazine from November 1, 2010, accessed on July 31, 2018.
  61. C. von Duehren: Why after 11 years our love broke . In: Bild , November 12, 2009.
  62. Villa Massimo | Scholarships. Retrieved August 22, 2019 .
  63. Köhler acknowledges Herta Müller as "indomitable" . In: Hannoversche Allgemeine , May 6, 2010, accessed on April 7, 2011.
  64. University of Paderborn : Nobel Prize for Literature Herta Müller receives an honorary doctorate from the University of Paderborn . April 24, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  65. Seehofer awards ten distinguished personalities with the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art. ( Memento from December 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Bavarian State Government , November 23, 2012; Retrieved December 8, 2012.
  66. kultur-port.de, 10 September 2014
  67. Herta Müller receives Heinrich Böll Prize . orf.at, June 24, 2015; accessed on June 24, 2015.
  68. ^ Tübingen Hölderlin Prize goes to Herta Müller. In: FOCUS Online. Retrieved August 18, 2015 .
  69. Axel Burchardt: Bridges built to Eastern Europe. Friedrich Schiller University Jena, press release from June 13, 2017 from Informationsdienst Wissenschaft (idw-online.de), accessed on June 13, 2017.
  70. ^ Judith von Sternburg: Anyone who is in exile could at least flee , fr.de, accessed on May 9, 2018
  71. Invitation to the Eugen Kogon award ceremony. City of Königstein, accessed March 8, 2019 .
  72. List of doctorates . University of Paderborn; Retrieved December 21, 2010.
  73. The PDF contains: table of contents; Introduction. By Bettina Brandt and Valentina Glajar; Chapter 1: Herta Müller. Writing and Betrayal. By Allan Stoekl; Chapter 2: Nobel Prize Speech. Translated into English by Philip Boehm.