Rabindranath Tagore

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Tagore (1930)
Tagore's signature

Rabindranath Tagore or Rabindranath Thakur ? / i ( Bengali রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর Rabīndranāth Ṭhākur , [ ɾobin̪d̪ɾonat̪ʰ ʈʰakuɾ ]; * May 7, 1861 in Calcutta ; † August 7, 1941 ibid) was an Indian philosopher, Bengali poet, painter, composer, musician and Brahmo Samaj follower, who Received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 , making it the first Asian Nobel Prize winner. Audio file / audio sample

Tagore revolutionized Bengali literature in a time known as the “ Bengali Renaissance ” with works such as Ghare baire (German Das Heim und die Welt ) or Gitanjali and expanded Bengali art with a myriad of poems, short stories, letters, essays and pictures. He was a committed cultural and social reformer as well as a polymath. He modernized the art of his homeland by deliberately attacking its strict structure and classic design language. Two of his songs are now the national anthems of Bangladesh and India: Amar Shonar Bangla and Jana Gana Mana . Tagore was called Gurudebdenotes, an honorary title that refers to Guru and Deva .


Family background

Rabindranath Tagore was born as the youngest of fourteen children into a traditional Brahmin family. His grandfather Dwarkanath (1794–1846) enjoyed a high reputation in Bengal, as he not only lived splendidly according to his prosperity, which he owed to the opium trade in China, among other things , but also supported social, cultural and other institutions such as educational institutions. He was also personally involved in the Brahmo Samaj reform movement against outdated caste regulations . On his second trip to Europe, he died heavily in debt.

Unlike the grandfather, Rabindranath's father Debendranath (1817–1905) was considered closed and religious. He formulated the beliefs of Brahmo , which were brought into being by Ram Mohan Roy , a friend of Dwarkanath Tagore, and became a central figure in this religious movement. As the eldest son, he was responsible for the repayment of debts after the death of his father; the family seat in the central Calcutta district of Jorasanko , which today houses the Rabindra Bharati University , remained with the family and became the house where Rabindranath was born. Little is known about Rabindranath's mother Sarada Devi (1826? –1875); she lived secluded in the women's quarters of the palace and her son could not develop a close relationship with her.

Childhood and adolescence

Rabindranath, called “Rabi” as a child, grew up in a lively, culturally inspiring environment, primarily under the influence of his older siblings and their families. His eldest brother Dwijendranath (1840-1926), a poet and philosopher, and the second oldest brother Satyendranath (1842-1923), Sanskrit scholar and first Indian nominated for the elite Indian Civil Service (ICS) , had a significant influence . His sister Swarna Kumari Devi , a writer, and his sister-in-law Kadambari were other caregivers.

Rabindranath started school when he was four years old; Both western and traditional Indian traditions played a role in his upbringing and training, but - unlike the children of many other Indian families - he was taught in his native Bengali . Tagore later described his school days as depressing; Although the boy was highly creative , he found it difficult to adapt to the authoritarian learning environment of his time. After changing schools various times, he broke off his training at the age of 14 without a qualification.

His brother Jyotirindranath (1849–1925), whose liberal upbringing methods were more suited to the boy, had important influences on Rabindranath's artistic education. At the age of eight he wrote his first poems; Works that he wrote when he was twelve have already been published.

After his Upanayana ritual , an important Hindu rite of initiation, in 1873 Rabindranath accompanied his father, who by now devoted himself almost exclusively to religion, on a longer journey. They first visited a small family estate near Bolpur , as well as the Golden Temple in Amritsar and the Himalayas. Rabindranath was deeply impressed by the natural beauties of Bengal, he had hardly left his close living environment in Kolkata . In doing so, he came into closer contact with his father for the first time, who taught him Sanskrit , among other things , but otherwise left the long-missed freedom.

After his return to Calcutta, Rabindranath did not stay long in the narrow educational corset; three years after dropping out of school, he was sent to England in 1878 with his brother Satyendranath to study law. He attended school in Brighton , then attended literature lectures at the University of London and participated in social life. However, he did not complete a degree; Therefore, after 17 months, the family called him back to India. His close contact with Western culture later influenced Rabindranath in his lyrical and musical works, he found new forms in which he interwoven the best of both worlds. For example, in his first musical game, Das Genie des Valmiki (1881), he combined Irish folk songs with Indian classical music .

Family life and early literary work

Rabindranath Tagore, 1931

In order to give his unsteady life a solid base, his family married him in 1883 to ten-year-old Bhabatarini ( Mrinalini ) Devi (1874–1902) from Jessore , also from a Pirali- Brahma family; she was the daughter of one of the employees on her parents' plantations, who had hardly had any formal schooling, but who took an active part in Rabindranath's work (for example in theater performances) until her untimely death at the age of 29. The couple had five children, three of whom died at an early age.

Rabindranath toured northern India both alone and with his family and experienced a phase of high creative productivity. As a poet and playwright, he became a pioneer of Bengali theatrical art; It was not until 1872 that the first public theater was founded in Calcutta. From 1881 to 1890 Rabindranath wrote nine dramas, all of which were performed. The female roles were all played by women (mostly from his own family) - a novelty and a taboo break in the Bengali society of his time.

Under the influence of his father, Tagore worked for the Brahmo movement from 1884; he wrote songs and essays in which he polemicized against child marriage, which was common at the time, and attacked the more conservative Hinduism , as represented by the poet Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay .

When Rabindranath's sister-in-law Kadambari committed suicide in 1884 for reasons that were not clear, it hit him deeply. The death of one of his most important caregivers from early childhood influenced his work for many years.

Reforms in village life: Shilaida

After Rabindranath had broken off his second trip to England early in 1890, he took over the management of the family estates in Shilaidaha in northeast Bengal (today Bangladesh). He was on his way to becoming the leading poet in Bengal, but had not yet had to contribute anything to the family's livelihood. He took an active part in public life and in 1894 became Vice President of the Bengali Academy of Literature.

Rabindranath described village life in detailed and passionate letters; he discovered his own roots in rural, natural life. However, he did not fall into uncritical nostalgia, but began to use his strength for the development of the rural region. His achievements included the establishment of banks and cooperatives, schools, hospitals and the construction of traffic routes.

In literary terms, Rabindranath developed the genre of the Bengali novella during this time and became its most important representative. In terms of content, previously unknown motifs flowed into the short prose: rural life and its poverty, but also life in the extended family, the fragile relationship between the sexes and social grievances. One of the stories is the well-known novella Der Postmeister , written in 1891 and later made into an impressive film. This epoch is generally shaped by the awakening Indian national feeling, so that the stories also contain criticism of the British colonial rulers.

At the turn of the century, he wrote the novella The Destroyed Nest (1901) and the novel Sand im Auge (1901), both of which deal with the apparently ideal world of the Indian extended family and illuminate their backgrounds in a socially critical manner. Despite the rich prose vre of this time, Rabindranath created several volumes of poetry in parallel (e.g. Das Goldene Boot (1894) and Die Wunderbare (1896)), in which, as in his prose, he broke the old conventions through new language and form.

Education reforms, national movement: Shantiniketan

After his own negative experiences with the Indian school system, Rabindranath made the upbringing of his children a personal task. He often taught himself and also trained the private teachers he hired. Despite his opposition to child marriage in India, Rabindranath, whose wife was only ten years old at the time of the marriage, married his two older daughters at the age of twelve and fourteen, a decision for which he was later often criticized.

In 1901 the family moved to the family estate Shantiniketan near Bolpur , 150 kilometers northwest of Kolkata. For the second half of his life, the place in the barren landscape was to remain his place of residence. In December 1901 he founded a school there, in which his eldest son and four other children were taught.

His educational efforts were interrupted in 1901 by political unrest in Bengal . With the means of a writer, Rabindranath took part in the political movement; For example, he wrote a protest song against the partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon , the viceroy of India , and led a demonstration. However, his engagement remained moderate and never became chauvinist or fundamentalist . After five years, Rabindranath withdrew to Shantiniketan and devoted himself again to his educational and literary work, which was interpreted by some as a "betrayal of the national cause".

Rabindranath's immediate family died at short intervals at the beginning of the century: in 1902, his wife Mrinalini died after 19 years of marriage, followed a few months later in 1903 by his second oldest daughter Renuka ("Rani"), who was ill with tuberculosis . His youngest son Samindranath died of cholera in 1907 , and in 1905 Tagore had to say goodbye to his 87-year-old father. The eldest daughter, Madhurilata ("Bela"), died in 1918.

Despite the political commitment, private strokes of fate and, last but not least, financial bottlenecks, a new type of school emerged in Shantiniketan during this time, which emancipated itself from the British school system and was based on the Hindu Brahmacharya ideal: children lived - mostly outdoors - with their guru (teacher ) together and learned intuitively and through role models. Rabindranath found co-workers who supported him and lived himself in the community, which in 1908 consisted of 50 people, including the servants. Rabindranath's textbooks, which were written during this period, are still compulsory reading in Bengal today.

Travel abroad and Nobel Prize

In 1912 the poet and his son Rathindranath embarked on a 16-month trip to England and the USA, which was to bring his poor health recovery and inspiration. Before and during the trip he translated some of his poems into English - up to this time his work was almost completely unknown in Europe. In London, father and son met a number of well-known artists and intellectuals, including William Butler Yeats , Ezra Pound , George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Rhys . Yeats edited Tagore's poems and, together with Rabindranath's host William Rothenstein , a painter, and Arthur Fox Strangways, edited the volume of poetry Gitanjali at the India Society (published in 1913 by Macmillan ). Rabindranath's 103 translations for this volume did not adhere to the verse form of the original, but are written in rhythmic prose and are often very freely based on the original. The imagery, completely unknown to European readers, deeply impressed those who first listened to his poems in England.

Two further volumes of poetry followed in quick succession in 1913, partly by Rabindranath himself, partly by Bengali employees, more or less successfully translated into English and authorized by him. The reception of his works in Europe was, however, clichéd; Rabindranath was seen as a “mystical saint from the east”, which he never was or wanted to be in his homeland - on the contrary, he had always taken a critical stance towards traditional Hinduism. However, he did not dissociate himself very vehemently from the role that was assigned to him in Europe. One reason for this may be that Rabindranath, through his membership in a Masonic lodge , into which he was “initiated at a young age,” certainly had access to those esoteric ideas that some people associated with him. In 1924 he was accepted into the 33rd (and thus highest) degree of Freemasonry according to the Scottish Rite (AASR) .

After a six-month stay in the USA, where he mainly recovered and gave some lectures, Rabindranath returned to England in April 1913 before returning to India in October 1913. There he learned in mid-November that he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature for the volume of poetry Gitanjali :

"Because of the deep and high relationship as well as the beauty and freshness of his poems, which in a brilliant way incorporates his poetic work into the beautiful literature of the West, even in his peculiar English garb."

After the announcement, Rabindranath was enthusiastically celebrated in his home country despite all previous criticism - but the new fame soon weighed on the poet:

“The enormous whirlwind of public excitement [...] is appalling. It's almost as bad as tying a tin can to a dog's tail so that it has nowhere to go without making noise and gathering crowds. "

Worldwide fame and travel

Inside title page of the volume of poetry Gitanjali, edition from 1921, Kurt Wolff Verlag Munich
Albert Einstein and Rabindranath Tagore, 1930

From 1914 to 1921 there were over 20 books with Rabindranath's works in English; into other European languages ​​was translated not from Bengali, but from English. Kurt Wolff Verlag published an eight-volume German-language edition in autumn 1921.

The growing fame in Asia and Europe motivated Rabindranath to expand his ashram education ideal to Vishva-Bharati , an educational institution that aimed to meet and merge different - initially only Asian - cultures.

On a total of nine lecture tours through Asia, Europe and America, he pleaded for a synthesis of the positive elements of Eastern and Western thought. In Asia, his focus was on the formation of a new self-confidence through the "spiritual power" inherent in people, which he contrasted with the "material West", as well as the unity of the Asian peoples. On his travels through Europe and America he promoted his new school in Shantiniketan and also collected money for its maintenance. In 1921, classes could begin.

"The most significant of all facts of the present age is that the East and the West have met."

In the same year the poet also visited Germany - the first of a total of three trips (1921, 1926 and 1930), on which he also went with Karl Buschhüter , the brothers Karl and Robert Oelbermann and Gustav Wyneken to Waldeck Castle (Hunsrück) ( Nerother Wandervogel ) met. While the audience in Germany met him with great enthusiasm and his lectures were always very well attended, he received little to no positive response from German colleagues such as Thomas Mann . Rainer Maria Rilke is the modern classic who was closest to Tagore among the Germans and who admired him even before his overnight fame. It is known from his letters that Rilke was enthusiastic about Tagore's 1912 collection of English poems, "Gitanjali", which he read in André Gide's French translation. He then seriously considered Kurt Wolff's suggestion to translate Gitanjali into German. In the end, however, he turned down the proposal because he found his knowledge of English to be inadequate. Tagore met Albert Einstein twice in 1930 . A photo shows him at the youth castle Hohnstein on June 17, 1930. On July 7, 1926 Tagore visited Romain Rolland in Villeneuve . In 1931 Tagore and Gandhi gave all translation rights to Emil Roniger for the attention of the European-Asian world library to be founded .

In 1915, Tagore received a title of nobility from King George V , which he returned in 1919 in protest against the British massacre in Amritsar . His stay in England in 1921 was therefore characterized by indifference and aloofness.

In July 1927 Tagore began a three-and-a-half month tour through Southeast Asia , which took him to Singapore , Java , Bali and on the return journey via what was then Siam ( Thailand ). An ideological point of contact was a cultural movement on Java comparable to the Bengali Renaissance , which was called Boedi Oetomo (“noblest striving”). The elite organization founded in 1908 by Raden Soetomo (1888–1938), which was only open to Indonesians, saw Tagore as a model for the desired combination of Western educational ideal and its own national identity.

Late work, illness, death

Tagore and Gandhi (1940)

Despite the extensive travels and Rabindranath's commitments in Shantiniketan, numerous works were created in the decades after the Nobel Prize ceremony, including two great novels ( Four Parts , Home and Outside ; each in 1916) as well as dramas and poems. At the age of 67, Rabindranath discovered drawing and painting for himself - expressionist works emerged, some of which were incomprehensible in his environment.

Even when the time of the great world trips lay behind him, Rabindranath still frequently traveled with his students across India to collect donations for his school. The volumes of poetry from his last years are still considered important today.

He was against British colonialism. In 1933, on the 100th anniversary of Ram Mohan Roy's death, he wrote the English poem Freedom of fear ... for my motherland - Freedom of fear ... I claim for you, my Motherland. In it he calls on the Indians to free their thinking from submission to the past and habit:

"Freedom from fear is the freedom / that I demand for my motherland! / Freedom from the burden of the centuries that hold you down / break your spine, make you blind to the / promises of the future; / freedom from the shackles of the." Asleep with whom you chained / in the quiet of the night / filled with distrust of the star that tells of the / adventurous ways of truth; / freedom from the anarchy of fate // full sails are left to blind, uncertain winds / and the rudder of a hand that is as rigid and cold as death. / Freedom from the unreasonable demands of a puppet world / in which all movements are triggered by mindless threads / repeated due to thoughtless habits, a world in which characters are patient and obedient / waiting for the puppeteer to awaken them to an illusion of life. "


Two serious illnesses (1937 and 1940) already gave rise to fears for his life; The poet described his experiences during this period in volumes of poetry published between 1938 and 1941. The Second World War alienated him from European culture, but his last speech said:

“But it is a sin to lose faith in man; I will save this belief to the last. "

After a failed operation in July 1941, Rabindranath died on August 7, 1941 in the house where he was born.


At the age of over 60, according to other sources as early as 1907, he turned to painting. Unburdened by academic discourses on aesthetics and painting technique, spontaneous, imaginative, poetic drawings and paintings were created. They met with incomprehension and rejection from contemporary artists, but the following generation of artists saw him as a role model. He is now considered the "father of modern art in India".

In 1930 the Ferdinand Möller gallery in Berlin-Schöneberg showed watercolors and drawings by him ; then Tagore gave the Nationalgalerie selected pictures as gifts in a letter to Ludwig Justi .

Literary work

Bust of Rabindranath Tagore, Stratford-upon-Avon


  • 1881 Valmiki Pratibha (বাল্মিকী প্রতিভা, Engl. The Genius of Valmiki )
  • 1890 Visarjan (বিসর্জন, dt. The victim , Eng. The Sacrifice )
  • 1892 Chitrangada (German Chitra 1914)
  • 1910 Raja (রাজা, German The King of the Dark Chamber 1919, English The King of the Dark Chamber )
  • 1910 Achalayatan (German: The House of Rigidity )
  • 1912 Dak Ghar (ডাকঘর, dt. The post office in 1918, Eng. The Post Office )
  • 1920 German. The victim and other dramas
  • 1922 Muktadhara (মুক্তধারা, The Waterfall )
  • 1926 Raktakaravi (রক্তকরবী, English Red Oleanders )
  • 1926 Natir puja (German: The Victim of the Dancing Girl )


  • 1890 Manasi (মানসী, The Ideal One )
  • 1894 Sonar Tari (সোনার তরী, Engl. The Golden Boat )
  • 1899 Kalpana (German dreams )
  • 1910 Gitanjali (গীতাঞ্জলি, German Sangesopfer 1914, English Song Offerings 1912)
  • 1913 The Gardener (German The Gardener 1914)
  • 1914 Gitimalya (গীতিমাল্য, English Wreath of Songs )
  • 1916 Balaka (বলাকা, The Flight of Cranes )
  • 1935 Patraput (German: a handful of leaves )
  • 1941 Shesh lekha (German: Last Pieces )
  • 1915 The waxing moon
  • 1918 fruit harvest
  • 1920 The gift of the lover


  • 1887 Rajarji ( Eng . The Holy King )
  • 1901 Nastanirh (নষ্টনীড়, English The Broken Nest , German The Destroyed Nest 1989)
  • 1902 Chokher bali (German grain of sand in the eye 1968)
  • 1910 Gora (গোরা, English Fair-Faced )
    • Gora , translated by Helene Meyer-Franck, Kurt Wolff Verlag, Munich 1924; newly translated by Gisela Leiste, Volk und Welt, Berlin 1980, new edition by Beck, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-406-31738-3
  • 1916 Ghare baire (ঘরে বাইরে, Engl. The Home and the World )
    • German: Das Heim und die Welt , translated by Helene Meyer-Franck, Kurt Wolff Verlag, Munich 1920; newly translated by Emil and Helene Engelhardt, Hyperion-Verlag, Freiburg 1962
  • 1929 Yogayog (যোগাযোগ, English Crosscurrents )


  • 1891 The postmaster
  • 1894 Megh o raudra (German cloud and sun 1963)
  • 1920 stories
  • 1930 From an Indian soul


  • 1894 Imrajer itanka ( Eng . The fear of the English )
  • 1898 Kantharodh (German gagged )
  • 1912 Jivansmriti (জীবনস্মৃতি, English My Reminiscences 1943)
  • 1917 Nationalism
    • German: Nationalism , translated by Helene Meyer-Franck, Neuer Geist-Verlag, Leipzig 1918
    • German: Nationalism , translated by Joachim Kalka , Berenberg, Berlin, 2019, ISBN 978-3-946334-60-6
  • The Religion of Man , The Hibbert Lectures Series , Allen and Unwin, London 1931; Reprinted from Monkfish Press, Rhinebeck, NY 2004
    • German: The religion of man , translated by Emil Engelhardt , Hyperion, Freiburg 1962
  • 1941 Sabhyatar sankat ( Eng . The Crisis of Civilization )
  • 1921 Sādhanā. The way to completion . Only authorized German edition. After the English edition organized by Tagore himself, translated into German by Helene Meyer-Franck. Kurt Wolff Verlag, Munich 1921 *
  • 1932 Man the Artist , Baroda State Press, Baroda 1932; a long lost text, read on the Parabaas website
  • 1940 Chhelebela (ছেলেবেলা, My Boyhood Days 1991)

German editions, translated from the original

  • Gisela Leiste (translator): Rabindranath Tagore: pieces. Chitrangoda, Red Oleander, The Chariot of Time, The Realm of Cards ; Lotos Werkstatt, Berlin, 2016, ISBN 978-3-86176-056-6 .
  • Martin Kämchen (ed.): Rabindranath Tagore: Collected works. Poetry, prose, dramas ; Düsseldorf, 2005, ISBN 3-538-05437-1 .
  • Martin Kämchen (Selected and from the Bengali): Rabindranath Tagore. Poems and songs. Insel Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-458-17501-8 .
  • Elisabeth Wolff-Merck (translator): Chitra. A game in an elevator. Draupadi, Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-937603-51-3 .
  • Nirmalendu Sarkar (translator): The call of the wide world. Narratives . Draupadi, Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-937603926 .



Rabindranath Tagore himself directed the filming of a performance of his play Nadir Puja in 1932 .

Music (songs)

Songs and poems by Tagore were used in:

Film adaptations

Radio plays

  • 1926: The Post Office - Director: Not specified ( WEFAG )
    • Speaker: Not specified
  • 1927: The Post Office - Director: Kurt Lesing ( ORAG )
    • Speaker: Not specified
  • 1927: The King of the Dark Chamber - Director:? Hardt ( WERAG )
    • Speaker: NN
  • 1949: The Post Office - Director: Not specified ( SR DRS )
    • Speaker: Not specified


  • Martin Kämchen : Rabindranath Tagore. rororo monograph, Rowohlt, Hamburg 1992.
  • Martin Kämchen, Prasanta Kumar (ed.): My dear master. Correspondence 1920–1938. From the English by Ingrid von Heiseler. Draupadi Verlag, Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-937603-44-5 .
  • Martin Kämchen: Rabindranath Tagore and Germany. German Schiller Society , Marbach 2011, ISBN 978-3-937384-71-9 . ( Marbacher Magazin. 134)
  • Hamidul Khan (ed.): Universal genius Rabindranath Tagore. An approach to Bengali poetry, philosophy and culture. Draupadi, Heidelberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-937603-64-3
  • Zenta Mauriņa : World-conscious Indians: [1] Rabindranath Tagore. In: World unity and the task of the individual. Essays. Memmingen 1963, pp. 113-121.
  • Zenta Mauriņa: I myself have to be sun. In: The marble staircase. Insights and narratives. Memmingen 1977, pp. 7-19.
  • Pankaj Mishra : From the Ruins of the Empire. The revolt against the west and the resurgence of Asia. Translated by Michael Bischoff . Series of publications, 1456. Federal Agency for Civic Education BpB, Bonn 2014, ISBN 3-83890456-7 , licensed edition. In it: RT, The Man from the Lost Land, in East Asia , pp. 267–297; Epilogue Detlev Claussen : New Age, New World Views , pp. 379–394 (see S. Fischer Verlag)
  • Heinz Mode (Ed.): Rabindranath Tagore. Watercolors, gouaches, drawings. Insel, Leipzig 1985.
  • Gertraude Wilhelm (Hrsg.): The literature award winners. A panorama of world literature in the 20th century. Econ, Düsseldorf 1983, ISBN 3-612-10017-3 .
  • Moriz Winternitz : Rabindranath Tagore. Religion and worldview of the poet. Publishing house of the German Society for Moral Education in Prague, 1936. New edition: IT-Redaktion, Taufkirchen 2011.
  • Golam Abu Zakaria (ed.): Rabindranath Tagore - wanderer between worlds. Klemm + Oelschläger, Münster / Ulm 2011, ISBN 978-3-86281-018-5 .
  • Sudhir Kakar : The young Tagore. How a genius develops. Translated by Barbara DasGupta. Draupadi Verlag, Heidelberg 2017, ISBN 978-3-945191-24-8 .

Web links

Commons : Rabindranath Tagore  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Rabindranath Tagore  - Sources and full texts
Texts and analyzes
Online exhibition

Individual evidence

  1. Life data of parents and siblings in William Raidice, Tagore . In: Oxford Dict. Nat. Biogr. 53 (2004), pp. 643-647
  2. Martin Kämpchen, Rabindranath Tagore rororo monograph, Hamburg 1992, p. 18.
  3. Radice, Tagore , in ODNB 53 (2004), p. 644
  4. Rathindranath Tagore, Edges , p. 20.
  5. Amartya Sen: Tagore And His India. In: Countercurrents.org. Retrieved January 1, 2021 .
  6. Martin Kämchen: Rabindranath Tagore. rororo monograph, Hamburg 1992, p. 54.
  7. Radice, Tagore . In: ODNB 53 (2004), p. 644
  8. Martin Kämchen: Rabindranath Tagore. rororo monograph, Hamburg 1992, p. 60.
  9. Martin Kämchen, Rabindranath Tagore rororo monograph, Hamburg 1992, p. 77f.
  10. Eugen Lennhoff et al.: Internationales Freemaurerlexikon. Art. Tagore, Rabindranath. Munich 2003, p. 828.
  11. ^ Letter of October 1, 1913 from Shantiniketan. In: Imperfect Encounters. quoted from: Martin Kämchen: Rabindranath Tagore ; rororo monograph; Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1992, p. 80.
  12. ^ Letter of December 20, 1920 from New York; in: Letters to a Friend. P. 109; quoted from: Martin Kämchen: Rabindranath Tagore ; Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1992; P. 84.
  13. Jugendburg Hohnstein, Rabindranath Tagore among officials and young castle visitors. Image index of art and architecture
  14. ^ Jean-Pierre Meylan: Rabindranath Tagore and Romain Rolland. Retrieved September 1, 2019 .
  15. ^ Jean-Pierre Meylan: World Library. Retrieved September 1, 2019 .
  16. A. Das Gupta: Rabindranath Tagore in Indonesia. An experiment in bridge-building. In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 158, No. 2, Leiden 2003, pp. 451–477.
  17. Original Forward . First in the daily newspaper "Forward," Verlag SM Bhattacharyya, Calcutta , September 27, 1933. German broadcast Sonja Finck , 2020.
  18. Ashok Mitra: Tagore as a Painter. In: Cultural Forum ; Tagore Number, Nov. 1961, p. 33; quoted from: Martin Kämchen: Rabindranath Tagore . Rowohlt, Hamburg 1992, p. 118.
  19. The Master's Strokes: Art of Rabindranath Tagore . National Gallery of Modern Art . May 9, 2010. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
  20. a b Jutta Ströter-Bender: Contemporary Art of the “ Third World ”. DuMont, Cologne 1991, ISBN 3-7701-2665-3 , p. 165 and p. 208.
  21. "Indian Modernism as a Winding Path". Exhibition at Hamburger Bahnhof 2018